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History of Dentistry 2001

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... It was the Etruscans, however, that made the most valuable contribution in the field of restorative mechanical dentistry during the period 400 to 100 B.C. The quality of crown and bridge articles produced during this time was high and compared favourably with articles produced in Europe and America in the late 19 th century (Wilwerding, 2009). An illustration of an Etruscan bridge is reproduced in Figure 1 above. ...
... This could only be remedied by a painful extraction of the offending tooth (Wilwerding, 2009). All manner of techniques and materials were used to restore the appearance of those affected by the loss of dentition. ...
... All manner of techniques and materials were used to restore the appearance of those affected by the loss of dentition. Materials such as wood, ivory, bone, (Van Noort, 2002), animal teeth (Wilwerding, 2009) and even human teeth taken from the dead (Pain, 2001) served as replacements. It can be appreciated that these prostheses required manufacture. ...
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This study investigates the perceptions of dentists, dental technicians and dental patients with regard to the professionalization of dental technology as it is currently constituted in South Africa. The origin of dental technology worldwide lies in a trade and has historically been performed by craftsmen under the instruction of dentists. In South Africa during the early 1900s dental technology was practised in much the same way but the need for formalization of this field had been recognised. By 1945 dental technology was regulated by the Dental Mechanicians Board, which enabled only registered technicians to practise dental technology within South Africa. This field continues to be practised similarly at present. In order to establish the professional development of dental technology it is necessary to consider this field within a framework of desired professional attributes. This framework is provided by Greenwood (1957), who defines a profession by the following five attributes: systematic theory, professional authority, community sanction, ethical codes and a professional culture. Owing to the varied implementation and regulation of dental technology worldwide, little research into the professionalization of this field has been conducted to date. For the purpose of this study, dentists, dental technicians and dental patients in KwaZulu-Natal were interviewed in semi-structured interviews. The main themes emerging from this study were identified and considered with reference to the framework within which this study has been positioned. This study concludes that dental technology, as it is currently constituted in South Africa is perceived to be a profession by dentists, dental technicians and dental patients. .The term profession, however, is poorly understood by all three sample groups. Despite being considered a profession, dental technology is not considered to encompass all the attributes of a profession. Dental technology is therefore identified as a developing profession that positions this field somewhere along the professionalization continuum between a profession and a business. Submitted in fulfilment of the requirements of the Degree of Master of Technology: Dental Technology, Durban University of Technology, 2010. Post Graduate Dept., Durban University of Technology.
... Therefore, only a brief overview of the significant landmarks in the history of dentistry is provided for the purpose of orientating the study within dentistry. Dental ailments such as tooth decay, toothaches, periodontal disease and premature tooth loss have remained similar throughout history (Wilwerding, 2001).The changes in people"s lifestyles have led to the advancement of dentistry in order to meet their changing dental needs. In ancient times, these changes were what we today take for granted. ...
... It was used in prayer for fertility rites and relief of pain. Etruscans of central Italy are believed to have contributed to restorative dentistry between 100 and 400 B.C (Wilwerding, 2001). ...
... The Talmud notes that remedies of toothache were practised, and records artificial restorations were used to restore the dentition (Malvin, 1992). Jewish women were particularly more concerned about their facial appearance than men and therefore, in order to meet their needs, artificial restorations were made of gold, silver and wood (Wilwerding, 2001). ...
