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The Hybrid Learning Model - A Framework for Teaching and Learning Practice


Abstract and Figures

The Hybrid Learning Model is an interactional model that encapsulates teaching and learning in a plain English format and captures the processes from the learner and the teacher perspective. The Model and its capabilities in addressing the challenges associated with capturing and describing teaching and learning practice for dissemination and redesign are examined. The effectiveness of this Model in articulating, reflecting on, designing, evaluating and sharing academic practice is investigated. This draws on studies involving academic practitioners and students. Findings on the Model’s suitability in influencing learner centred practice, enhancing the learning and teaching experience and assisting students to adapt to new learning situations are reported. Finally, the potential to develop the Model to provide teachers and learners with a simple, standards based framework to traverse the continuum of learning design is discussed.
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The Hybrid Learning Model – A Framework for
Teaching and Learning Practice
A. Masson, Á. MacNeill, C. Murphy and V. Ross
University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, Co Antrim, BT37 0QB, United Kingdom
Abstract—The Hybrid Learning Model is an interactional
model that encapsulates teaching and learning in a plain
English format and captures the processes from the learner
and the teacher perspective. The Model and its capabilities
in addressing the challenges associated with capturing and
describing teaching and learning practice for dissemination
and redesign are examined. The effectiveness of this Model
in articulating, reflecting on, designing, evaluating and
sharing academic practice is investigated. This draws on
studies involving academic practitioners and students.
Findings on the Model’s suitability in influencing learner
centred practice, enhancing the learning and teaching
experience and assisting students to adapt to new learning
situations are reported. Finally, the potential to develop the
Model to provide teachers and learners with a simple,
standards based framework to traverse the continuum of
learning design is discussed.
Index TermsLearning, Learning Design, Teaching,
Reflective Practice
“Many teachers do not possess a vocabulary for
articulating and sharing their pedagogical strategies and
designs with others, particularly beyond their cognate
discipline areas. [1]”
There are many benefits in sharing innovative learning
designs for reuse and reapplication within and across
varying contexts and disciplines [2] [3]. However,
lecturers can find it difficult to share effective practice as
many come from a noneducational background and
traditionally find it challenging to articulate their learning
designs in a precise and disseminable manner [4][5].
Practitioners commonly create learning activities based on
common sense, rather than theoretical frameworks [6],
hence it is difficult for them to describe their practice to
peers for reapplication.
This paper reports the development of a Hybrid
Learning Model (HLM) [7] which enables practitioners to
define and record their teaching and learning practices in a
generic and comprehendible manner. The strength of the
HLM in its ability to spark reflection regarding teaching
and learning practice and the ability to enlighten
practitioners to design from the perspective of the learner
[8] is investigated. A number of teacher and learner
perspective HLM use cases will be examined.
The Hybrid Learning Model is based around
straightforward concepts and uses simple language to
allow practitioners to easily communicate and share
teaching and learning practice in a generic and formalised
The HLM is based on and adapts the University of
Liège, LabSet project’s ‘8 Learning Events Model’
(8LEM) [9][10] and is enriched with a vocabulary of
generic ‘learning activity’ verbs derived and adapted from
Bennett [11], University of Wollongong.
The 8 Learning Events Model provides a pedagogically
sound framework for standardising teaching and learning
activities in a streamlined structure. The 8LEM proposes
that there are eight specific ways referred to as ‘Learning
Events’ of learning/teaching that the teacher or learning
designer can choose from at any point in the development
of learning activities [9].
Each of the eight learning events (Fig. 1) is expressed in
iconographic terms that depict the basic teacher - learner
interaction and each event is complemented by a closed
list of associated verbs for typical teacher and learner
The Model is supported by a set of prompt cards that
provide a tactile environment to aid reflection and design.
To facilitate the modelling process, these simple two-
sided flash cards each display the learning event on one
side (Fig. 2) and associated relevant teacher/learner verbs
on the other (Fig. 3). A number of visual aids were
incorporated into these flash cards to provide
reinforcement of the interaction type and the distinct
learner and teacher roles.
The resulting enriched 8LEM sequences, depicting
learning events and teacher and learner specific verbs are
further annotated with appropriate contextual information
including objectives, resources, environments and other
relevant prompts and recorded in a mapping grid template.
Figure 1. The 8 Learning Events
Figure 2. Example of flash card (front)
Figure 3. Example of flash card (back)
Figure 4. Mapping grid
In order to share practice it is important that the output
from the capturing process is visual, concise and
transparent without the practitioner requiring a
background in educational design to interpret [12].
