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Objective: To investigate the acute effects of different antagonist manipulation protocols on maximal repetition performance and muscle activation during seated row (SR) exercise. Methods: Fifteen men (22.4 ± 1.1 years old, height 175 cm ± 5.5, weight 76.6 kg ± 7, and 12.3 ± 2.1 of body fat percentage) with previous resistance training experience (3.5 ± 1.2 years) performed four experimental protocols: (TP) one set to repetition failure of SR exercise; (AS) Antagonist static stretching for the pectoralis major (PM) followed by one set of SR; (PNFA) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation for PM followed by one set of the SR; (APS) One set of the bench press with a 10 RM loads followed by one set of the SR. The maximal repetitions and the electromyographic (EMG) signal were recorded for the latissimus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii lateral head (TL), and PM during the SR. Results: A significant increase in SR repetition performance was noted for the APS (14 ± 1) versus the TP (9 ± 1.2, P = 0.0001), PNFA (10 ± 1.5, P = 0.001), and AS (12 ± 1.5, P = 0.004) protocols. A significant increase in SR repetitions was also noted for the AS versus the TP (P = 0.001) and PNFA (P = 0.002) protocols. The muscle activation of the BB and LD were significantly higher during the APS and AS versus the PNFA and TP sessions. Conclusions: These results suggest that either using the APS or AS approaches can facilitate an increase in SR repetition performance versus traditional resistance exercise sets.
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EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT ANTAGONIST PROTOCOLS ON
REPETITION PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION
– ORGINAL RESEARCH
Gabriel A. Paz1(A,C,D,E,F), Jeffrey M. Willardson2 (D,E), Roberto Simão1 (A, C, D), Humberto Miranda1 (A, C, D, E)
1Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, School of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Kinesiology and Sports Studies Department, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL, USA
Abstract
Objective: To investigate the acute effects of different antagonist manipulation protocols on maximal repetition perfor-
mance and muscle activation during seated row (SR) exercise.
Methods: Fifteen men (22.4 ± 1.1 years old, height 175 cm ± 5.5, weight 76.6 kg ± 7, and 12.3 ± 2.1 of body fat per-
centage) with previous resistance training experience (3.5 ± 1.2 years) performed four experimental protocols: (TP) one
set to repetition failure of SR exercise; (AS) Antagonist static stretching for the pectoralis major (PM) followed by one set
of SR; (PNFA) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation for PM followed by one set of the SR; (APS) One set of the bench
press with a 10 RM loads followed by one set of the SR. The maximal repetitions and the electromyographic (EMG) signal
were recorded for the latissimus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii (BB), triceps brachii lateral head (TL), and PM during the SR.
Results: A significant increase in SR repetition performance was noted for the APS (14 ± 1) versus the TP (9 ± 1.2, P
= 0.0001), PNFA (10 ± 1.5, P = 0.001), and AS (12 ± 1.5, P = 0.004) protocols. A significant increase in SR repetitions was
also noted for the AS versus the TP (P = 0.001) and PNFA (P = 0.002) protocols. The muscle activation of the BB and LD
were significantly higher during the APS and AS versus the PNFA and TP sessions.
Conclusions: These results suggest that either using the APS or AS approaches can facilitate an increase in SR repeti-
tion performance versus traditional resistance exercise sets.
Keywords: paired set, strength, stretching, coactivation, performance
Introduction
Resistance training (RT) provides an overload to the
musculoskeletal system, leading to an increase in muscle
strength [1]. In formulating aRT prescription, it is of
the utmost importance to understand the interaction
among training variables such as the load, volume, num-
ber of exercises, number of repetitions per set, exercise
order, number of sets per exercise or muscle group, and
the rest interval between sets and exercises [2].
Most functional movements and RT exercises
involve some activation of the antagonist muscles in
conjunction with activation of the agonist muscles [3].
This phenomenon has been described as coactivation
or co-contraction and affects the net joint torque and
subsequent movement velocity [4]. Greater activation
of the antagonists during amovement produces abrak-
ing effect for the agonists in the mechanical expression
of force and power [5,6]. Prior studies have incorpo-
rated pre-stretching or pre-fatiguing of the antagonist
musculature to facilitate the action of the agonists
during subsequent movements [7,8]. The stretching
or pre-loading of the antagonist musculature may
promote neural inhibition of these muscle groups,
lowering the ratio of agonist/antagonist coactivation
[9], and consequently increasing rotary torque for the
agonist musculature [10,11].
One method for achieving antagonist pre-loading
during RT is to perform aset for the antagonist mus-
culature immediately prior to aset for the agonist
musculature. This model of pre-loading has been
referred to as “agonist-antagonist paired set training
(APS)” [9]. During APS training, agonist and antago-
nist muscles are trained “back-to-back, with limited
or without rest between paired sets [12]. However,
there is insufficient evidence to support this hypoth-
esis, since some authors found deleterious effects on
force production of the agonists [11] or observed no
changes in the electromyographic (EMG) amplitude
normalized by percentage of maximal voluntary
contraction of antagonist muscles following different
manipulation protocols such as pre-loading or static
stretching [5,13,14].