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This study is an evaluation of the perceptions of Zambian dental technicians and dentists of the dental technological services offered in Zambia. Zambia is a small nation (land size of 752,614km²) with a population of approximately 11,000,000. Patients needing oral restorative treatment have two options available to them; they seek treatment in state hospitals or through private practices. Access to prosthetic treatment is difficult due to the difficulties associated with obtaining treatment from the state as well as there being very few privately owned dental laboratories. Dental technology in Zambia dates back to 1964 and since its inception there has been no evaluation as to whether the services offered are adequate and satisfactory. The aim of this study was to;  Provide insights into the understanding of dentists and technicians regarding dental technical services.  Provide insights into available dental technical services with the aim of assisting in developing future guidelines for provision of such services in Zambia.  Identify national oral health objectives and make suggestions for the improvement and development of the services in Zambia. This aims of the research are relevant as the research was conducted at a time when the nation is undergoing a general introspection of service delivery. Data was collected through the medium of semi-structured personal interviews with registered and practicing dentists and technicians in the main cities of Zambia that include Lusaka, Ndola and Kitwe. Their views were transcribed and coded according to significant themes that emerged for data analysis. ii The results indicate that there is reason to be concerned about the general quality of service delivery. In addition, the study showed that the working relationships between technicians and dentists require improvement. Moreover, the study established that Zambia has a critical shortage of skilled technicians and particularly ceramic technicians and ceramic dental laboratories. The data also revealed concerns that little attention by government policymakers is being afforded to dental technical services whilst attention is paid rather to clinical dental services. As a result, state owned laboratories suffer from a lack of adequate and functioning equipment as well as a lack of quality dental materials. Finally, the study showed that Zambia has no clear direct oral health policies that govern the dental technical services. Thesis submitted in full compliance with the requirements for a Master's Degree in Technology: Dental Technology, Durban University of Technology, 2010.
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Background Caries of the infundibula of equine cheek teeth can lead to significant dental disease including increased attritional wear, pulpar and apical disease, secondary sinusitis, and dental fracture. Restorations of cavities of equine cheek teeth infundibula have been performed since 1889. Recent advances in dental materials, instrumentation, and techniques have facilitated the use of dental restoration techniques by equine veterinary practitioners. No studies to date have demonstrated the safety or efficacy of restorations of equine cheek teeth infundibula. Objectives To assess the long-term results of restorations of equine cheek teeth affected by infundibular caries, to report on the safety of the procedure, and to give guidelines for future restorative therapies. Study Design Retrospective analysis of results of clinical and oroscopic examination of horses that underwent infundibular restoration procedures between 2006 and 2017. Methods A total of 223 infundibula in 185 maxillary cheek teeth in 92 horses were restored using a variety of dental materials including glass ionomer cement, flowable and compactible resin composites. The time between restoration and re-examination was recorded along with findings of clinical signs in the interim, restorative material loss, and any further pathological changes of the teeth including caries progression, fracture, or apical disease. Follow-up examinations were performed over two study periods 2006–2012 and in 2017. Results Over the full study period, 99% of treated horses available for follow-up examinations had no adverse clinical signs or developed any abnormalities of restored teeth observable on oroscopic examination. Of horses re-examined, 83% of restorations were shown to have minimal or no loss of the restoration material, with occlusal surface wear visibly comparable to other adjacent maxillary teeth. Statistical analysis showed success of the procedure was related to the restorative material used, the restoration technique, and the caries grade present at the time of restoration (grade 2 is more successful than grade 3). Main Limitations There are no case controls in this study and therefore it is not clear if restoration of equine infundibula is a consistently beneficial procedure, or at which grade of caries progression restorations should be performed for optimum benefit. The procedures were not re-examined at consistent regular times creating some difficulties in standardizing results. Re-examinations of treated horses did not consistently include radiography or computed tomography and therefore some apical changes may have occurred in treated teeth without visual oroscopic or external clinical signs. Conclusion Restoration of equine infundibula using materials developed for human dentistry including flowable resin composites is a safe and long-lasting procedure and appears to prevent the development of further pathological changes including apical infection and dental fracture.
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Volume 23 focuses on the use of materials in medical and dental applications, examining materials selection, design, and manufacturing in light of the principles of biocompatibility and the chemical and mechanical interactions that affect it. It provides detailed information on chemical and mechanically assisted corrosion, corrosion fatigue, and potential complications stemming from corrosion byproducts. It analyzes biotribology and wear, bonding osteogenesis, and bioresorption in which implanted materials are eventually replaced by tissue or bone. The volume includes property, performance, and processing data on titanium, stainless steels, cobalt-base alloys, noble and precious metals, amalgams, ceramics and glasses, polymers, and shape memory alloys. It also contains information on testing, evaluation, surface characterization, and failure analysis, and provides examples of material-related and mechanical-based failures along with lessons learned. For information on the print version of Volume 23, ISBN 978-1-61503-827-5, follow this link.