The mapping grid provides a rich visual reference
framework that is concise and structured and depicts the
process in terms of roles and expectations from the teacher
and learner perspective.
Fig. 4 shows a learning activity that was captured with
the mapping grid during the pilot of the HLM.
In the initial development stages of the Model, a
facilitation approach was used and was carried out in a
variety of settings. This involved practitioners describing a
teaching activity using the HLM as a guide. Following a
brief overview to the modelling process and the HLM,
practitioners were provided with a set of flash cards.
Using a lesson plan as a reference point, the teacher
selected appropriate learning events to describe their
Once an overall sequence of learning events had been
chosen, the practitioner then turned over the flash cards
one by one and selected the verbs that accurately
conveyed both their own activities and that of their
learners within each individual learning event.
When more than one verb per role was selected, the
practitioner was encouraged to consider if these activities
formed an asynchronous sequence or an overall
synchronous interaction. This additional annotation
provided a useful granular interaction sequence within the
learning event. At the end of this process, the facilitator
transcribed the model onto a mapping grid template, along
with relevant contextual information, for review and
reflection (Fig. 4).
The use of the cards in an informal setting, e.g., over
coffee in the staff common room, allowed practitioners to
choose specific learning events and verbs in a relaxed
manner. This usually resulted in further experimentation
iJET – Volume 3, Special Issue 1, July 2008: TENCompetence Open Workshop in Madrid 2008
and reconsideration of both the sequence of events and
their choice of verbs to describe learner and teacher roles.
Observations of practitioners using the cards suggest that
the overall process and the physical cue cards promote
reflection and ongoing questioning when considering and
articulating teaching practice.
Practitioners were able to personalise the process and
use the cards to express their practice in terms of actual
processes and interactions whilst clarifying expectations.
The Model has provided a common design language for
face to face and online activities. The initial development
and evaluation stages highlighted the simplicity and
universality of the concepts and language used. This
resulted in the identification of a number of added value
use cases.
These include:
Raising awareness of teaching and learning
processes and in particular the learner perspective.
Reflecting on, evaluating and reviewing current
Planning and designing course materials/learning
Assisting students to adapt to new learning
situations by clarifying expectations and
V. P
The Model and its use in the above scenarios has been
evaluated by a sample (n=51) of teaching staff, teaching
support staff and staff developers in both Higher and
Further Education Institutions. A number of
complementary research tools and measures were used to
evaluate the use of the Model including interviews, closed
and open response questions, and participation in focus
groups and workshop settings. The findings from the
initial evaluation of the HLM with practitioners are
outlined in Table 1.
A. Articulation of Practice
In order to share teaching and learning practice it was
essential to develop an effective mechanism to allow
academics to articulate their existing practice, in particular
their interaction with learners. Evaluation to date indicates
that the HLM enables practitioners to verbalise their
practice and analyse their role and that of the learners in
an explicit and efficient manner.
Over 80% of users stated that they found the model
useful/very useful as a method of recording practice
(82%). One member of staff commented that the Model
“Useful to help us explore applications of technology to
our teaching in meaningful ways and to help us share that
with the other staff.”
Just under 80% stated that the Learning Events used to
articulate the learning activity that they were describing
provided a ‘very accurate/accurate description’ of the
teaching and learning process (79%).
Recording Practice
How useful did you find the model as a method of recording
Very Useful
35% (n=18)
47% (n=24)
Quite Useful
6% (n=3)
Not Useful
Unsure 10% (n=5), Missing 2% (n=1)
Ease of Use by Others
How easy do you think your colleagues would find using the model to
describe their learning activities?
Very Easy
14% (n=7)
41% (n=21)
Quite Easy
14% (n=7)
Not Easy
2% (n=1)
Unsure 29% (n=15)
Describing Teaching and Learning Processes
How well do you feel the learning events that you have chosen
provide an accurate description of the teaching and learning
processes within the learning activity?
A Very
18% (n=9)
An Accurate
61% (n=31)
Quite an
14% (n=7)
Not an
Unsure 4% (n=2), Missing 4% (n=2)
How well do you feel the verbs used to explain the learners’ role
provide a good description of the teaching and learning processes
within the learning activity?
Very Good
37% (n=19)
51% (n=26)
Quite a Good
8% (n=4)
Unsure 2% (n=1), Missing 2%(n=1)
How well do you feel the verbs used to explain the teachers’ role
provide a good description of the teaching and learning processes
within the learning activity?