Despite the lack of evidences about the potential
training effects of antagonist manipulation protocols,
multiple studies with varying methodologies have
investigated different aspects of manipulating the
antagonist musculature on subsequent movement
performance; these have included the application of
static stretching of the antagonists during warm-up
[7,8], comparison between different types of muscle
action (eccentric, concentric, isometric) [15,16], and
velocities [10,13]. However, few studies have reported
Medicina Sportiva
Med Sport 17 (3): 106-112, 2013
DOI: 10.5604/17342260.1068221
Copyright © 2013 Medicina Sportiva
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
106
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EMG data for the agonist/antagonist musculature dur-
ing movements preceded by antagonist manipulation
[3,7,8,17].
Further study is warranted on the practical implica-
tions of manipulating the antagonist musculature in
different ways for acute enhancement of agonist per-
formance that may in turn positively affect longitudi-
nal training outcomes. Additionally, RT protocols that
improve acute performance could be atime efficient
alternative for coaches and practitioners aiming to
optimize the quality of exercise sessions and outcomes.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate
the acute effects of manipulating the antagonist mus-
culature via performance of the bench press, static
stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facili-
tation stretching for pectoralis major on subsequent
maximal repetition performance and muscle activa-
tion for the agonist/antagonist muscles during awide
grip seated row (SR) exercise in trained men.
Methods
Participants
Fifteen recreationally trained men participated as
subjects in this study (22.4 ± 1.1 years old, height 175
cm ± 5.5, weight 76.6 kg ± 7, and 12.3 ± 2.1 of body
fat percentage). All subjects had previous RT experi-
ence (3.5 ± 1.2 years), with amean frequency of four
60-minute sessions per week, using 1- to 2-minute
rest intervals between sets and exercises. All subjects
completed the Physical Activity Readiness Question-
naire (PAR-Q) and signed an informed consent before
participation in this study according to the Declaration
of Helsinki. Subjects were encouraged to report for
workout sessions fully hydrated and to be consistent in
their food intake throughout the duration of the study;
and asked to refrain from any upper-body training in
the 48 hours prior to each workout session. The study
was approved by the university’s ethic committee.
Experimental Protocols
This study used arandomized crossover design
during which subjects performed four experimental
protocols. The protocols were preceded by two testing
sessions during which the 10 repetition maximum
(RM) was assessed for the bench press (BP) and SR
exercises. The four experimental protocols were then
instituted on non consecutive days and 72 hours apart
in random order and included: 1) Traditional Protocol
(TP) - one set to repetition failure of the SR exercise; 2)
Antagonist Stretching (AS) - one set of static stretching
(40 s) for the pectoralis major followed by one set of
the SR; 3) Antagonist Proprioceptive Neuromuscular
Facilitation (PNFA) stretching for the pectoralis major
followed by one set of the SR; 4) Antagonist paired
set (APS) - one set of the BP to repetition failure fol-
lowed by one set of the SR. The AS protocol involved
one set of 40 seconds of static stretching for the pec-
toralis major (PM) muscle followed by one set of the
SR exercise. The PNFA protocol involved one set of
40 seconds (20 seconds of isometric tension and 20
seconds of passive stretch) of the contract-relax PNF
stretching technique for the PM, followed by one set of
the SR exercise. No rest interval was allowed between
antagonist manipulation and the ensuing SR exercise.
Dependent variables included the number of repeti-
tions completed and root mean square (RMS) EMG
signal for the latissimus dorsi (LD), biceps brachii
(BB), triceps braquii lateral head (TL) and pectoralis
major (PM) during the SR.
10 Repetition Maximum Testing
In the week prior to performance of the first
randomly selected protocol, 10RM loads were tested
and re-tested in two sessions for each subject in the
BP and the SR (Life Fitness, IL, USA) exercises (Fig.
1). The 10RM was defined as the maximum weight
that could be lifted for 10 consecutive repetitions
at aconstant velocity of 4 seconds per repetition (2
seconds for the concentric phase and 2 seconds for
the eccentric phase) [8]. The execution of the BP and
SR were standardized and pauses were not permitted
between the concentric and eccentric phases (Fig. 2).
Ametronome (Metronome Plus, M&M System Ger-
many, version 2.0) was used to help control the lifting
Fig 1. Summary for experimental protocol trials
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Paz G.A., Willardson J.M., Simão R., Miranda H. / Medicina Sportiva 17 (3): 106-112, 2013
cadence. However, if subjects slowed their cadence due
to fatigue, all completed repetitions were still counted.
If a10RM was not accomplished on the first attempt,
the weight was adjusted by 4–10 kg and aminimum
5-minute rest was permitted before the next attempt.
Only three trials were allowed per testing session. The
test and retest trials were conducted on different days
with aminimum of 48 hours between tests.
Stretching Exercises
The static and PNF stretches applied to the PM
muscle were consistent with the protocol previously
conducted by Franco et al. [20]. Subjects maintained
astanding position, preserving the physiological
curvature of the spine; the researcher then instituted
apassive stretch for the PM via horizontal abduction
of the shoulder joints with the elbow joints fully flexed.
According to Franco et al. [20], 40 s of static or PNF type
stretching induced significant reductions in the force
production and activation of the stretched muscles.
Electromyographic acquisition and analysis
The EMG data of LD, BB, PM, and TL muscles were
evaluated during the SR exercise. Before the placement
of the electrodes, the areas were shaved and cleaned
with alcohol until aslight redness was apparent [21].
