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Exploring 'if (situation) then (behaviour)' contingencies in interpersonal crimes.

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... Second, we will give a brief overview on the situational dynamics of sexual assaults that impact the event, referring to resistance studies, the Rape Model, and crime script research. Third, the appreciation for sequence research of sexual assaults will concisely be discussed as it forms the methodological background for this paper (for a more extensive background, see Winter, 2015). ...
... Therefore, German ViCLAS analysts and BIA's examine sequentially how competent a rapist copes with the challenges of each stage of an offence (e. g. approach, establishing control, maintaining control, sexual acts, departure of the crime scene). Only after this reconstruction, the analyst or BIA weighs what behaviours appear consistent and discriminative and what are solely due to situational factors (Winter, 2015). The use of a sequential approach in crime linkage practice demands an earnest consideration in crime linkage research. ...
... The proximity coefficient has been successfully applied to distinguish cultural differences in hostage negotiations (Giebels and Taylor, 2009), investigative police interviews (Beune et al., 2010) and the interpersonal dynamics in multiple perpetrator rapes (Woodhams et al., 2019b). Several sequence analyses studies with proximity coefficients showed that offender-victim interactions in sexual assaults significantly and meaningfully differed according to location and time (Winter, 2015). This variation in individual interactions could be an indication that such sequences are sufficiently distinctive from each other, which is obviously important for using this method for crime linkage purposes. ...
Article
Purpose Traditional crime linkage studies on serial sexual assaults have relied predominantly on a binary crime linkage approach that has yielded successful results in terms of linkage accuracy. Such an approach is a coarse reflection of reality by focussing mainly on the outcome of an offence, neglecting the forceful differences due to the intricate offender-victim interaction. Only few researchers have examined sexual assaults through the lens of a sequence analysis framework. This paper aims to present the first empirical test of offence sequence-based crime linkage, moving beyond exploratory analyses. Design/methodology/approach Offence accounts from 90 serial sexual assault and rape victims from the UK were analysed and sequentially coded. Sequence analysis allowed to compare all offences combinations regarding their underlying sequence of events. The resulting comparison was transformed and plotted in two-dimensional space by multidimensional scaling analysis for a visual inspection of linkage potential. The transformed proximities of all offences were used as predictors in a receiver operating characteristic analysis to actually test their discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose. Findings Sequence analysis shows significant discriminatory accuracy for crime linkage purpose. However, the method does perform less well than previous binary crime linkage studies. Research limitations/implications Several limitations due to the nature of the data will be discussed. Practical implications The practical limitations are as follows: the study is a potential practical value for crime analysts; it is a complimentary methodology for statistical crime linkage packages; it requires automated coding to be useful; and it is very dependent on crime recoding standards. Originality/value The exploratory part of this study has been published in a book chapter in 2015. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the succinct test of crime linkage accuracy is the first of its kind.
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Case linkage uses crime scene behaviours to identify series of crimes committed by the same offender. This paper tests the underlying assumptions of case linkage (behavioural consistency and behavioural distinctiveness) by comparing the behavioural similarity of linked pairs of offences (i.e. two offences committed by the same offender) with the behavioural similarity of unlinked pairs of offences (i.e. two offences committed by different offenders). It is hypothesised that linked pairs will be more behaviourally similar than unlinked pairs thereby providing evidence for the two assumptions. The current research uses logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses to explore which behaviours can be used to reliably link personal robbery offences using a sample of 166 solved offences committed by 83 offenders. The method of generating unlinked pairs is then refined to reflect how the police work at a local level, and the success of predictive factors re‐tested. Both phases of the research provide evidence of behavioural consistency and behavioural distinctiveness with linked pairs displaying more similarity than unlinked pairs across a range of behavioural domains. Inter‐crime distance and target selection emerge as the most useful linkage factors with promising results also found for temporal proximity and control. No evidence was found to indicate that the property stolen is useful for linkage. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study aimed to investigate the case linkage principles, behavioural consistency and distinctiveness, with a sample of serial car thieves. Target selection, acquisition, and disposal behaviours, as well as geographical and temporal behaviours, were examined. The effects of temporal proximity and offender expertise were also investigated as moderating factors of behavioural consistency. As in previous case linkage research, geographical and some target selection behaviours were able to predict whether crime pairs are linked or unlinked at a statistically significant level. Crucially, it was also found that temporal behaviours demonstrate a significant capability to predict linkage status, a variable which has never before been applied to the prediction of linkage in serial car theft. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that changing the operationalisation of the behavioural domains can affect the results obtained. No support was found for the moderation of behavioural consistency on the basis of temporal proximity or expertise. Overall, the results support previous case linkage studies, furthering their practical applicability within the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Much previous research on behavioural case linkage has used binary logistic regression to build predictive models that can discriminate between linked and unlinked offences. However, classification tree analysis has recently been proposed as a potential alternative owing to its ability to build user‐friendly and transparent predictive models. Building on previous research, the current study compares the relative ability of logistic regression analysis and classification tree analysis to construct predictive models for the purposes of case linkage. Two samples are utilised in this study: a sample of 376 serial car thefts committed in the UK and a sample of 160 serial residential burglaries committed in Finland. In both datasets, logistic regression and classification tree models achieve comparable levels of discrimination accuracy, but the classification tree models demonstrate problems in terms of reliability or usability that the logistic regression models do not. These findings suggest that future research is needed before classification tree analysis can be considered a viable alternative to logistic regression in behavioural case linkage. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Research with both the general public and members of the criminal justice system reports a pervasive rape myth of a violent offender and a physically resistant victim. Despite research being conducted on victims' postrape behavior, few studies have examined victim behavior during sexual assaults, and many of those which have been conducted have tended to focus on physical resistance. This article reports two studies that examined qualitatively the behavior of female rape victims during sexual assaults. The first study is an analysis of 78 stranger sexual assaults, committed in the United Kingdom, by male offenders. The second study is an analysis of 89 allegations of stranger rape, again from the United Kingdom, perpetrated by multiple male suspects. Information about victim behavior was extracted from victims' accounts made to the police. More than 100 different victim behaviors were identified in each study, and more than 80 behaviors were common across studies. Myth-congruent behaviors were present in the sample; however, the behaviors engaged in by victims were complex and diverse. Indirect and face-saving communications were used by victims and are discussed in terms of expectations regarding victim behavior and rape stereotypes. The implications of the findings for training legal professionals, educating jurors, and counseling victims are discussed.
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Computerized crime linkage systems are meant to assist the police in determining whether crimes have been committed by the same offender. In this article, the authors assess these systems critically and identify four assumptions that affect the effectiveness of these systems. These assumptions are that (a) data in the systems can be coded reliably, (b) data in the systems are accurate, (c) violent serial offenders exhibit consistent but distinctive patterns of behavior, and (d) analysts have the ability to use the data in the systems to link crimes accurately. The authors argue that there is no compelling empirical support for any of the four assumptions, and they outline a research agenda for testing each assumption. Until evidence supporting these assumptions becomes available, the value of linkage systems will remain open to debate.
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In the absence of forensic evidence (such as DNA or fingerprints), offender behavior can be used to identify crimes that have been committed by the same person (referred to as behavioral case linkage). The current study presents the first empirical test of whether it is possible to link different types of crime using simple aspects of offender behavior. The discrimination accuracy of the kilometer distance between offense locations (the intercrime distance) and the number of days between offenses (temporal proximity) was examined across a range of crimes, including violent, sexual, and property-related offenses. Both the intercrime distance and temporal proximity were able to achieve statistically significant levels of discrimination accuracy that were comparable across and within crime types and categories. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed and recommendations made for future research.