Very Good
31% (n=16)
53% (n=27)
Quite a Good
10% (n=5)
Unsure 4% (n=2), Missing 2% (n=1)
Reflection on Practice
How useful did you find the model to reflect upon your chosen
Very Useful
31% (n=16)
47% (n=24)
Quite Useful
6% (n=3)
Not Useful
Unsure 14% (n=7), Missing 2%, (n=1)
As a result of using this model, do
you feel it has helped you to think
any differently about the learning
activity that was used?
Another benefit identified was the ability to break a
complicated concept down into usable basics and create a
visual timeline of tasks within the learning design. As one
practitioner described:
“It helped break things down into a sequence – [it]
makes lesson planning more fluid.”
The use of the universal concepts and language adopted
by the model was a further benefit identified in workshop
scenarios. Session observers noted that staff were often
much more open and relaxed articulating their practice
when using the model as a reference point. It was also
noted that discussions around the precision in the
meanings of verbs prompted open sharing of practices and
debates about aspects of students’ experience.
The developed Model has added value, in that, in
addition to capturing and recording teaching and learning
processes it also explores and makes explicit both the
learner and teacher role within those processes. This has
provided a simple and effective framework for
practitioners to refer against. Investigations to date
indicate that the concepts used and the modelling
processes developed are transparent, universal and widely
understandable, providing a means to capture rich details
of effective practices.
B. Reflection Impacting Re/Design
Early investigations of the HLM identified that users
found the concepts and approach undertaken facilitated
self reflection on the practices that they were modelling.
The simplicity and nonjudgmental nature of the Model
encouraged the team to develop the use of it as a means of
assisting the reflection and design of learning activities.
Evaluation of the Model indicated that it provides a safe
environment for the practitioner to analyse, reflect and
evaluate the effectiveness of their teaching:
“It is helpful to be more aware of what I do and in what
order. Reflection!”
The majority (78%) of staff across institutions stated
the model was ‘useful’/‘very useful’ for reflecting on their
chosen activity and 71% agreed the modelling process
encouraged them to think differently about the learning
activity, stimulating pedagogic creativity:
“Yes - it has shown me learning events/verbs which
maybe I am not using as much as I could/should be. It's
made me think more of varying activities in the lab.”
It is envisaged that the Hybrid Learning Model will
provide practitioners with a pedagogical framework that
encourages teachers to incorporate a variety of tasks
within their learning designs and encourage them to take
calculated risks in introducing multifaceted learning
experiences to the learner.
C. Design Aid
Although the Model was initially developed for
analysing and deconstructing learning activities, many
users have recognised the potential of the model for
designing/constructing learning activities. Suggested
applications for the curricula design aspect of the model
included; an aid for lesson planning, a
reflective/evaluation tool and a design aid for new
teaching staff and teacher training:
“Prior, my design process was more ad hoc. This
is more structured.”
“It creates a logic in planning teaching…. It
provides a framework for evaluation.”
“I believe it can be developed into a useful tool
for people new to teaching and explaining
what…they are or should be doing.”
The Model is a discreet change agent for enhancing the
students' experience by inadvertently prompting reflection
and improving teaching practice.
“Yes, I will look to include more opportunities for debate
and learner interpretation and reflection in elements of
my lectures and seminars.”
Practitioners’ response to the model has been very
positive with 72% indicating that they would use the
model again with the remainder, 28%, indicating that
they would consider using it again.
D. Awareness of the Learners’ Role
Usage and evaluation of the Model also clearly focused
attention on the learner role, not just that of the
teacher/academic practitioner. Users felt that engagement
with the Model made them more aware of the learners’
role and efforts, or as one commented it made them “look
at the learner perspective with fresh eyes”.
Table 2 highlights practitioners’ percentage responses
to a series of closed set evaluation questions. Eighty per
cent and over of those who used the Model were in
agreement that the learners’ role was made more explicit,
and that it provided them with a greater understanding of
h the learner and the interaction between the teacher
and learner.
These findings were strongly supported by open
responses made by staff including:
“Made me think of just how many different
aspects there are to the learner’s role.”
“Helped me focus attention on what we do and
reason why we do it… focus on what exactly we
are wanting the learner to do.”
“Made me think about balance of expectations
versus balance of activities.”
“Encouraged me to think more clearly about what
is expected of the learner.”
“It clearly outlines the various steps involved in
the learners’ role – thus indicating the amount of
time/effort on the learners’ parts.”
Focus groups with students allowed a comparison of
student and teacher developed models of the same
learning activity to be considered. The results from these
sessions confirmed that learners understood the
terminology and concepts of the learning events and
activity verbs (Table 3). They found the Model easy to use
and expressed their experiences in a consistent manner to
that of the teacher/academic practitioner.