The PM electrode was placed at the midpoint between
the acromion process and the xiphoid process. The LD
electrode was placed lateral to the inferior angle of the
scapula. The BB electrode was placed on the line be-
tween the medial acromion and the cubit fossa. The TL
electrode was placed half way between the acromion
process and the olecranon process at 2 finger widths
below the medial line [22].
The EMG data were captured through passive bi-
polar surface electrodes (Kendal Medi Trace 200, Tyco
Healthcare, Pointe-Claire, Canada) with recording di-
ameter = 1 mm and distance between electrode center
= 1 cm. The surface electrodes were placed over the
muscles bellies. The electrodes were connected to an
analog to digital converter of 16 bits (EMG System of
Brazil, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil) and acquired
with the assistance of proprietary software (EMGlab,
EMG System of Brazil, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Bra-
zil). The EMG signals were amplified by 1.000 with
acommon mode rejection ratio of 100dB. The signal
was sampled at 1000 Hz and 4th order Butterworth
filter was applied in forward and reverse direction. The
reference electrode was placed on the clavicle bone.
Apermanent marker was used to mark the location
of the electrodes during the first testing session for
consistent electrode placement during subsequent
sessions [21]. The impedance between electrode pairs
was less than 5 kΩ using a25-Hz signal through the
electrodes [21]. All these procedures were performed
by the same investigator.
The criterion used for normalization of the EMG
activity was the MVIC. Three MVICs were performed
against afixed resistance in the following positions as
proposed by Kendall et al. [23]. The isometric action
was maintained for 10 seconds with 20 second rest in-
tervals between the three actions for each muscle. For
the MVICs, analyses was conducted within awindow
of 4 seconds between the second and sixth seconds
of contraction. The highest RMS value of the three
MVICs was used for normalization [24]. The mean
amplitude of the RMS was performed using the cus-
tom-written software Matlab 5.02c (MathworksTM,
Natick, USA). The averaging window for RMS was
100 ms and all reported values are the mean RMS over
apredetermined sampling window from the onset to
the end of each contraction. EMG data was collected
for the entire (concentric and eccentric phases) SR set
for each protocol. EMG data was expressed as percent-
age relative to the largest RMS value of the EMG signal
obtained for the MVIC (100%) [18,19].
Fig. 2. Resistance exercises bench press (a) and wide grip seated row (b)
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Statistical analysis
The 10-RM test–retest reliability was calculated
through the intraclass correlation coefcient (ICC =
(MSb – MSw)/[MSb + (k-1)MSw)]), where MSb = mean-
square between, MSw = means-square within, and k =
average group size. The normality and homoscedastic-
ity of the data was analyzed via the Shapiro-Wilk test
and Bartlett test of Sphericity (P = 0.167); subsequently,
all variables presented normal distribution and ho-
moscedasticity. Aone-way ANOVA with repeated-
measures was used to assess differences in repetition
performance between experimental protocols and
muscle activation during the SR exercise. Significant
main effects were further assessed using Bonferroni
post hoc test. Aprobability value of P < 0.05 was used
to establish the significance of all comparisons. Statis-
tical analysis was performed with the SPSS software
version 20.0 (Chicago, IL, USA).
Results
The 10RM loads for BP and SR exercise were 85 ±
10.1 kg and 70.2 ± 12,3 kg, respectively. The ICCs for
the 10RM tests were as follows: SR = 0.95 and BP =
0.92. The total repetitions completed for the SR under
the TP, AS, PNFA, and APS protocols are presented in
Fig. 3. Significant increases on repetition performance
for SR exercise were noted for APS versus the TP (P =
0.0001), PNFA (P = 0.001) and AS (P = 0.004) condi-
tions. Furthermore, ahigher number of SR repetitions
were also found for AS versus the TP (P = 0.001) and
PNFA (P = 0.002), respectively. No significant differ-
ences were noted between the PNFA and TP.
Significant increase on LD activity was noted for
APS versus the TP (P = 0.0001) and PNFA (P = 0.002)
protocols; significantly greater LD activation was also
found for AS compared to TP (P = 0.001) and PNFA
(P = 0.003). Similarly, BB muscle activation was higher
Fig. 3. Mean + SD repetitions for the SR exercise under antagonist manipulation protocols; SR: seated row; TP: traditional protocol; PNFA: antagonist neu-
romuscular proprioceptive facilitation; AS: antagonist stretching; APS: antagonist paired set; *Significant difference versus TP; ¥ Significant difference versus
PNFA; # Significant difference versus AS.
Fig. 4. Normalized values for the SR exercise under the TP, PNFA, AS, and APS protocols; RMS values for biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and
triceps lateral head muscles were normalized to the MVIC; TP: traditional protocol; PNFA: antagonist neuromuscular proprioceptive facilitation; AS: antagonist
stretching; APS: antagonist paired set; MVIC: maximal voluntary isometric contraction; *Significant difference versus TP; ¥ Significant difference versus PNFA.
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for APS when compared to TP (P = 0.001) and PNFA
(P = 0.003) protocols; significantly greater activation
was also observed for AS versus TP (P = 0.001) and
PNFA (P = 0.002). However, no significant differ-
ences in PM and TL activation were noted between
all protocols (Fig. 4).