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A great deal of forensic psychology concerns sequences of behaviours or events. In this paper, we review some recent efforts to examine forensic issues as sequences, discuss some of the contemporary methodologies involved, and highlight some of the lessons that emerge from this research. Specifically, we show: (i) how research on public violence has benefited from studying incidents as patterns of cues and responses among perpetrators and bystanders; (ii) how regularities in the histories of those who undertake suicide terrorism may be identified by mapping their life events on a graphical timeline; and (iii) how sequence-based correlation coefficients make it possible to test detailed theories about the ways perpetrators respond to the various influence attempts of police negotiators. We conclude by encouraging forensic psychologists to conceptualise their own areas of investigation as a sequence of events rather than a collection of variables
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This study investigates whether accounts of sexual assault, as reported to police officers by individuals who have been raped, reflect abusive variants of conventional interpersonal scripts. Previous studies on conventional interactions suggest that a circular ordering of interpersonal descriptors located around two principal axes, dominance-submission and co-operation-hostility, may represent such events. Using multivariate statistical analyses that geometrically represent the co-occurrence of the various actions described by the victims, 251 victim statements were examined. Study One ('series offences') examined serial stranger assault cases committed by 42 different offenders resulting in a total of 112 victim statements. Study Two ('single offences') examined victim statements involving 139 different offenders committing 1 offence each; all of these were also stranger attacks. Both studies employed statements taken in the UK. In both studies the resulting configuration of actions described evidenced an approximation to a circular order. The replication of this structure in this domain suggests that such accounts reflect a manipulative and abusive variant of more conventional interactional processes. Such a finding generates a number of hypotheses about potentially different responses that are contingent upon the type of interaction described. The implications of this are discussed.
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Offence process models seek to capture the interactions between cognitive, affective, behavioural and volitional components of offences, as they unfold over time. These models are primarily descriptive and provide a foundation to higher levels of theorizing.Previous research into the offence chains of child sexual offenders has suggested that a number of different pathways are required to accommodate the most common variations in how men go about committing their offences. Offence chain research has established that the Relapse Prevention (RP) model accommodates a truncated range of these offence chain patterns, yet most treatment programmes for sex offenders rely heavily on the RP model.In recent research with rapists, we constructed an offence process model for rape, using qualitative data obtained from a sample of rapists incarcerated in New Zealand prisons. We present preliminary work on identifying the pathways that individual offences take through this model. We describe these pathways and examine their implications for tailoring of rehabilitation endeavours for men who sexually assault adults.
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The present study aimed to identify dimensions of variation in serial homicide and to use these dimensions to behaviourally link offences committed by the same offender with each other. The sample consisted of 116 Italian homicides committed by 23 individual offenders. Each offender had committed at least two homicides. As some offenders had worked together and some murders involved more than one victim, there were 155 unique pairings of offenders and victims. Dichotomous variables reflecting crime features and victim characteristics were coded for each case. Using Mokken scaling, a nonparametric alternative to factor analysis, seven dimensions of variation were identified. Five of the dimensions described variations in the motivation for the killings. Three of these were concerned with aspects of instrumental motivation whereas two of the motivational scales described variations in sexual motivation. The two remaining dimensions dealt with the level of planning evident in the crime scene behaviour of the offender. Two dimensions were identified: one consisting of behaviours suggesting a higher level of control and another describing impulsiveness. Using discriminant function analysis with the dimensions as independent variables and the series an offence belonged to as dependent variable, 62.9% of the cases could be correctly assigned to the right series (chance expectation was 6.2%). The implications of the results for serial homicide investigations are discussed.
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Most approaches to offender profiling depend on a naïve trait perspective, in which the task of predicting personality characteristics from crime scene actions relies on a model that is nomothetic, deterministic, and nonsituationist. These approaches rest on two basic premises: behavioral consistency across offenses and stable relationships between configurations of offense behaviors and background characteristics. Research supports the former premise but not the latter. Contemporary trait psychology reveals that this is probably due to the fact that Person X Situation interactions have an effect on offense behavior. When profiling reports rely on a nalve trait approach, such reports should be used with caution in criminal investigations and not at all as evidence in court until research demonstrates its predictive validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In this chapter, the authors summarize the findings in literature on the role of psychopathy in sexual coercion against women. The integration of components of psychopathy into a model for sexual coercion against women has recently yielded improved prediction of sexual coercion in both noncriminal and criminal samples and has led to a revision and restructuring of the only typology of rapists with demonstrated reliability and validity. The authors summarize both the etiological and typological models and the data supporting them, and we discuss their theoretical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the effectiveness of various victim resistance strategies in avoiding rape and/or physical injury in a sample of rape attacks from which chance interruptions had been removed and the temporal sequence of victim and rapists' behaviors was clear. Victim responses were compared in completed and unsuccessful rape attempts that were made by the same rapist using similar methods. Descriptions of 95 completed rapes and 41 attempted rapes that were committed by 72 men (average age at the time of 1st offense 24.08 yrs) referred to a maximum security psychiatric institution were obtained from victim and police reports. 