Thesis
Les progrès des biomatériaux de collage et des technologies d'élaboration prothétique ont logiquement conduit à des évolutions majeures dans la profession, permettant de concevoir des restaurations céramo-céramiques respectant les tissus résiduels et la vitalité pulpaire. C'est un véritable challenge de faire le point sur tous les matériaux et toutes les techniques disponibles à l'heure actuelle afin de faire le meilleur choix de conception prothétique. La discussion s'articule en quatre grandes parties, chacune se concluant par cinq grands principes essentiels. Dans la première partie, les différents principes de taille sont décrits suivant qu'elle est conservatrice ou invasive, en décrivant les différentes indications, contre-indications, avantages et inconvénients des différents systèmes. Dans la deuxième partie, tous les matériaux intervanant dans l'assemblage prothétique sont décrits allant du complexe dentico-pulpaire aux matériaux céramiques et de collage. Dans la troisième partie, la procédure clinique est détaillée point par point, pour chaque séance clinique en fonction des différents matériaux pouvant être utilisé. Enfin dans la dernière partie, on évalue la qualité des systèmes tout céramique en analysant les différents études cliniques, afin de déterminer dans quels cas la thérapeutique peut présenter un risque.
Article
Prosthetic devices have existed for centuries. Originally prosthetics were simply replacements for missing limbs, but now they help people have extremely active lives. Such improvements have been made possible because of new surgical techniques, advancement of components for making prosthetics, and creative engineering ideas. In this article we will attempt to provide an insight to the history of prosthetics and some of the surgical techniques employed, albeit very basic. Mythological tales prove that some revered gods and goddesses of ancient cultures could have a handicap. We then develop the disabling causes in old civilisations going from legs and foot prostheses to arm and hand prostheses. For these limb replacements, we give examples of famous amputees. We then consider the head as a favorite place for implants and prostheses and develop trepanation with skull implants, eye and nose prostheses to finally treat the large domain of dental restorations.
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Jack Mirza and Guy Robertson outline the origin of dental implants and how they are used today, with case studies and treatment protocols.
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Introduction: musculoskeletal disorders in dental practice represent a significant issue in the field of occupational health. Prevalence and impact of MSDs among dentists have been reported in several studies. Various risk factors have been identified for developing MSDs including physical characteristics of dentist, prolonged static postures, poor positioning, and psychological stress. Musculoskeletal complaints of Syrian dentists have not been established because of lack of epidemiological studies in this field. Aim & objectives: the aim of this study is to prevent musculoskeletal complaints in dental practice through investigating the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among Syrian dentists in Damascus, describing the relation between work postures, physical characteristics of dentists, work environment and musculoskeletal symptoms, analyzing the effect of exercise and education among dentists on protection against musculoskeletal symptoms, and identifying the appropriate interventions to help reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dentists. Methods: four hundred dentists were randomly chosen from Damascus dental association to participate in a questionnaire survey. The main questions in the questionnaire included information on general characteristics of dentists, work environment, psychosocial aspects, musculoskeletal complaints during the last year, physical Activities, and knowledge and education about musculoskeletal complaints among dentists. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate odds ratios of related risk factors. Results: (67.75%) of dentists (n = 262) responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was (37.66) years. Male dentist represented (73.7%) of participants. (55.6%) of participants were general practitioners. The average of practice years for dentists was (12.56) years, and the mean of daily working hours was (7.63) hours per day. (35.7%) of dentists reported low back pain, (21%) reported shoulder pain, (20.6%) reported neck pain, and (16%) reported hand\wrist pain. Chronic complaints were reported by (34%) of dentists, and (29.1%) of them sought medical care because of musculoskeletal pain. Work absence was reported by (16.1%) of dentists. Musculoskeletal pain influenced daily activities of (15%) of participants. On 100 mm pain scale, (50.2%) of participants reported their pain to be >40. Risk factors for