Discussion
The current study is the first to our knowledge, to
examine multiple antagonist pre-activation protocols
through two resistance exercises and the application of
different stretching techniques. The key finding from
the current study was the significant increase in the
number of SR exercise repetitions completed for the
APS protocol versus all other protocols; and also the
AS protocol versus the TP and PNFA protocols. The
increase in repetition performance for the APS and
AS protocols was consistent with previous studies that
involved manipulation of the antagonist musculature
as apre-activation stimulus to facilitate greater per-
formance in the agonist musculature [8,10,12,15,25].
Perhaps surprisingly, no significant increase in rep-
etition performance was evident for the SR exercise
following the contract-relax PNFA protocol versus
the TP protocol. The muscle activation data from the
current study indicated asignificant augmentation
in agonist activation (BB and LD) following the APS
and AS protocols versus the TP and PNFA protocols,
respectively. However no significant differences in an-
tagonist activation (PM and TL) was evident between
all protocols.
During the APS protocol, we noted asignificant
increase in SR repetitions versus all other protocols.
These results contrasted with those reported by Rob-
bins et al. [17] in which no differences in repetition
performance (with 4RM loads) were noted between
an APS protocol (bench pull and bench press) versus
TP (three straight sets of bench pull followed by three
straight sets of bench press) adopting 2-minute rest
interval between exercises in the APS protocol. In the
current study, asignificant increase in agonist activa-
tion (LD and BB) was observed in the APS protocol
versus the TP and PNFA protocols. However, Robbins
et al. [17] found no significant differences in the EMG
activity of the PM, LD, trapezius and anterior deltoid
when comparing the APS protocol versus the TP. How-
ever, alighter load with greater repetitions (10RM)
was instituted in the current study; and without arest
interval between the BP and SR exercises. This APS
protocol in the current study may have induced greater
fatigue in the antagonist muscles (PM and TL), which
probably contributed to the significantly greater SR
repetitions and agonist activation (LL and BB).
Asignificant increase in SR repetition performance
was also noted for the AS protocol versus the TP and
PNFA protocols. Additionally, LD and BB activation
were significantly higher during the AS protocol ver-
sus the TP and PNFA protocols. Recently, Sandberg
et al. [7] reported significantly greater isokinetic knee
extensor torque and vertical jump performance follow-
ing static stretching for the antagonist musculature;
the hamstrings were stretched prior to the isokinetic
knee extensor test and the hip flexors (single-joint)
and dorsi-flexors were stretched prior to the vertical
jump test. These authors theorized, that static stretch-
ing disrupted the length-tension relationship of the
hamstrings, leading to areduction in braking forces
which allowed an improvement on quadriceps torque
production [7]. Sharman, Cresswell and Riek [26]
stated that during adynamic muscle action, the agonist
is neurally inhibited by its own Golgi tendon organs
and by the muscle spindles of its stretched antagonist.
In the current study, the AS protocol may have elicited
asimilar disruption in the length-tension relationship
of the PM muscle, and facilitated significantly greater
SR repetitions.
Surprisingly, the PNFA protocol did not facilitate
significantly greater SR repetitions like the AS and
APS protocols. Since the PNFA protocol included 40
seconds, equally divided between contract and relax
phases; the 20 second duration of the relax phase may
have been insufficient to disrupt the braking effect of
the PM muscles as did the AS protocol which involved
40 seconds of progressive static stretching of the PM. It
was previously acknowledged that during the stretch-
ing protocols (AS and PNFA), no stretching exercises
were applied to the TL muscles because the PM is the
primary antagonist during the SR exercise. When con-
sidering the potential confounding effects of different
orders and durations of stretching multiple antago-
nists (PM and TL) it was decided to test the effects of
stretching the PM. According to Sharman et al. [26],
PNF stretching may elicit autogenic inhibition and
areduction in excitability of contracting or stretched
muscles. Franco et al. [20] reported areduction in
muscle endurance (maximum repetitions performed
at 85% of 1-RM) during aBP exercise following alow
dose of PNF stretching (one set of 20 seconds), con-
sisting of asingle stretch for the PM.
Although, in the current study the PNF stretch vol-
ume was not sufficient to significantly increase repeti-
tion performance in the agonists during the SR exercise
and concomitantly induce areduction on antagonist
activation (PM). In contrast to the current study, Paz
et al. [8] found ahigher number of repetitions com-
pleted in SR exercise (with 10RM loads) following 40
seconds of PNF stretching for the PM muscles when
compared to aSR set without pre-stretching exercise.
On the other hand, Paz et al. [8] adopted 6 seconds of
an isometric action followed by a4 second relaxation
phase repeated four times and totalizing 40 seconds.
This type of PNF protocol might elicit an acute im-
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provement in agonist repetition performance versus
the type of PNF protocol adopted in the current study
20 seconds of isometric action followed by 20 seconds
of relaxation).