An initial study has been undertaken into how teacher
developed HLM models can be used to support students
participating in defined learning situations, such as
seminars, case studies, group work and practicals for the
first time.
ROLE (N=51)
Use of the model has made the learners’ role more
explicit to me
85% (n=43)
The use of the model provides me with a greater
awareness and understanding of the learners’ role
87% (n=44)
Use of the model has provided me with a greater
awareness of the nature of the interaction between
the teacher and the learner
80% (n=41)
iJET – Volume 3, Special Issue 1, July 2008: TENCompetence Open Workshop in Madrid 2008
How easy was it to understand the concepts presented in the
modelled activity?
Very Easy
32% (n=21)
38% (n=25)
Quite Easy
20% (n=13)
Not Easy
6% (n=4)
Missing 4% (n=3)
How useful will the modelled activity be in preparing for your
seminar sessions and compiling your final portfolio?
Very Useful
6% (n=4)
30% (n=20)
Quite Useful
46% (n=30)
Not Useful
2% (n=1)
Too early to say 12% (n=8), Missing 4% (n=3)
The modelled activity helped me to adapt to completing my
Strongly Agree
8% (n=4)
84% (n=42%)
8% (n=4)
I would like other modules / learning activities to be modelled in
this way to help me to adapt to new learning situations
22% (n=11)
44% (n=22)
26% (n=13)
4% (n=2)
Don’t Know 4% (n=2)
After seeing the modelled activity I needed to contact my lecturer to
find out more about compiling my portfolio
10% (n=5)
68% (n=34)
14% (n=7)
Don’t Know 8% (n=4)
Are you using (intend to use)
the modelled activity in
preparing your portfolio?
78% (n=39)
22% (n=11)
For this study, an HLM developed model to describe a
specific learning and assessment activity (a reflective
portfolio) was presented to a class of BSc Marketing
(Year One) students as a walkthrough animation and as a
summary text grid. The students were asked to evaluate
the usefulness of the presented model immediately after
its introduction and again at the completion of the
portfolio task. A set of research questions were developed
and were used to capture this information and learner
feedback from these evaluations is presented in Tables 3
and 4.
The following five statements were ranked highest by
learners from a list of ten to describe the usefulness of the
1. It provided an awareness of what is expected of me.
2. It provided a clear outline of what was expected.
3. It defined the role of us (the learners).
4. It broke down the activity into understandable
5. It simplified what we had to do.
The developed HLM provides practitioners and learners
with a simple to use and universally understandable
method to articulate the human aspect and social
interactions involved in the teaching and learning process
from both the teacher and learner perspective.
The use of the HLM offers the opportunity for
academics to reflect on their current practice and can
assist in responding to changing learner contexts. The
Model can also be utilised in a learning design context as
a common design language that is suitable for
practitioners and learners in both a traditional and online
context. It has also proved valuable in providing modelled
activities that can be used to help students to adapt to new
learning situations and to clarify expectations that teachers
have of them.
The modelled activities produced through the use of the
HLM can be viewed as artefacts that formalise and
provide a reference point from which to reflect upon
academic practice. They provide a straightforward
communication channel of teaching and learning
processes, to include normally tacit/unspoken interactions
in the form of learning design process models.
The Model, in itself, does not transform teaching
practice but provides a framework for academic
practitioners and students to examine teaching and
learning scenarios in a novel way. HLM mapping grids
allow for clarification and consideration of processes,
roles, expectations, values and assumptions [13] in
academic practice.
In this way the HLM is a potential change agent, in that
it enables the creation of simple, yet effective artefacts for
teaching and learning that are understandable across the
various stakeholders in Higher Education. These simple
aids prompt interrogation and a deeper reflection and
consideration of processes, interactions, roles and
expectations involved in teaching and learning. They can
also be the catalyst for identifying opportunities, resources
and technologies for transforming and improving practice,
e.g., formalisation of learning design practice,
revision/modifications to enhance current practice and
provision of artefacts to promote discussions among
course teams and with students.
The development of an electronic version of the HLM
modelling process will provide a more automated,
independent method of user reflection and articulation and
an automated generation of relevant outputs.
The design of such a user interface is a creative
challenge however, as some of the key benefits of the
flash cards relate to the inherent flexibility of use and
implicit self reflection that the informal and hands-on
nature of the cards promote. The use of an electronic
modelling process will permit more complex learning
scenarios, including parallel learning events to be
described and represented.
An added benefit of an on-line data capture process will
be the simple incorporation of rich profile information
such as Laurillard’s Media Types [14] to resources used
within the Model.