neck pain were awkward back posture, stressful arm positions, working longer hours, gender (female dentists at higher risk), physical work load, and Psychological factors. Risk factors for Low back pain were sitting posture, height, and Psychological factors. Risk factors for shoulder pain were stressful arm positions, age, gender (female dentists at higher risk), working longer hours, physical work load, and Psychological factors. Risk factors for hand\wrist pain: were stressful arm positions, age, gender (female dentists at higher risk), practice years, and Psychological factors. Preventive factors for: neck pain: were age and exercise. Low back pain: was standing posture. Shoulder pain: was height. Hand\wrist pain: were sitting posture and height. Conclusion: The present study confirms previous findings of research and contributes additional evidence that musculoskeletal disorders represent a serious health and occupational concern in modern dental practice. For the Syrian context, this research will serve as a base for more future studies to establish the relation between studied risk factors and developing musculoskeletal complaints among dentists. Further research is essential to better understand the role and mechanism of psychological risk factors in developing MSDs. Recommendations: Prevention against musculoskeletal disorders may represent the key element for Syrian dentists to safely practice dentistry and to avoid disability and early retirement, as well as for government to preserve important human and financial assets in a time of scarcity of resources. Developing Safety legislation, dissemination of preventive education and guidelines, management of MSDs, promoting physical activity, improving surveillance and reporting, and fostering research are recommended to prevent the development of MSDs in dental practice.
Article
Background: Severe odontogenic infections are serious potentially lethal conditions. Following the death of a patient in the authors' institution this study was initiated to determine the risk factors, management and outcome of a consecutive series of patients. Methods: All patients admitted to the Royal Adelaide Hospital under the care of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit with odontogenic infections in calendar year 2003 were investigated. Detailed information relative to their pre-presentation history, surgical and anaesthetic management and outcome was obtained and analysed. Results: Forty-eight patients, 32M, 16F, average age 34.5, range 19 to 88 years were treated. All presented with pain and swelling, with 21 (44 per cent) having trismus. Forty-four (92 per cent) were as a result of dental neglect and four (8 per cent) were regular dental patients having endodontic treatment which failed. Of those known to have been treated prior to presentation, most had been on antibiotics. Most patients had aggressive surgical treatment with extraction, surgical drainage, high dose intravenous antibiotics and rehydration. The hospital stay was 3.3 (range 1–16) days. Patients requiring prolonged intubation and high dependency or intensive care (40 per cent) had longer hospitalization. No patient died and all fully recovered. Conclusion: Severe odontogenic infections are a serious risk to the patient's health and life. Management is primarily surgical with skilled anaesthetic airway management. Antibiotics are required in high intravenous doses as an adjunct and not as a primary treatment.
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During the last 150 years, dentistry in the United States faced many challenges as it developed its scientific foundation. In the latter part of the 19th century, clinical practice was driven by empirical evidence, and the first few decades of the 20th century set the stage for America's scientific evolution of dentistry. Seminal developments in America's contribution to science in dentistry and oral health included the 1926 Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching report and the vision of William J. Gies; the development of scientific dental journals; the role of immigrant dental scientists from Europe and oral biology as a discipline; and the establishment of the National Institute of Dental Research in 1948. Due in large part to America's contribution to dental science and practice, we are at the brink of a transformation that may expand the role of the dental profession dramatically and improve the oral health of people throughout the world.
Joseph Hospital opens on west edge of campus. ILAC health teams begin serving the poor of the Dominican Republic
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New St. Joseph Hospital opens on west edge of campus. ILAC health teams begin serving the poor of the Dominican Republic.
Brundo 1994-Dr. Wayne Barkmeier Acting Deans
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Dr. G.C. Brundo 1994-Dr. Wayne Barkmeier Acting Deans: 1950 Rev. E.J. Stumpf 1962 Dr. J. J. Butkus