Regardless of the antagonist pre-activation; in
the current study, no differences were observed on
PM and TL activation during all protocols. Another
possibility might be that the surface EMG was not
sufficiently sensitive to detect potential decreases in
the timing of antagonist activity that may have facili-
tated greater performance of the agonists for the APS
and AS protocols, respectively. The triphasic pattern
of muscle activity has been suggested as amecha-
nism to explain the enhanced acute performance of
the agonist musculature following pre-activation of
antagonist musculature [9]. This triphasic pattern is
characterized by an initial large burst of agonist activ-
ity, followed by ashorter “braking” burst of antagonist
activity, and finally asecond burst of agonist activity
during rapid or ballistic actions [12]. According to
Baker and Newton [25], apre-activation resistance
exercise for the antagonist musculature could shorten
the activation time of the braking burst and also may
facilitate alonger burst of agonist activation. Maso et
al. [6] found that the progressively RT increases the
activation of the primary motor cortex which is associ-
ated with adecrease in antagonist muscles activation
during motor tasks. The authors indicated that these
adaptations could be associated with aspecific encod-
ing of antagonist muscles activation through cortical
oscillations. In addition, Lévénes et al. [27] observed
that excitatory drive to the motor neuron pool of
the antagonist muscle is increased during fatigue of
the agonist muscle, and the different behavior of the
Hoffman-reflex and cervicomedullary motor evoked
potentials during the fatiguing action in the antagonist
muscle, suggests that the level of coactivation is likely
under the control of supraspinal rather than spinal
mechanisms.
The findings of the current study should be inter-
preted with caution because antagonist pre-activation
protocols were applied for only asingle set of aresis-
tance exercise (SR) for upper body muscles. Whereas,
atraditional RT session is composed of multiple sets
and exercises for different muscle groups. Therefore,
the current study contributes additional informa-
tion to prompt further study on the mechanism that
promoted greater agonist performance via antagonist
manipulation. The hypothesis that theorized the
improvement on agonist performance due to are-
duction in antagonist activation did not appear to be
akey mechanism accounting for the improvement
in repetitions performance. Other mechanical and
metabolic mechanisms such as elastic energy stor-
age, fatigue, and alterations in the acute sensitivity of
muscle specific proprioceptors (Golgi tendon organs
and muscle spindles) have been proposed by previous
researchers [3,6,7,9,16]. Short-term and longitudinal
studies are necessary to elucidate whether individuals
performing antagonist pre-activation protocols can
achieve greater gains in strength versus atraditional
training model.
Conclusions
The results of the current study suggested that
antagonist pre-activation through either resistance ex-
ercise or static stretching may increase acute repetition
maximum performance in the agonist musculature.
Exercise models performed using areciprocal antago-
nist/agonist protocol, as in the current study, may also
be less time-consuming and could be useful in clinical
practice as well as for sports performance training.
The antagonist pre-activation protocols (APS and AS)
also elicited significantly higher muscle activity for
the agonist muscles (LD and BB) versus the protocol
without antagonist manipulation (TP). Nevertheless,
there is justification for practitioners and coaches to
experiment with antagonist manipulation to improve
acute repetition performance and potentially longitu-
dinal training outcomes.
Declaration of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
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Accepted: September 4, 2013
Published: September 27, 2013
Address for correspondence:
Humberto Miranda
School of Physical Education and Sports
- Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Av. Carlos Chagas Filho,
540. Cidade Universitária - RJ - CEP 21941-599
Tel: 55 - 21 - 2562-6808
email: humbertomirandaufrj@gmail.com
Humberto Miranda: humbertomirandaufrj@gmail.com.br
Roberto Simão: rsimaoj@terra.com.br
Jeffrey Willardson: jmwillardson@eiu.edu
... Additionally, in a later study, Paz et al. (22) analyzed the influence of different antagonist stretching methods on the repetition performance of agonists. The PNF stretching protocol consisted of a 40-second set (20 seconds of static stretching and 20 seconds of maximum voluntary isometric contraction) that preceded the performance of a set, until concentric failure, of the seated row exercise. ...
... As a result, it was observed that the PNF stretching exercises promoted a significant improvement in repetition performance of the agonists. However, it is important to highlight the different moments of stretching application, training sessions, and exercises used in the studies by Paz et al. (23), Paz et al. (22), and in the present study. In these two studies, even using time under tension for the stretch lower than the time under tension for the stretch used in the PNF1 protocol of the present study, the authors observed that the PNF stretching exercises of antagonists, when performed immediately before the training session, International Journal of Exercise Science http://www.intjexersci.com ...
... Thus, in a given joint, antagonistic and agonist muscles are activated simultaneously, in a synchronized and coordinated manner to improve the precision and efficiency of a given movement (5,10). This way, it has been suggested that stretching antagonistic muscles may induce an increase in the strength performance of agonists due to greater inhibition of antagonist muscles (22,23). Conversely, the stretching number may be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance (3). ...
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Recent studies have observed that stretching applied to antagonist muscles can promote improvement in agonist muscle performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different numbers of interset proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching for the antagonists on the total number of repetitions completed for the agonists (quadriceps) in the leg extension exercise. Fourteen physically active individuals (age: 29.35 ± 10.5 years; body mass: 79.1 ± 11.34 kg; height: 170.4 ± 8.7 cm) participated in this study. The following experimental protocols were performed: 1) Traditional protocol (Traditional) - without previous stretching; 2) PNF with lesser duration (PNF1-3 sets of 20 secs.); 3) PNF with greater duration (PNF2-3 sets of 30 secs.). Within the experimental protocols (PNF1 and PNF2), stretching exercises for the antagonists were performed before and between the four sets of the unilateral leg extension exercise. All tests were performed on the dominant limb only. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the total number of repetitions for the PNF2 protocol versus the Traditional protocol (p = 0.026). However, there was no significant difference between the PNF1 protocol versus the Traditional protocol (p = 0.577). In conclusion, in the leg extension exercise, an extended duration of interset PNF stretching for the hamstrings, promoted greater contractile performance for the quadriceps as demonstrated by significantly greater total repetitions over four sets.