A review process of the pilot implementations of the
HLM in the use cases described above will allow a formal
data model to be articulated. The formalisation of the
underlying data schemas will provide the necessary
foundation for the Model to act as a transition tool across
the learning design continuum. This approach will permit
the HLM to formally interact with other learning design
tools and schemas to, for example:
Import an IMS learning design artefact [15] and
articulate it with a social context to assist teachers
and learners in its use.
Allow a practitioner to formalise and structure
their practice in readiness to develop a defined
learning resource within a learning design tool
such as LAMS [16].
Finally, the exploration of additional use cases of the
HLM will be investigated. The potential for the Model to
be used as a research tool to capture both learner and
teacher perspectives of the learning process, in particular
is an opportunity to exploit the inherent ease of use and
conversational nature of the Model reported by both
learners and teachers.
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[2] Koper, Rob. Combining Reusable Learning Resources and
Services to Pedagogical Purposeful Units of Learning. In A.
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[3] Casey, J., Brosnan, K., & Greller, W. Prospects for Using
Learning Objects and Learning Design as Staff Development
Tools in Higher Education. In “Cognition and Exploratory
Learning in Digital Age” CELDA conference, Porto, 2005.
[4] Falconer, I. and Littlejohn, A. 2007. Mod4L project final report.
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[6] Conole, G., Dyke, M., Oliver, M., Seale, J. Mapping Pedagogy
and Tools for Effective Learning Design, Computers & Education
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[7] Casey, J., Brosnan, K., Greller, W., Masson, A., MacNeill, Á.,
Murphy, C. “Designing for Change: Visual Design Tools to
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Pedagogical Perspective. In R. McGreal (Ed.) Online Education
Using Learning Objects. RoutledgeFalmer: London, 2004.
[9] Leclercq, D. & Poumay, M. The 8 Learning Events Model and its
Principles. Release 2005.1. LabSET. University of Liége.
Available from:
[Accessed 2 May 2008].
[10] Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M. & Leclercq, D. The 8 Learning
Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting
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[11] Bennett, S. (2005). University of Wollongong. Available from: [Accessed 2 May 2008].
[12] Oliver, M., Conole, G. Supporting Structural Change: Toolkits for
Design and Evaluation. In R. Macdonald (Ed.), SEDA Research
Series, Academic and educational development; Research,
evaluation, and changing practice, in higher education. London:
Kogan Press, 2002, pp.62-75.
[13] Schein, E.H..Organizational Culture and Leadership (2nd Edition).
Jossey- Bass, San Francisco, 1992.
[14] Laurillard, D. Re-thinking University Teaching: a Framework for
the Effective Use of Education Technology (2nd Edition).
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[15] IMS Learning Design Specification, IMS Global Learning
Consortium. Available from: [Accessed 2 May 2008].
[16] LAMS, Learning Activity Management System, Macquarie
University. Available from:
[Accessed 2 May 2008].
Alan Masson, Áine MacNeill, Colette Murphy and
Vilinda Ross are with the Centre for Institutional E-
Learning Services, University of Ulster, Jordanstown, Co
Antrim, BT37 0QB UK (e-mail:,,, ).
This work was supported by the Department for Employment and
Learning (Northern Ireland) through the Centres of Excellence in
Teaching and Learning initiative.
This article was modified from a presentation at the 4th Competence
Open Workshop in Madrid, Spain, April 2008. Manuscript received 12
June 2008. Published as submitted by the authors.
iJET – Volume 3, Special Issue 1, July 2008: TENCompetence Open Workshop in Madrid 2008
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... This orientation had three components; first, adopt a completely online approach, adopting a hybrid approach was a second option and third was to continue with physical classes (Shimabukuro et al., 2021). Hybrid Learning Model is a model that encompasses teaching and learning in an online and offline setting (Masson et al., 2008) providing flexibility and interaction in classrooms (Hwang, 2018). However, the shift towards digitization is a change process that is often met with resistance and avoidance in higher education (Gnaur et al., 2020). ...
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The hybrid learning model has been introduced as a model of learning in response to the cessation of the education system due to the COVID-19. It could be an effective strategy in response to educational crisis in the wake of future pandemics. The shift to online and hybrid model was met with reluctance and posed a set of new challenges like demotivation and stress due to the change in the dynamics of the entire education system. The study aimed to incorporate self-compassion interventions into the current hybrid model by means to improve motivation and reduce the stress levels of students. 20 students with age range 18-25 were targeted through convenience sampling in a pre-test post-test design to measure the level of academic stress, motivation and self-compassion. Academic stress scale, Academic Motivation Scale and Self-Compassion – Short Form were used. The research comprised of three phases, pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention. Eight session plans of self-compassion interventions, self-compassionate motivation and stress reduction through mindfulness were introduced using Kristin Neff’s The Mindful Self-Compassion Workbook. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. The results showed insignificant difference in Self-Compassion after the intervention (p=0.24) while academic motivation and academic stress had a value of p=0.000 representing an increase in academic motivation (p<0.05) and a decrease in academic stress (p<0.05) post intervention. This study will pave way for further researches to find effective measures as means of preparedness for future pandemic and educational crisis.
