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Abstract

According to Roney (2003), when exposed to potential mates (young women), men show greater conformity to female mate preferences. This study conceptually replicates and extends this finding to show that women also respond to female physical attractiveness. When exposed to attractive women (potential rivals), women report higher levels of communion and lower levels of agency.
... According to evolutionary psychology, tens of thousands of years of survival and reproductive pressures have shaped human behavior, creating differences between men and women (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Trivers, 1972). When men and women seek oppositesex romantic partners, the characteristics they look for tend to differ: women attach more importance to men's resources, whereas men are more interested in women's fertility cues, such as attractiveness and youth (Trivers, 1972). ...
... provides insights that confirm previous results related to reproductive instincts (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Trivers, 1972). The latter suggests that women compare themselves more than men, specifically to unrealistic targets (Strahan et al., 2006). ...
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Criticized for the idealized lives portrayed on social media (e.g., Instagram), a growing number of social media influencers are now embracing genuineness, showcasing unfiltered and less sophisticated pictures of themselves. The current research investigated this trend by examining how genuine (vs. nongenuine) visual self‐presentations by influencers affect their followers' purchase intention and, importantly, their well‐being. With an experiment (n = 171) and a quasi‐experiment with an ex‐post facto design (n = 154), we demonstrate that influencers' genuineness (vs. nongenuineness) not only benefits promoted brands but also followers' well‐being. Specifically, genuine (vs. nongenuine) influencers induce fewer upward comparisons, which, in turn, increases followers' self‐esteem, well‐being, and purchase intention. Investigating the role of gender, we show that, while males also tend to purchase more products when recommended by genuine (vs. nongenuine) male influencers, the mediating process through social comparison does not occur. Combining psychosocial and marketing perspectives, this study expands various streams of research on social media influencers and offers pragmatic contributions that reconcile managers, social media influencers, and public policymakers. More genuineness in pictures, using fewer filters and beauty artifices, provides benefits for all. Finally, we suggest future research directions as ways to further reconcile these two perspectives.
... (Buss, 1988, Schmitt & Buss, 1996Fisher, 2004;Bleske-Rechek & Buss, 2006). Os homens estão propensos a selecionar mulheres consideradas atraentes (Butori & Parguel, 2014), pois a atratividade física funciona como um sinal de juventude e fertilidade (Buss, 1989;Fisher et al., 2008). ...
... Entre os brasileiros, de acordo Lopes, G. S., Shackelford, T. K., Santos, W. S., Farias, M. G., e Segundo, D. S. (2016), os homens mais do que as mulheres, exibem recursos, e as mulheres mais que homens realçam a aparência como forma de retenção companheiro. Essa constatação fundamenta a base da competição intrasexual feminina que está firmada no desejo da mulher em se diferenciar das demais como forma de obter vantagem competitiva (Butori & Parguel, 2014). De acordo com D'Angelo (2004), os brasileiros atrelam o consumo de luxo a qualidade intrínseca, ao hedonismo, ao prazer, a aparência pessoal e a distinção. ...
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Este estudo analisou a competição intrasexual feminina e o consumo de produtos de luxo de mulheres brasileiras. Parte-se do pressuposto que em um contexto de competição intrasexual feminina, as mulheres direcionam seus esforços ao melhoramento de sua atratividade para dissuadir as rivais e demostram ter preferência por produtos de luxo, quando esse luxo serve como aparato de melhoria da sua aparência e de distinção. Baseado nisso, este estudo investigou como mulheres brasileiras se comportam em um cenário de competição intrasexual em relação ao consumo de produtos de luxo. A pesquisa está embasada na abordagem qualitativa e os dados foram coletados por meio de dois focus groups, com apoio de técnicas projetivas. Os resultados demostram que a competição intrasexual feminina afeta o consumo de produtos de luxo, ampliando o olhar relacionando a competição intrasexual feminina como uma nova função no consumo de produtos de luxo e nos relacionamentos. Os achados se mostram importantes fatores analíticos e estratégicos para os profissionais da área do marketing, no que tange a tomada de decisão do consumo do luxo. As contribuições do estudo se consolidam como precursoras de novas pesquisas, especialmente no Brasil.