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
... Se, por um lado, existem evidências de que a realização do AE nos agonistas prejudica o volume do desempenho muscular(14,20). Por outro lado, alguns estudos sugerem que realizar AE nos músculos antagonistas, além de não prejudicar, pode até proporcionar melhor desempenho no VTT dos músculos agonistas (21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Em indivíduos com experiência em TF foi encontrada melhora no VTT antecedido de AE, caracterizado pelo aumento do número de repetições na mesa flexora e na rosca "Scott", em comparação com o protocolo sem AE (22) e na puxada horizontal (24). ...
... Se, por um lado, existem evidências de que a realização do AE nos agonistas prejudica o volume do desempenho muscular(14,20). Por outro lado, alguns estudos sugerem que realizar AE nos músculos antagonistas, além de não prejudicar, pode até proporcionar melhor desempenho no VTT dos músculos agonistas (21)(22)(23)(24)(25). Em indivíduos com experiência em TF foi encontrada melhora no VTT antecedido de AE, caracterizado pelo aumento do número de repetições na mesa flexora e na rosca "Scott", em comparação com o protocolo sem AE (22) e na puxada horizontal (24). Estudos quanto à realização do AE em músculos antagonistas são escassos na literatura. ...
... Entretanto, também não prejudicou, como acontece no alongamento dos agonistas(14,20). Diferente dos resultados do presente estudo, foram encontradas melhorias no desempenho no VTT na puxada baixa na polia, após a execução de 40s de alongamento nos antagonistas, em comparação ao protocolo sem alongamento (24). Resultados semelhantes foram encontrados em outro exercício de membros superiores, rosca bíceps no banco "Scott" e, também, em exercício de membros inferiores, a mesa flexora (22). ...
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Introdução: Praticantes de musculação, de todos os níveis, buscam estratégias eficazes e eficientes para otimizar o treinamento de força. Nesse contexto, o alongamento estático nos músculos antagonistas como aquecimento parece proporcionar melhorias no desempenho de força nos músculos agonistas. Objetivo: Avaliar o efeito agudo no desempenho de força de quadríceps, no movimento de extensão de pernas, na cadeira extensora, em resposta ao alongamento estático dos músculos antagonistas (isquiotibiais). Métodos: Estudo experimental, com amostra por conveniência, do qual participaram 14 homens, com experiência em TF. Foram aplicados teste e reteste de 10 repetições em carga máxima (10RM). Antes do treinamento de força, foram realizaram dois protocolos com intervalo de 48-72 h, nos quais, durante o aquecimento foram aplicados dois protocolos distintos: a) O tradicional (TR) sem alongamento estático dos músculos antagonistas; e b) com alongamento estático dos isquiotibiais (AEI), os antagonistas aos músculos quadríceps. Resultados: Não houve diferenças significativas no volume total de trabalho (VTT) entre os protocolos TR (1727,86±697,05Kg) e AEI (1782,14±719,21Kg). No protocolo TR, foram encontradas diferenças significativas no número de repetições das 1ª (9,93±0,27; p=0,001) e 2ª (9,21±0,97; p=0,030) séries em relação ao número de repetições da 3ª série (8,21±1,25). No protocolo AEI, foram encontradas diferenças significativas no número de repetições da 1ª (10,14±0,36) série em relação ao número de repetições das 2ª (9,14±1,10; p=0,010) e 3ª (8,86±1,41; p=0,012) séries. Conclusão: Em conclusão, realizar 40s de alongamento estático nos isquiotibiais não parece prejudicar o desempenho muscular na cadeira extensora.
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
... Durante la realización de algún ejercicio se genera activación de los músculos antagonistas en relación con la activación de los músculos agonistas (Paz, Willardson, Simao & Miranda, 2013), ésta respuesta nerviosa en el músculo se produce debido a que una activación con-céntrica del músculo agonista, implica que el músculo antagonista tenga una inhibición recíproca que permite su relajación y, en consecuencia pueda facilitar la acción del agonista (Kisner & Colby, 2007). La activación previa del músculo antagonista a través de ejercicios de fuerza, puede aumentar el funcionamiento máximo en la musculatura agonista (Paz et al., 2013), por tal motivo se sugiere que un protocolo de acción recíproca es más eficiente a nivel neuromuscular y metabólico (Carregaro, Cunha, Gomes, Brown & Botarro, 2013), puesto que puede facilitar un aumento en las repeticiones comparado con sistemas de ejercicio tradicional y debe ser una alternativa para entrenadores y profesionales, con el objetivo de optimizar la calidad de las sesiones de ejercicio y los resultados (Paz et al., 2013), sin embargo no existe una documentación científica suficientemente amplia sobre los efectos de un protocolo de acción recíproca para la mejora de la fuerza en movimientos con sobrecargas. ...