50 of the victims received slight injury, 15 were more seriously injured, and 2 were murdered. Rapists were more likely to complete the rape when the attack was conducted in an inside location, with a weapon, and not against a stranger. Victims were more likely to avoid being raped when they resisted, particularly when they screamed or yelled for help. There was no positive association between victim resistance and the probability of subsequent injury. Previous reports of resistance being related to victim injury may be because victims resist more strongly when they are being injured. (French abstract) (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Purpose. The current study tests whether existing behavioural case linkage findings from the United Kingdom (UK) will replicate abroad with a sample of residential burglaries committed in Finland. In addition, a previously discussed methodological issue is empirically explored. Methods. Seven measures of behavioural similarity, geographical proximity, and temporal proximity are calculated for pairs of burglary crimes committed by 117 serial burglars in Finland. The ability of these seven measures to distinguish between pairs of crimes committed by the same offender (linked pairs) and different offenders (unlinked pairs) is tested using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Two methodologies for forming the unlinked pairs are compared; one representing the ‘traditional’ approach used by research and, the other, a new approach that represents a potentially more realistic and statistically sound approach to testing case linkage. Results. A wider range of offender behaviours were able to distinguish between linked and unlinked crime pairs in the current Finnish sample than in previous UK-based research. The most successful features were the kilometre-distance between crimes (the intercrime distance), the number of days separating offences (temporal proximity), and a combination of target, entry, internal, and property behaviours (the combined domain). There were no statistically significant differences between the two methodological approaches. Conclusions. The current findings demonstrate that a wider range of offender behaviours can be used to discriminate between linked and unlinked residential burglary crimes committed in Finland than in the UK. The use of a more realistic and statistically sound methodology does not lead to substantial changes in case linkage findings.
Article
This study investigates whether accounts of sexual assault, as reported to police officers by individuals who have been raped, reflect abusive variants of conventional interpersonal scripts. Previous studies an conventional interactions Suggest that a circular ordering of interpersonal descriptors located around two principal axes, dominance-submission and co-operation-hostility, may represent such events. Using multivariate statistical analyses that geometrically represent the co-occurrence of the various actions described by the victims, 251 victim statements were examined. Study One ('series offences') examined serial stranger assault cases committed by 42 different offenders resulting in a total of 112 Victim statements. Study Two ('single offences') examined victim statements involving 139 different offenders committing I offence each; all of these were also stranger attacks. Both studies employed statements taken in the UK. In both Studies the resulting configuration of actions described evidenced an approximation to a circular order. The replication of this structure in this domain suggests that such accounts reflect a manipulative and abusive variant of more conventional interactional processes. Such a finding generates a number of hypotheses about potentially different responses that are contingent upon the type of interaction described. The implications of this are discussed.
Article
Purpose. The study extends research by Santtila et al. (2008) by investigating the effectiveness of linking cases of serial homicide using behavioural patterns of offenders, analysed through Bayesian reasoning. The study also investigates the informative value of individual behavioural variables in the linking process. Methods. Offender behaviour was coded from official documents relating to 116 solved homicide cases belonging to 19 separate series. The basis of the linkage analyses was 92 behaviours coded as present or absent in the case based on investigator observations on the crime scene. We developed a Bayesian method for linking crime cases and judged its accuracy using cross-validation. We explored the information added by individual behavioural variables, first, by testing if the variable represented purely noise with respect to classification, and second, by excluding variables from the original model, one by one, by choosing the behaviour that had the smallest effect on classification accuracy. Results. The model achieved a classification accuracy of 83.6% whereas chance expectancy was 5.3%. In simulated scenarios of only one and two known cases in a series, the accuracy was 59.0 and 69.2%, respectively. No behavioural variable represented pure noise but the same level of accuracy was achieved by analysing a set of 15, as analysing all 92 variables. Conclusion. The study illustrates the utility of analysing individual behavioural variables through Bayesian reasoning for crime linking. Feasible applied use of the approach is illustrated by the effectiveness of analysing a small set of carefully chosen variables.