... Ada banyak istilah dan konsep yang terkait dengan Blended Learning dalam berbagai nama, termasuk Hybrid, Smart classroom, Smart space, Smart learning environment, Ubiquitous/Pervasive computing, Online learning, E-learning, Distance learning, Learning Management System, Flipped classroom, dll (Altamimi & Ramadan, 2016;Cockrum, 2017;Norberg, 2017). Model Pembelajaran Hibrid didasarkan pada konsep pelaksanaan secara langsung dan menggunakan bahasa sederhana untuk memungkinkan pengajar dengan mudah berkomunikasi dan berbagi praktik belajar mengajar dalam struktur generik dan formalisasi (Masson et al., 2008). 8 Learning Events Model (LEM) menyediakan kerangka kerja suara pedagogik untuk menstandarkan kegiatan belajar mengajar dalam struktur yang efisien. ...
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SMK Negeri 7 Samarinda aspires to be a world-class information and communication technology school. It is important for students to understand about technology advancements in order to become employable human resources in the workplace. Teachers' roles in schools are critical in helping students learn this, hence vocational school teachers should have Internet of Things (IoT) training. The workshop will take place entirely online, utilizing Google Meet. Following the training, it can be inferred that partners will have a simple understanding of the IoT technology work system, particularly when the pilot is deployed. Partners can learn and grasp the notion of blended learning models with IoT through workshops and facilities.
... Model Pembelajaran Hibrid didasarkan pada konsep pelaksanaan secara langsung dan menggunakan bahasa sederhana untuk memungkinkan pengajar dengan mudah berkomunikasi dan berbagi praktik belajar mengajar dalam struktur generik dan formalisasi (Masson, MacNeill, Murphy, & Ross, 2008). 8 Learning Events Model (LEM) menyediakan kerangka kerja suara pedagogik untuk menstandarkan kegiatan belajar mengajar dalam struktur yang efisien. ...
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Revolusi IoT membentuk kembali sistem modern dengan menggabungkan prospek teknologi, ekonomi, dan sosial. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki keberlanjutan, toleransi, dan keandalan teknologi IoT sebagai solusi dalam menanggapi pandemi Covid-19. Penelitian bertujuan untuk menyoroti teknologi IoT yang memungkinkan hasil yang menjanjikan dan potensi untuk mengidentifikasi kasus Covid-19, menghilangkan penyebaran, dan mengurangi dampak pandemi pada bidang pendidikan, bisnis dan kesehatan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan penelitian eksploratif secara kualitatif, dimana tujuannya adalah untuk menggali secara luas sebab-sebab atau hal-hal yang mempengaruhi terjadinya sesuatu dan dipakai manakala belum diketahui. Penelitian ini akan membantu pembaca dan peneliti untuk memahami IoT dan penerapannya ke dunia nyata.
Kap. 5 verschafft einen Überblick darüber, welchen Beitrag das Format Blended Learning zur zeitgemäßen Ausgestaltung von LernaktivitätLernenLernaktivitäten leistet und auf welchen Funktionsprinzipien dieses Format beruht. Es setzt sich mit der Ermittlung des LernbedarfLernenLernbedarfs einer OrganisationOrganisation auseinander, klärt, wer die Akteure des LernenLernens sind, und welchen Beitrag Blended Learning für das Lernen in der OrganisationOrganisation leisten kann. Abgeleitet vom LernbedarfLernenLernbedarf erfolgt eine Definition der KompetenzKompetenzen, die Lernende erwerben, wie diese in Form von LernergebnissenLernenLernergebnis transparent und messbar ausformuliert und in der WissensbilanzWissenWissensbilanz abgebildet werden. Danach geht das Kapitel auf den Bauplan für die KompetenzvermittlungKompetenzKompetenzvermittlung ein, adressiert Rahmenbedingungen und Konstruktionselemente wie das AusbildungskonzeptKonzeptAusbildungskonzeptBildungAusbildungskonzept sowie diesem untergeordnete Kursbeschreibungen. Erklärungen zur Bewertung von Nutzen und Aufwand zur Evaluierung, ob die LernergebnissenLernenLernergebnis mit den geplanten RessourceRessourcen umsetzbar sind, beschließen dieses Kapitel.