... (Buss, 1988, Schmitt & Buss, 1996Fisher, 2004;Bleske-Rechek & Buss, 2006). Os homens estão propensos a selecionar mulheres consideradas atraentes (Butori & Parguel, 2014), pois a atratividade física funciona como um sinal de juventude e fertilidade (Buss, 1989;Fisher et al., 2008). ...
... Entre os brasileiros, de acordo Lopes, G. S., Shackelford, T. K., Santos, W. S., Farias, M. G., e Segundo, D. S. (2016), os homens mais do que as mulheres, exibem recursos, e as mulheres mais que homens realçam a aparência como forma de retenção companheiro. Essa constatação fundamenta a base da competição intrasexual feminina que está firmada no desejo da mulher em se diferenciar das demais como forma de obter vantagem competitiva (Butori & Parguel, 2014). De acordo com D'Angelo (2004), os brasileiros atrelam o consumo de luxo a qualidade intrínseca, ao hedonismo, ao prazer, a aparência pessoal e a distinção. ...
Article
Full-text available
Este estudo analisou a competição intrasexual feminina e o consumo de produtos de luxo de mulheres brasileiras. Parte-se do pressuposto que em um contexto de competição intrasexual feminina, as mulheres direcionam seus esforços ao melhoramento de sua atratividade para dissuadir as rivais e demostram ter preferência por produtos de luxo, quando esse luxo serve como aparato de melhoria da sua aparência e de distinção. Baseado nisso, este estudo investigou como mulheres brasileiras se comportam em um cenário de competição intrasexual em relação ao consumo de produtos de luxo. A pesquisa está embasada na abordagem qualitativa e os dados foram coletados por meio de dois focus groups, com apoio de técnicas projetivas. Os resultados demostram que a competição intrasexual feminina afeta o consumo de produtos de luxo, ampliando o olhar relacionando a competição intrasexual feminina como uma nova função no consumo de produtos de luxo e nos relacionamentos. Os achados se mostram importantes fatores analíticos e estratégicos para os profissionais da área do marketing, no que tange a tomada de decisão do consumo do luxo. As contribuições do estudo se consolidam como precursoras de novas pesquisas, especialmente no Brasil.
... Finally, there have been three common experimental manipulations utilized to prime intrasexual competition. These include men's reactions to exposure to attractive individuals as mates (e.g., Roney, 2003) and women's reactions to exposure to attractive individuals as rivals (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Hill & Durante, 2011;Li et al., 2010;Massar & Buunk, 2010), exposure to materials that imply a biased sex ratio in the local environment (e.g., Ackerman et al., 2016;Moss & Maner, 2016), and exposure to vignettes that imply there is a rival for a romantic partner (e.g., Fisher & Archibald, 2019). While each of these experimental manipulations have resulted in signi cant effects on the dependent variables of interest to the authors and in directions consistent with theory, they did not utilize an independent manipulation check for intrasexual competition. ...
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Purpose Researchers have studied intrasexual competition by priming the competition using a variety of techniques, including manipulated sex ratios and vignettes implying a competition either for resources critical for obtaining mates or directly for mates. When priming intrasexual competition, changes in the dependent variable of interest are generally taken as prima facie evidence of intrasexual competition; few researchers have tried to independently assess intrasexual competition. Methods The studies presented here replicate and extend one such state measure of intrasexual competition using words taken from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) with additional competition words (PANAS-Short Form with an added competitive subscale). The first study used a vignette manipulation and the second used a sex ratio manipulation. Participants then responded to the modified PANAS, the Intrasexual Competition Scale (ICS) and the Intrasexual Rivalry Scale (IRS). Results Results indicated that neither manipulation resulted in differences on the ICS or IRS. There were differences on the negative and competitive subscales of the modified PANAS, but only for the vignettes manipulation; sex ratio did not result in effects on any of the subscales. These results suggest that different intrasexual competition primes may not be accessible by a single measure. Conclusion One explanation may be that the vignettes specify a target while the unbalanced sex ratios do not, which could create a difference in the psychological distance to a target. Studies in non-human animals have shown that distance and time to reinforcement affects the types of responses and conditioned responses that the reinforcer can support (e.g., behavior systems, Timberlake & Lucas, 1989), which we apply to this work.