Article
The present study examines consistency of crime behaviour among 347 sexual assaults committed by 69 serial sex offenders. This individual behaviour approach—the so-called signature approach—reveals which features of crime behaviour are consistent across a series and which features are not. The consistency scores were calculated using the Jaccard's coefficient. The results of this study indicate that there are some crime features of a serial sexual assault that can be useful for the purpose of linkage. Another important finding is that consistency scores for different variables within the same category can differ substantially. Moreover, serial sex offenders are more likely to be consistent in their environmental crime features when they are also consistent in their behavioural features, and vice versa. Serial sex offenders are also more likely to be consistent in the behavioural features of their assaults as the crime series gets longer. The implications of the results are discussed in relation to both research and practise
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When relying on crime scene behaviours to link serial crimes, linking accuracy may be influenced by the measure used to assess across-crime similarity and the types of behaviours included in the analysis. To examine these issues, the present study compared the level of linking accuracy achieved by using the simple matching index (S) to that of the commonly used Jaccard's coefficient (J) across themes of arson behaviour. The data consisted of 42 crime scene behaviours, separated into three behavioural themes, which were exhibited by 37 offenders across 114 solved arsons. The results of logistic regression and receiver op-erating characteristic analysis indicate that, with the exception of one theme where S was more effective than J at discriminating between linked and unlinked crimes, no significant differences emerged between the two similarity measures. In addition, our results suggest that thematically unrelated behaviours can be used to link crimes with the same degree of accuracy as thematic-ally related behaviours, potentially calling into the question the importance of theme-based approaches to behavioural linkage analysis.
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The number of published studies examining crime linkage analysis has grown rapidly over the last decade, to the point where a special issue of this journal has recently been dedicated to the topic. Many of these studies have used a particular measure (the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, or the AUC) to quantify the degree to which it is possible to link crimes. This article reviews studies that have utilised the AUC and examines how good we are currently at linking crimes (within the context of these research studies) and what factors impact linking accuracy. The results of the review suggest that, in the majority of cases, moderate levels of linking accuracy are achieved. Of the various factors that have been examined that might impact linking accuracy, the three factors that appear to have the most significant impact are crime type, behavioural domain, and jurisdiction. We discuss how generalisable these results are to naturalistic investigative settings. We also highlight some of the important limitations of the linking studies that we reviewed and offer up some strategies for moving this area of research forward.
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This paper discusses the development of a filter model for prioritizing possible links in dwelling burglary. The filters utilize the central aspects of crime scene information that is available and accessible to investigators in burglary, namely geo-spatial, temporal, behavioural, and dwelling information. The proposed filters were analysed using a sample of 215 dwelling burglaries committed by 43 serial burglars (i.e. 5 offences each) in order to determine the sequence in which the filters should be considered in prioritizing possible linked offences. The results indicated that the following order (i.e. better performance to worse performance) was most effective at linking offences, utilizing: (1) geo-spatial information, (2) temporal aspects, (3) behavioural information and, lastly, (4) dwelling characteristics. Specifically, the results indicated that offences in close proximity to one another should be given priority. Further, any offence occurring within a 28-day span before or after the index offence should be given priority. The paper argues that behavioural and dwelling characteristics are less effective for linking than geo-spatial and temporal information because the former two aspects are influenced significantly by situational and contextual cues on offender decision-making.
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This study examined two samples composed of single-offender completed rape and attempted rape incidents reported to the Chicago police to determine whether rapists escalate the level of violence in their attacks when victims fight back. Chi-square analyses revealed that the type of victim resistance matched assailant attack strategy. Additionally, forceful verbal resistance was found to be a more common response to verbal attacks, and physical resistance was more likely in attacks where offenders used initial physical force or threats with weapons. Forceful physical resistance by victims was found to be unrelated to the use of physical force by the offender during or after the rape. Offender use of physical force prior to rape was found to be significantly related to the existence of such force by the offender both during and after the rape. Evidence was mixed regarding whether the association of the offender's initial attack (i.e., verbal or physical) with victim rape and physical injury varied according to victim resistance. However, resistance in response to verbal or physical attacks did not lead to increased offender violence after the rape.
Article
Prior research on victim self-protective behavior (VSPB) has largely been void of a theoretical basis. Accordingly, it remains unclear why it would be expected that victim actions might mitigate crime incident outcomes or under which circumstances such actions might be most successful. Using data from the National Crime Victimization Survey for periods 1992 to 2004, this study uses a nested logistic regression analysis to test the predictive utility of opportunity theory in explaining outcomes of VSPB during incidents of robbery and rape. The results suggest that opportunity theory provides a useful framework for understanding the effect of victim resistance on crime outcomes. Greater levels of victim resistance increase the effort needed by offenders, resulting in some cases in a 93% and 92% decrease in the odds of a robbery and rape being completed, respectively, compared to when no resistance is used. Implications for crime prevention practice are discussed.