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Resumen Existen escasos estudios que evidencien el incremento de la fuerza dinámica máxima (1 RM) a través de un Protocolo de Acción Recíproca (PAR). El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el incremento del 1 RM en los ejercicios sentadilla con barra (SQ), press banca (PB) y peso muerto (PM) a través de un PAR. Participaron volunta-riamente veinte sujetos sanos (14 hombres y 6 mujeres) capacitados en el entrenamiento de fuerza con sobrecargas que fueron divididos de forma aleatoria en Grupo 1 (edad 20,4±3,72 años, talla 1,72±0,06 m, peso 63,7±14,59 kg) y Grupo 2 (edad 20,1±2,28 años, talla 1,66±0,07 m, peso 65,6±14,34 kg), en estos se aplicó un programa de entrena-miento de fuerza con una frecuencia de 3 sesiones semanales con una duración de 3 semanas, en el cual se realizó un pre-test (semana 0) y post-test (semana 4) del 1 RM, cabe destacar que en el post-test se empleó el PAR en el Grupo 1 para comparar el 1 RM por parte de ambos grupos. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el paquete estadístico IBM SPSS V.22, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un p-valor de 0,05; se aplicaron pruebas de normalidad (Shapiro-Wilk), homogeneidad (prueba de Levene), análisis de varianza de un factor (ANOVA) y prueba de contrastes (Test post hoc). Después de analizar los resultados obtenidos se concluye que el protocolo de acción reciproca empleado en este estudio solo incrementó significativamente el 1 RM en el ejercicio SQ (p<0,05). Palabras clave: Deportistas amateurs, fuerza, protocolo de acciòn recìproca.
... Em contrapartida, MaynardeEbben 15 observaram diminuição do torque muscular e da atividade mioelétrica dos músculos agonistas do movimento ao realizar uma série de flexão do joelho seguida de uma série de extensão do joelho no isocinético. Dessa forma, observa-se uma lacuna na literatura referente à comparação do método PAA ao tradicional, adotando séries múltiplas e IR mais curtos, tendo em vista que alguns estudos que analisaram tal método, utilizaram IR de um minuto e meio a dois minutos 16,17 , bem como modelos de séries simples 14,17 . ...
... Em contrapartida, MaynardeEbben 15 observaram diminuição do torque muscular e da atividade mioelétrica dos músculos agonistas do movimento ao realizar uma série de flexão do joelho seguida de uma série de extensão do joelho no isocinético. Dessa forma, observa-se uma lacuna na literatura referente à comparação do método PAA ao tradicional, adotando séries múltiplas e IR mais curtos, tendo em vista que alguns estudos que analisaram tal método, utilizaram IR de um minuto e meio a dois minutos 16,17 , bem como modelos de séries simples 14,17 . ...
... Os autores observaram que quanto menores os intervalos (imediatamente após, 30 segundos e um minuto) maior foi o desempenho de repetições se comparados aos IR mais longos (três e cinco minutos). Em contrapartida, Paz et al. 17 , avaliaram o método tradicional vs. PAA no exercício remada baixa em 15 homens adultos, adotando o tempo de recuperação de 2 minutos entre os exercícios remada baixa (método tradicional) e supino reto seguido remada baixa (PAA), na qual o resultado foi superior para o PAA. O presente estudo adotou o IR entre os exercícios de 30 segundos, sendo que no decorrer das quatro séries, foi observado um maior número de repetições quando o método PAA foi utilizado se comparado ao método tradicional, exceto na terceira série quando comparada à quarta série em ambos os métodos, bem como foi observada diferença significativa no número de repetições na quarta série do método PAA quando comparado ao tradicional. ...
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Introdução: O método pareado agonista-antagonista (PAA) consiste em estimular previamente a musculatura antagonista do grupo muscular que se deseja otimizar, aumentando a ativação neural e força dos músculos agonistas. Objetivo: Comparar o método tradicional vs PAA sobre o trabalho total (TT) e volume de treinamento (VT) no exercício cadeira extensora (CE). Métodos: Doze mulheres treinadas realizaram dois protocolos experimentais randomizados: método tradicional - quatro séries da CE até a falha concêntrica; método PAA: quatro séries de mesa flexora (MF) + CE até a falha concêntrica. Foi dado um intervalo de 30 segundos entre os dois exercícios. Resultados: Pôde-se observar diferença significativa tanto no TT como VT, para o método PAA quando comparado ao tradicional. Conclusão: Sugere-se assim que o método PAA apresenta-se como melhor estratégia para otimização do desempenho de repetições máximas se comparado ao método tradicional, além de apresentar possibilidade de redução no tempo despendido para o treinamento.
... 3 The use of static stretching (SS) as an antagonist activation has been described as an effective method for antagonist muscle preload and to improve acute performance. 4, 5 In order to examine the effects of the SS on antagonist muscles and RT performance, and muscle activation, Paz et al. 5 investigated 15 recreationally trained men performing wide seated row (WSR) with different experimental protocols. In a counterbalanced and randomized order, three protocols were applied in the pectoralis major before the SR: SS consisted of a set of 40 seconds; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involved 20 seconds of isometric tension followed by 20 seconds of 20 stretching; and dynamic RT performed on the bench press consisted of one set to muscular failure with 10 repetitions maximum (RM) load. ...