... Past research supports the use of evolutionary psychology as a potential lens to explore social media behavior, suggesting that virtual imagery can trigger reactions to fulfill evolutionary functions. For example, research finds that online imagery of an attractive partner can prime mate attraction (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Roney, 2003) and, for females, online imagery of another attractive female result in mate-guarding behaviors and emotions (Borau & Bonnefon, 2019). In the context of social exclusion, research shows that online (Golubickis et al., 2018;Williams et al., 2000) and virtual reality (Bockler, Homke, & Sebanz, 2014;Kassner, Wesselmann, Law, & Williams, 2012) gaming with unknown individuals, as well as online dialogue (Hitlan, A. Zárate, Kelly & Catherine DeSoto, 2016, Su et al., 2019Williams et al., 2002) can result in enhanced perceptions of exclusion. ...
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Social media interactions in the form of likes and comments have become a prevalent and expected form of feedback among consumers. However, as these forms of feedback represent social acceptance, content that fails to garner sufficient community reactions may have important implications for consumer behavior, a conjecture supported by an evolutionary psychology account. Three studies demonstrate that consumers use social media cues such as the number of likes that a post receives to shape their attitudes and intentions regarding the subject of that post, and this relationship is mediated by perceptions of social exclusion. Further, the presence of comments can help to attenuate the negative impact of too few likes on perceptions of social exclusion, enhancing consumers’ attitudes and intentions toward the subject of the post.
... Taken together, our findings add to a small but growing body of work suggesting that the luteal phase not only prepares women's bodies for a potential pregnancy, but also prepares them socially for a possible pregnancy by motivating them to nurture social alliances Maner & Miller, 2014). Furthermore, our work highlights the utility of examining consumer behavior through an evolutionary lens (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Griskevicius & Kenrick, 2013;Saad, 2013Saad, , 2017. ...
... Recent studies from an economic perspective have continued to study conspicuous consumption in emerging economies (Jaikumar & Sarin, 2015), social influence (Amaldoss & Jain, 2015) or market models for fashion products (Kuksov & Wang, 2013). Within studies from a social and socio-psychological perspective, the social construction of status and social class and its implications on consumers (Bellezza, Gino, & Keinan, 2014;Ivanic, 2015;Lee & Luster, 2015;O'Guinn, Tanner, & Maeng, 2015) as well as studies within the field of evolutionary psychology have retained its popularity (Butori & Parguel, 2014;Durante, Griskevicius, Cantú, & Simpson, 2014;Wang & Griskevicius, 2014). How status is constructed is undergoing a change reflected in the emergence of studies on inconspicuous consumption (Eckhardt, Belk, & Wilson, 2015). ...
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This paper provides a systematic review of the current state of luxury research by mapping the research landscape to identify key research clusters, publications, and journals that have relevance to the luxury subject across disciplines. Thereby, it contributes to the literature by providing a state-of-the-field review of the broader luxury research field. Using the ISI Web of Knowledge Core collection, this study conducts a document co-citation analysis of 49,139 cited references from 1,315 publications that study luxury. The combination of bibliometric methods and a systematic review allows this study to overcome barriers of traditional literature reviews by integrating a large set of publications across various disciplines and leveraging the insights of the larger scientific community. It identifies ten major research clusters that characterize the different research streams and discusses their intellectual foundations. Moreover, this research develops a conceptual framework that can be a valuable guide for researchers and practitioners.
... Extend original findings into B to B context Butori and Parguel (2014) The impact of visual exposure to a physically attractive other on self-presentation Roney (2003), Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin ...
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