Article
This study assessed the impact of sixteen types of victim self protection (SP) actions on three types of outcomes of criminal incidents: first, whether the incident resulted in property loss, second, whether it resulted in injury to the victim, and, third, whether it resulted in serious injury. Data on 27, 595 personal contact crime incidents recorded in the National Crime Victimization Survey for the 1992 to 2001 decade were used to estimate multivariate models of crime outcomes with logistic regression. Results indicated that self-protection in general, both forceful and nonforceful, reduced the likelihood of property loss and injury, compared to nonresistance. A variety of mostly forceful tactics, including resistance with a gun, appeared to have the strongest effects in reducing the risk of injury, though some of the findings were unstable due to the small numbers of sample cases. The appearance, in past research, of resistance contributing to injury was found to be largely attributable to confusion concerning the sequence of SP actions and injury. In crimes where both occurred, injury followed SP in only 10 percent of the incidents. Combined with the fact that injuries following resistance are almost always relatively minor, victim resistance appears to be generally a wise course of action.
Article
Speech is a strategic implement which can be used by the rapist to control a victim during an offence through manipulation of the offender/victim interaction. Identifying purposive strategies within the speech of the rapist has the potential to provide personal information in general, or even in specific terms, about an offender, which would assist in linking offences and in describing aspects of an offender's character and lifestyle. However, there has hitherto been little systematic research into the strategic use of language by rapists during the commission of their offences. The work presented in this paper forms part of a larger, on-going research project on offender profiling. Based upon an examination of the speech reported in 252 offences of rape committed by 55 offenders, a range of discourse strategies are identified and presented in a prototype typology. This typology has the potential to build a linguistic profile of the offender, which is our ultimate research objective. The theoretical and practical issues involved in developing such a typology are discussed.
Article
Published studies of rape avoidance are reviewed to evaluate the scientific basis for rape avoidance advice. The results are evaluated in light of conceptual and methodological limitations of this literature, and specific recommendations for future research are provided. Consistent evidence suggests the effectiveness of forceful resistance strategies for avoiding rape; however, few studies have analyzed resistance within the social and situational contexts of rape to provide situation-specific information about rape avoidance. Larger, representative community studies are needed in which a broader range of situational factors, resistance strategies, and assault outcomes are assessed. Interactions of contextual factors such as pre-assault alcohol use and the victim-offender relationship with offense behaviors should be tested, and data on the sequential ordering of offender attack and victim resistance should be analyzed to enhance prediction of the probability of completed rape and physical injury to victims.
Article
Women's resistance strategies to rape were examined using police reports and the court testimonies of 147 women who either had avoided rape or were raped by subsequently incarcerated rapists. Analyses examined whether particular resistance strategies used by women were differentially effective in response to attacks by different types of rapists. The results provided little evidence that the type of rapist influenced the efficacy of women's resistance strategies for avoiding rape and physical injury. This overall lack of significance suggests that previous findings showing that women's use of forceful resistance strategies enhances their ability to avoid rape without increasing their physical injury are accurate and do not need to be qualified based on the type of rapist committing the assault.
Article
The effectiveness of women's resistance strategies for reducing the severity of sexual abuse and physical injury during sexual assaults was analyzed in a variety of assault circumstances. Data were obtained from police reports and court testimonies of 274 women (96% White, 4% Black) who either were raped or avoided rape by subsequently incarcerated violent stranger rapists. Statistical analyses showed that particular resistance strategies were effective in specific situations. Women who fought back forcefully were more likely to avoid rape than women who did not fight back, regardless of whether a weapon was present. Forceful fighting resistance was related to increased physical injury when a weapon was present, but most physical injury was caused by nonlethal weapons. Women who screamed or fled when confronted with weapons experienced less severe sexual abuse. Increased physical injury was associated with pleading, crying, or reasoning indoors. Women who used drugs or alcohol experienced more severe sexual abuse and physical injury.