Kap. 6 zeigt, wie die in Kap. 5 aufgeschlüsselten Elemente von LernenLernen und LehrenLehreLehren in wirksame Blended-LearningBlended-Learning-Interventionen übersetzt werden. LernaktivitätLernenLernaktivitäten, auch in einem Blended-Learning-Format, gibt es in unendlich vielen Ausprägungen. Allerdings geben der identifizierte LernbedarfLernenLernbedarf, die Gruppe der Adressat:innen sowie andere Bedingungen inkl. RessourcenausstattungRessourceRessourcenausstattung schon einen Rahmen dafür vor, wie LerninterventionenLernenLernintervention tatsächlich umgesetzt werden. LernenLernen ist ein kreativer ProzessProzess und genau so sollten ihn Lernende auch erleben. Was jedoch für die einen Lernenden gut funktioniert, passt für andere wiederum nicht und so stellt bei der Ausgestaltung von LerninterventionenLernenLernintervention immer die Gruppe der Lernenden ein zentrales Planungselement dar. Hier wird gezeigt, wie unter Berücksichtigung dieser Kriterien, LernumgebungLernenLernumgebungen gestaltet werden, die LernenLernen ermöglichen und fördern, wie diese didaktisch ausgestaltet und mit MedienMedien ausgestattet werden und letztlich zur Durchführung gelangen.
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La discriminación en el empleo y la ocupación es "cualquier distinción, exclusión o preferencia que tenga por efecto anular o alterar la igualdad de oportunidades o de trato en el empleo y la ocupación" (OIT, 2019). En México, el marco jurídico en contra de la discriminación parte de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en sus artículos 1, 5 y 123, además de tratados internacionales que frenan la discriminación en el trabajo, entre otros. Esta investigación fue de corte cualitativo y descriptivo, y utilizó la técnica documental. Su objetivo fue identificar algunas prácticas organizacionales que frenan la discriminación laboral. Con base en lo anterior, se descubrió que cada vez más empresas en el mundo adoptan un plan de igualdad, que es un conjunto ordenado de medidas para lograr la igualdad de oportunidades y trato entre hombres y mujeres. Además en México se diseño la NMX-R-025-SCFI-2015, la cual, fija las bases para que centro de trabajo públicos, privados y sociales, demuestren la adopción y el cumplimiento de procesos y prácticas a favor de la igualdad y no discriminación (Vela, 2017).
p>The application of technology in learning is currently increasingly sophisticated. The development of learning media is widely applied to make learning more flexible. in this article will discuss the development (R&D) of Chemistry on Android (Chemdroid). This study aims to determine the media's quality based on the chemistry teacher's assessment, determine the readability of the media based on the assessment of students who have received this material, and determine the impact of this media trial in chemistry learning. The development design used is ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation). At the implementation stage, the posttest control group design was used by involving two classes as the control and experimental class. The variable measure is students achievement. The results obtained are that the Chemdroid learning media has been developed and declared valid by four experts. The assessment results by five high school chemistry teachers were Very Good, with a mean value of 3.31. The results of this assessment state that the Chemdroid learning media is suitable for use as a learning media for thermochemistry. In comparison, the readability test results by 16 students from 4 various senior high schools resulted in Good criteria with a mean of 3.24, which means that this media is legible and useful for students in various groups. The analysis of the implementation results states that the two classes have a significant difference.</p
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The Arabic language learning for university students in University is faced by various problems that impact the lack of language proficiency. Some problems faced by university students come from negative learning attitudes, low motivation, unhappy feelings toward the Arabic course that tends to be boring as well as a non-supportive language environment. The use of Hybrid Learning approach in Arabic language learning was done by strengthening students’ physical and mental state. This research aims to: (1) analyze the Arabic language learning by using Hybrid Learning Approach, (2) analyze lecturers' technology literacy level in deciding the success of the learning process (3) analyze the effectiveness of Hybrid learning model on students' learning outcomes in Arabic language.This study applied the Mixed-Method Research to examine students' Arabic proficiency and learning process by using Hybrid Learning approach..The research respondents in this study are college students who take an Arabic language subject that consist of 80 students in each College. The data collection technique used in this research is a test, questionnaire, and interview. The use of Hybrid learning in Arabic language learning can improve students' positive attitude and learning motivation. Besides, this also can enhance students’ Arabic language skills. The significance of the research is to solve various problems of Arabic language learning faced by lecturers. The implementation of Hybrid learning can create an effective learning environment that can enhance Arabic language skills. This research result can be applied by Arabic language lecturers to handle various problems regarding attitude and learning motivation.
