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Music and information in commercials: Their effects with an elderly sample

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Abstract

A number of recent empiri-cal investigations (Cole and Gaeth, 1990; Cole and Houston, 1987; Davis and French, 1989; Gaeth and Heath, 1987; Milliman and Erffmeyer, 1990) as well as an insightful lit-erature review (Roedder-John and Cole, 1986) provide evi-dence of a growing interest in the consumer behavior of the elderly. This interest appears well-warranted, given that the elderly are heavy users of mass media; that they rely on sources such as television and newspa-pers for information to aid in purchase decisions; and that there are significant differences between young adults and the elderly in their ability to process information (Phillips and Stern-thal, 1977). From a practical per-spective as well, the growing elderly segment is worth consid-ering. With over 25 million peo-ple in the United States, the over-65 group constitutes more than 11 percent of the popula-tion and is growing at a more rapid rate than the general pop-ulation. The elderly segment ac-counts for over $60 billion in an-nual consumer spending in the United States (Lumpkin and Hite, 1988). As Zaltman, Perloff, and Valle (1980) note, traditional consumer communication efforts may not be effective for the elderly. In this study we use an experimen-tal paradigm to compare the po-tential effectiveness of three types of advertising strategies on older viewers: (1) an informa-tion-oriented appeal that pre-sented explicit product benefits; (2) a music-oriented appeal that presented little in the way of explicit product benefits; and (3) an appeal that stressed both ex-plicit product benefits and mu-sic. We investigate their effects on various levels of the commu-nication hierarchy including choice behavior, a dependent variable often ignored in labora-tory studies of advertising ef-fects.
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Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.
... Main finding Gorn et al. (1991), United States Quantitative (Experiment) N = 176, aged 60-84. Participants were either members of senior citizens' organizations or noninstitutionalized. • regardless of any additional ambient music, explicit information appeals influenced product beliefs, attitudes, and behavior ...
... Moreover, older consumers show a strong sense of moral responsibility and willingness to pay higher prices in contexts ranging from fair trade to patriotic buying (Carrigan, Szmigin, & Wright, 2004). Finally, environmental factors affect alternative evaluation: information is processed in a more favorable manner if ambient music is present and the available information is presented unambiguously (Gorn, Goldberg, Chattopadhyay, & Litvack, 1991). ...
Article
Background and Objectives: Aging is one of the key future challenges for global life. Of particular interest is the consumption-related decision-making of older people, as its better understanding would enable the effective influence of behavior, which would help to secure the economic well-being and ensure a better quality of life for this population. This article explores the respective literature and identifies gaps for future research. Research Design and Methods: We conducted a holistic review of peer-reviewed literature that examined the decision-making of older consumers. Using a structured approach based on the consumer decision process model, we present the findings of 45 years of research (a total of 42 articles) and identify further research areas. Results: The review reveals that the literature on older consumers’ decision-making is fragmented, and that the findings are mixed. In particular, results on the role of emotions are controversial. While emotions have been shown to be better controlled by older individuals, emotions are also found to be highly influential in commercial advertisements. Similarly, the literature contains a lively debate on the relevance of price, service and store quality, and provider choice. Discussion and Implications: These results call for a more holistic view of the decision-making of older consumers, and the review highlights numerous opportunities for future research. For instance, little is known about how older consumers deal with need recognition and the reasons they search for particular information. Moreover, understanding is lacking with respect to online purchase and feedback behavior.
... Since consumers can be described by socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral criteria (Steffenhagen 1994, Kapferer 2008, for each of these three groups of predictors the coherences with the recall of audio logos was tested. Gorn et al. (1991) found a positive effect on attitude at people of a higher age, especially when factual information and music are being used. Looking at the elderly sample the influence of the factual information dominated the scene over the musical stimuli. ...
Experiment Findings
Although there is a numerous amount of literature on the effects of background music in advertising, we still lack empirical studies on the prerequisites and effects of audiobranding. The current paper deals with the question to which extent success of audio branding can be explained by several potential determinants. The success of audio branding is operationalised by measuring the level of aided and unaided recall of audio logos.
... When music is used in audiovisual advertisements, that is, when accompanying a video, it has proven to be more effective than verbal cues by a greater recall of visual imagery such as action (Stewart, 1998). In their research on the effect of music on visual memory, Gorn, Goldberg, Chattopadhyay and Litvack (1991) found that the use of music, versus the same stimulus but without music, was more effective in producing higher levels of recall. ...
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... When music is used in audiovisual advertisements, that is, when accompanying a video, it has proven to be more effective than verbal cues by a greater recall of visual imagery such as action (Stewart, 1998). In their research on the effect of music on visual memory, Gorn, Goldberg, Chattopadhyay and Litvack (1991) found that the use of music, versus the same stimulus but without music, was more effective in producing higher levels of recall. ...
Article
Full-text available
Music plays an important role in advertising. It exerts strong influence on the cognitive processes of attention and on the emotional processes of evaluation and, subsequently, in the attributes of the product. The goal of this work was to investigate these mechanisms using eye-tracking, facial expression and galvanic skin response (GSR). Nineteen university women were exposed to the same TV ad of a perfume in our Laboratory (https://neurolabcenter.com/). Nine of them were randomly assigned to the music version and ten to the silent version. During viewing, the visual areas of interest, the fixation time, the facial emotions and the GSR were recorded. Before and after viewing the subjects completed a questionnaire. Results: 1) The commercial with music caused a GSR level higher than without music. The GSR evaluates the degree of arousal (emotion)., 2) The facial expression indicated that the variable "enjoy" and "engagement" were significantly higher in the version with music. The positive valence (liking) presented higher values in the musical version, 3) However, the evaluation of the variable "attention", measured through facial expression, did not show differences between the groups. There were also no differences in the heat maps of areas of interest. 4) The attributes evaluation of the product, measured with the pre-post questionnaire, showed greater increases after exposure to the musical version, but only in specific product’s attributes, such as "power" but not on other attributes, such as "status".These results are interpreted within the framework of the recent theories of advertising and music (Oakes, 2007).
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