Article
International research has suggested that rapist criminal histories can be predicted from certain offence behaviours. Ninety-six solved stranger rape cases were examined to determine if there was consistency in a New Zealand sample. Rapist behaviours during the offence were compared with criminal convictions prior to the rape. The primary statistical technique used was likelihood ratio stepwise binary logistic regression. Predictive utility of the results was limited, due to significant correlation coefficients between the criminal history variables. Nevertheless, the current study reflected the general findings of similar descriptive international research. These outcomes were: the majority of stranger rapists had prior criminal convictions, and the majority of those convictions were for property offences not sexual offending. Furthermore, ethnic minorities were over-represented among the offenders, and the majority of stranger rapists started committing their first known rapes in their mid- to late 20s. Finally, methodological difficulties were encountered during this study. This highlights the need to refine existing statistical approaches to predictive offender-based research.
Article
Women's resistance strategies to rape were examined using police reports and the court testimonies of 274 women who either avoided rape or were raped by subsequently incarcerated sex offenders. The sequence of behaviors in the offender-victim interaction was analyzed to determine whether women who resist rape with physical force are, as some have suggested, exacerbating the potential for physical injury or are simply responding to the severity of the offender's physical attack. The results indicated that 85% of the women in the study who resisted with physical force did so in response to the offender's initiated violence. The remaining 15% who resisted with physical force did so in response to the offender's verbal aggression. Moreover, those women who responded with physical aggression to the offender's violent physical attack were more likely to avoid rape than were women who did not resist such force. Also, the potential for physical injury was no greater for these women than for those who used other resistance strategies or who offered no resistance. These analyses suggest that the frequently found correlation between physical resistance and injury of the woman might be the result of the initial level of the offender's violence and should not be used to discourage women from physically resisting rape.
Article
Ullman’s review of empirical studies of rape avoidance is updated to illuminate what has been learned in the past 10 years and what is needed to continue to promote this important form of secondary prevention. Following a brief historical review, empirical studies of resistance strategies to sexual assaults since 1997 are reviewed. Studies of the effects of situational factors, rapist types, and victim-offender relationships on women’s resistance are included. Selected literature on self-defense training and rape prevention related specifically to women’s resistance also are reviewed, as these related areas of research have grown substantially in the past decade and can inform intervention and prevention efforts with women. Recommendations for future research and practice are offered.
Article
This paper examines the verbal strategies used by offenders during rape, examining the sequential, temporal and interactional aspects of sexual assaults. Forty-five statements taken from victims of rape were analysed in order to examine the interactive impact of the verbal strategies of offenders. There were three main aims: (i) to illustrate the impact these strategies have on victims' behaviours during assaults; (ii) to discuss how these verbal strategies vary across assaults; and (iii) to examine the precursors of and impact of victim resistance during the offence. Further, following recent examinations of the influence of location on the nature of rape and sexual assaults, assaults were compared between three locations: the victim's bedroom, elsewhere in the victim's home, and outside the victim's home. In each location, both compound (elaborate and repeated assaults) and direct assaults were examined. Findings across these styles and locations are discussed in order to understand the nature and use of offenders' verbal strategies during rape across locations, and the role of these utterances within offender–victim interactions.
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Methamphetamine (MA), a psychostimulant drug, was first produced in Germany and Japan in the late 1800s. MA use and trafficking have been a problem since the 1970s in the United States (U.S.) [National Drug Intelligence Center (NDIC). (2006). National Drug Threat Assessment 2006. Retrieved March 18, 2006 from http://www.usdoj.gov.ndic/pubs11/18862/MA.htm] and have increased in recent years [Office of Applied Studies (OAS). (September 16, 2005). The National Survey on Drug Use and Health report: Methamphetamine use, abuse, and dependence: 2002, 2003, and 2004. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration]. MA is associated with violent behavior yet the nature of this relation remains poorly understood, largely due to methodological shortcomings. The present paper critically examines the empirical literature on MA use and its relation to violence. Methodological issues and challenges are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided.
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Overt signs of victim resistance during rape are critical issues in the handling of and recovery from rape/sexual assault. However, a substantial number of victims do not resist the attacker in any way. Tonic immobility (TI), a well-known involuntary, reflexive response to fear-inducing stimuli, may aid in explaining the paralysis and “freezing” of many rape victims. In the present study, rape survivors were classified as immobile, intermediate, or mobile, based on a self-report measure. The immobile group manifested significantly more of the specific features associated with tonic immobility. Thirty-seven percent of the sample clearly demonstrated immobility during the attack. Various postrape behaviors and attitudes were found to be associated with the incidence of the immobility response.