Conference Paper
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This paper examines the potential for using learning objects and Learning Design as vehicles for staff development in UK Higher Education (HE). To support this approach we propose using Ramsden's (1991) three theoretical models of teaching in HE to provide a conceptual framework to situate these technologies in. We observe that the introduction of these technologies into HE reveal and highlight underlying obstacles to their adoption by reifying existing pedagogic practice and values. We map these obstacles onto Ramsden's theoretical framework and propose in outline a staff development strategy to help remedy them. This implies a change both in the institutional and professional organisation of teaching activity in HE, we conclude by presenting in outline the kind of changes required which also provide us with an indicator of areas for further investigation.
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A number of pedagogies and approaches are often quoted in the e-learning literature – constructivism, communities of practice, collaboration – but we suggest that much of what is described could more easily be explained in terms of didactic and behaviourist approaches to learning. In this paper we propose a model that supports the development of pedagogically driven approaches to e-learning. The paper begins by explaining how models can be used to represent theoretical approaches and to support practitioners' engagement with these. After outlining the method through which this can be achieved, a model of pedagogies is developed. This process begins with a review of learning theories, from which key components of learning are distilled. This abstraction is used as an analytical tool, allowing components of learning scenarios to be described and related to appropriate theoretical approaches through the use of specific tools and resources. Our assertion is that a better articulation and mapping of different pedagogical processes, tools and techniques will provide a pedagogic approach that is more reflexive and consistent with practitioners' theoretical perspective on learning and teaching.
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this paper is published as: Koper, E.J.R. (2003). Combining re-usable learning resources and services to pedagogical purposeful units of learning. In A. Littlejohn (Ed.), Reusing Online Resources: A Sustainable Approach to eLearning (pp. 46-59). London: Kogan Page. technology-supported learning". Wiley (2002, p.6) advocates strongly that this definition is too broad to be of any practical or scientific value. He proposes as an alternative definition: "any digital resource that can be reused to support learning". I will further narrow down the scope of this definition for this chapter to: "any digital, reproducible and addressable resource used to perform learning activities or learning support activities, made available for others to use". This definition excludes a lot of things: for example non-digital materials, non-reproducible unique exemplars and non-addressable resources (for example those that are not connected with a URL and metadata for access). It excludes learning activities, and also learning objectives and prerequisites, since these are a function of the learning activities, not the resources. It also excludes courses (since these are aggregates of learning objects and learning activities) as well as 'people', 'activities' and 'services'. Further sub-classification of learning objects has been introduced in chapters 1 and 2 and, in this chapter, I will use the following definitions: - Knowledge objects are learning objects which contain information for people to learn from or to use while supporting the learning activities of others (for example teachers with students). An example is a web page with a series of information objects to learn, (e.g. about sensory systems); or a teachers' manual. - Tool objects are learning objects to learn with or to use whi...
This chapter looks at the possible uses of visual forms of instructional design (ID) languages as possible 'change agents' for design practice in the public post-secondary education sector. A lot of work is being done in the technical realm of the standardization and interoperability for educational modeling languages (EMLs), but this is largely restricted to existing ID specialists that use 'dialects' of ID languages and schemes. This is important work but it does not address the vast majority of educators working in the post-secondary public educational sector whose design work is highly individualized and deeply embedded in rich institutional contexts. The challenge for visual ID languages and EMLs in general is how they can move beyond their current specialist niche applications to be useful to mainstream educators. In this chapter we argue that this development needs to happen along two related dimensions: (i) changes in the organization of the educational workplace and related training-what might be termed 'push factors;' and, (ii) the use of tools such as visual ID languages to support that change process at individual and group levels-what might be termed 'pull' factors. We shall be concentrating on this second dimension. Specifically, in this chapter we shall be looking at ideas for how we might apply visual ID languages as a support mechanism in helping educators externalize and share their design models and ideas in order to develop them into semi-formal abstractions that might be developed to feed into the use of EMLs. To ground these ideas, we shall be looking at the experiences of those who have tried these types of approaches in practice. Finally we discuss the effect this type of perspective might have on the future development of visual ID languages and related tools.
Please, cite this publication as: Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Proceedings of International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development, TENCompetence Conference. September 12th, 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved June 30th, 2006, from
This book presents a clearly and soundly argued case for the integration of educational technology into university teaching where the primary focus is to enhance student learning. Different teaching media, including audio-visual, hypermedia, interactive, adaptive and discursive media are discussed in the light of research into student learning. Practical guidelines for designing educational technology are provided.