... 3 The use of static stretching (SS) as an antagonist activation has been described as an effective method for antagonist muscle preload and to improve acute performance. 4, 5 In order to examine the effects of the SS on antagonist muscles and RT performance, and muscle activation, Paz et al. 5 investigated 15 recreationally trained men performing wide seated row (WSR) with different experimental protocols. In a counterbalanced and randomized order, three protocols were applied in the pectoralis major before the SR: SS consisted of a set of 40 seconds; proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involved 20 seconds of isometric tension followed by 20 seconds of 20 stretching; and dynamic RT performed on the bench press consisted of one set to muscular failure with 10 repetitions maximum (RM) load. ...
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Full-text available
Objective: the aim of this study was to compare differences in volume load, total repetition performed and rating of perceived exertion between static stretching and self-myofascial release on antagonist muscles. Methods: Eighteen recreationally trained men (23.4 ± 3.3 years; 80.7 ± 11.1 kg; 1.76 ± 0.06 cm) performed 10 repetitions maximum test and retest in the leg extension exercise on the first two visits. Then, three experimental sessions were conducted in a random order, in which two consisted of self-myofascial release and static stretching on hamstrings, and the other was used as a control. Results: significant higher repetitions were performed in the third set of static stretching when compared to control protocol. Additionally, significant reductions in total repetitions performed were observed only in the control session. No significant differences were noticed in the volume load of leg extension and rating of perceived exertion between protocols. Conclusion: self-myofascial release and static stretching performed before a session in the antagonist muscles can maintain repetitions performance by optimizing recovery between sets and reducing fatigue of agonist muscle.
... During PS training, muscles with an agonist-antagonist relationship are trained in an alternating manner with limited rest or without rest between sets (Paz et al., 2016). Previous studies showed that PS training allowed similar or higher repetition performance versus traditional set (TS) training, with a significant reduction in the training session duration (Paz et al., 2013(Paz et al., , 2014(Paz et al., , 2016(Paz et al., , 2017Robbins et al., 2010b). Maia et al. (2014) found higher repetition performance and surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of vastus medialis and rectus femoris during an agonist-antagonist PS that incorporated the leg extension exercise when immediately preceded by a lying leg curl exercise (with 10 repetition maximum -RM loads) or with short rest intervals (e.g., 30 s and 1-min) versus longer rest intervals (e.g., 3 and 5 min) between exercises. ...
... P60 P90 P120 efficiency and efficacy (i.e., higher training density) adopting relatively shorter rest periods between PS (Carregaro et al., 2013;Maia et al., 2014;Paz et al., 2013). This study was the first to our knowledge to evaluate the effect of different recovery periods between PS during a conventional RT session composed of multiple sets and exercises for the upper body muscles. ...
... Assim sendo, tais mecanismos fisiológicos, HPE) ao longo de 60 minutos(5,11,15). Entretanto, em um estudo realizado por Paz et al.(21) esse fenômeno foi analisado em 40 minutos, diferente do protocolo realizado que se avaliou ao longo de 60 minutos. Entretanto, maiores estudos são necessários para elucidar melhor a relação tempo x efeito na HPE. ...
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Introdução: A hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS) é um fator de risco relacionado a várias comorbidades. Após uma sessão de treinamento de força (TF), a pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) e pressão arterial diastólica (PAD) podem ser reduzidas abaixo dos valores basais. Este fenômeno é conhecido como hipotensão pós-exercício (HPE). Os efeitos do TF em membros superiores (MMSS) e em membros inferiores (MMII) na HPE ainda não são completamente compreendidos. Objetivo: Comparar o efeito agudo de uma sessão de TF multiarticular em diferentes segmentos corporais na PA, em indivíduos normotensos treinados. Métodos: O presente estudo experimental teve um delineamento randomizado, do tipo crossover. Foi realizado o teste de normalidade de Shapiro-Wilk e uma ANOVA two way de medidas repetidas seguida por um post hoc de Bonferroni para determinar se ocorreram diferenças significativas entre os grupos experimentais em relação a PAD e PAS em distintos momentos. Resultados: Em relação a PAS, ambos os protocolos provocaram redução estatisticamente significativa durante a recuperação com maior magnitude de queda provocada pela sessão de MMII (p<0,05). Na PAD, não ocorreram modificações significativas após a execução de nenhum dos protocolos experimentais (p>0,05). Conclusão: O TF multiarticular em ambos os segmentos corporais proporcionou o efeito agudo de redução da PAS, ao longo de 60 minutos após o fim da sessão de treino, com vantagem para o TF em MMII, em indivíduos normotensos treinados.
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ISSN 1981-9900 versão eletrônica P e r i ó d i c o do I n s t i t u t o B r a s i l e i r o de P e s q u i s a e E n s i n o e m F i s i o l o gi a do E x e r c í c i o w w w. i b p e f e x. c o m. b r / w w w. r b p f e x. c o m. b r EFEITOS AGUDOS DE DIFERENTES VOLUMES DE ALONGAMENTO ESTÁTICO DE ANTAGONISTAS NO DESEMPENHO DE REPETIÇÕES DE AGONISTAS
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