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The empirical support for linkage analysis is steadily increasing, but the question remains as to what method of linking is the most effective. We compared a more theory‐based, dimensional behavioural approach with a rather pragmatic, multivariate behavioural approach with regard to their accuracy in linking serial sexual assaults in a UK sample of serial sexual assaults (n = 90) and one‐off sexual assaults (n = 129). Their respective linkage accuracy was assessed by (1) using seven dimensions derived by non‐parametric Mokken scale analysis (MSA) as predictors in discriminant function analysis (DFA) and (2) 46 crime scene characteristics simultaneously in a naive Bayesian classifier (NBC). The dimensional scales predicted 28.9% of the series correctly, whereas the NBC correctly identified 34.5% of the series. However, a subsequent inclusion of non‐serial offences in the target group decreased the amount of correct links in the dimensional approach (MSA–DFA: 8.9%; NBC: 32.2%). Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used as a more objective comparison of the two methods under both conditions, confirming that each achieved good accuracies (AUCs = .74–.89), but the NBC performed significantly better than the dimensional approach. The consequences for the practical implementation in behavioural case linkage are discussed. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Psychologists and nonpsychologists alike assume that people have distinct, enduring personalities. Ample evidence exists that individuals do differ reliably in what they do and think and feel in any given situation (e.g., Mischel, Shoda, & Ayduk, 2008). But, historically, it has remained surprisingly difficult to demonstrate the consistency of such individual differences from one situation to another. Findings to date show that neither the research nor the intuition was wrong about the nature of individual differences in social behavior, although each had given an incomplete picture. It turned out that hidden in the seemingly random variation of individuals' behavior across situations is a pattern that is stable and distinctive for every individual (e.g., Shoda & LeeTiernan, 2002). The behavior itself varies, but there is stability in how each individual's behavior varies from one situation to another. These stable and distinctive if ... then ... situation-behavior patterns form behavioral signatures of personality (Shoda, Mischel, & Wright, 1994) and suggest the existence of a higher-order consistency on which the intuitive belief in personality may be based (Mischel & Shoda, 1995). To understand these stable intraindividual patterns of variability requires a theory and research paradigm that goes beyond the traditional investigation of personality and social situations. The findings yield both new answers and new questions about the nature of personality and the interactions of persons and situations. Happily, passionate debates in the search for the nature of personality are being replaced by findings and reconceptualizations that promise to resolve paradoxes and to overcome problems that have frustrated and divided the study of personality almost since its inception. This chapter focuses on the key implications of these developments in recent decades for building a unifying, cumulative personality theory and science, based on the findings from a century of theory-making and research in psychology and related fields. The question is: In light of advances in our science, is it possible to integrate, within a unitary framework, the dispositional (trait) and processing (social-cognitive-affective dynamic) approaches that have so long been split virtually into two separate fields (e.g., Mischel & Shoda, 1994, 1998)? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Abstract. Against the background of a growing awareness of time among researchers, this articles sets out to assess the current position of time in applied psychological theory and research. A critical analysis of recent publications in The Journal of Applied Psychology and Applied Psychology, An International Review reveals that with some noticeable exceptions, the role of time in human behavior is still largely neglected. It is posited that this state of affairs can be explained by a conceptual bias among researchers, which makes them think in terms of "what is" rather than "what happens." A proposal is made for an alternative way of conceptualizing, designated as temporalism, which starts from the concept of phenomenon, which is defined dynamically and operationalized with the help of time. A plea is made for a research strategy that comprises the identification of the dynamic features of phenomena, an analysis of their temporal relations, and an assessment of long term stability and changes of temporal parameters. It is argued that such an approach leads to theoretical innovations and to a substantial expansion of possibilities for intervention. This is illustrated by a discussion of three prototypical patterns of development referred to as improvement, bifurcation, and relapse, which underlie a broad range of practical problems known from social and organizational settings. Finally, attention is directed to the role that time plays when psychological knowledge is applied to such practical problems. It is concluded that time should not only be addressed in the study of behavior of other people but also in the complex interactions between psychologists and clients involved in the application of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)