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Omega-3 fatty acids supplementation improves endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake in endurance-trained athletes

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  • Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jerzgo Kukuczki w Katowicach

Abstract

Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a 3-week n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) supplementation on serum nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethyloarginine (ADMA), ultrasound indices of endothelial function and maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) of elite cyclists. The effects of dietary supplementation (n-3 PUFA at a dose of 1.3 g twice daily for 3 weeks) and placebo administration on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), pulse wave velocity, serum markers (NO, ADMA), lipid profile, and [Formula: see text] were analysed in 13 cyclists both before and after dietary protocols. Significant differences between pre- and post-intervention baseline NO levels were observed after n-3 PUFA dietary protocol (13.9 ± 4.2 vs. 23.5 ± 3.6 µmol·l(-1); P < 0.001). Higher post-intervention baseline NO level was observed after n-3 PUFA diet compared with placebo (23.5 ± 3.6 vs. 15.3 ± 3.0 µmol·l (-1); P < 0.01, respectively). The n-3 PUFA increased baseline NO concentration (ΔNO) by 6.7 ± 3.8 µmol·l(-1) and placebo by 1.6 ± 4.4 µmol·l(-1). The positive correlation was observed between baseline post-intervention NO concentration and maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and also between ΔNO and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.54; P < 0.05) in response to omega-3 fatty acids supplementation. There was an association between a 5.25% higher FMD (P < 0.05) and higher [Formula: see text] (P < 0.001) after n-3 PUFA diet compared with lower values of placebo (r = 0.68; P < 0.05). These findings suggest that an increase in NO release in response to n-3 PUFA supplementation may play a central role in cardiovascular adaptive mechanisms and enhanced exercise performance in cyclists.
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... Another study performed by Casanova et al. [22] concluded that omega-3 supplementation improved arterial stiffness and endothelial function in hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risk. Also, endothelial function was improved in endurance-trained athletes by a 3-week omega-3 supplementation [23]. ...
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Background Type 1 diabetes is a main health burden with several related comorbidities. It has been shown that endothelial function, vascular structure, and metabolic parameters are considerably disrupted in patients with type 1 diabetes. Omega-3 as an adjuvant therapy may exert profitable effects on type 1 diabetes and its complications by improving inflammation, oxidative stress, immune responses, and metabolic status. Because no randomized clinical trial has examined the effects of omega-3 consumption in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes; the present study aims to close this gap. Methods This investigation is a randomized clinical trial, in which sixty adolescents with type 1 diabetes will be randomly assigned to receive either omega-3 (600 mg/day) or placebo capsules for 12 weeks. Evaluation of anthropometric parameters, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) as an endothelial function marker, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a vascular structure marker, proteinuria, biochemical factors including glycemic and lipid profile, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), as well as blood pressure will be done at the baseline and end of the trial. Also, dietary intake and physical activity will be assessed throughout the study. Statistical analysis will be performed using the SPSS software (Version 24), and P < 0.05 will be considered statistically meaningful. Discussion It is hypothesized that omega-3 supplementation may be beneficial for the management of type 1 diabetes and its complications by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress and also modulating immune responses and glucose and lipid metabolism through various mechanisms. The present study aims to investigate any effect of omega-3 on patients with type 1 diabetes. Ethical aspects This trial received approval from Medical Ethics Committee of Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (IR.IUMS.REC.1400.070). Trial registration Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials IRCT20210419051010N1 . Registered on 29 April 2021
... It is always present in the blood and can be enzymatically reduced to NO under the action of xanthine oxidoreductase and nonenzymatic under conditions of low pH and pO2 [49]. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite and nitric oxide, which activate soluble guanylate cyclase [50]. Exercise has been shown to increase plasma nitrite levels by increasing NO synthesis in endothelial cells [51,52]. ...
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... Another way in which athletic performance can be optimized by nutrition is by influencing endothelial function. In this context, nitrate supplementation is already used by some athletes, but also other food components such as omega-3 fatty acids or some secondary plant products also have a beneficial effect on endothelial function, thus improving muscle perfusion [50][51][52]. Bioactive peptides from various sources, such as whey [53][54][55][56], plants [57] or eggs [58], could be a promising research subject for acute effects on performance during high intense or prolonged exercise. It is already known that peptides from these sources can improve endothelial function by suppressing the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ...
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... We found a statistically significant increase in serum LH, Testosterone level associated with a significant decrease in serum prolactin in omega 3 treated group compared to BPA treated group. These results agree with others [62,63,64,65,66] Omega 3 increases nitric oxide release as reported by [67,68] and by previous work by [69] . Nitric oxide increases the release of GnRH, which in its turn increases gonadotropin secretion in the pituitary gland [70] . ...
... It has been also demonstrated that the ω-3 index decreases gradually in response to a greater weekly running distance [29] and higher training intensity [32]. The ω-3 PUFA-induced positive changes in arterial compliance and endothelial function, as well as increased lipid oxidation and decreased lipogenesis, could exert a cardio-protective role in endurance athletes [63]. These findings emphasize the need to recognize the importance of an optimal EPA/DHA intake in athletes. ...
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... It is widely known that omega-3 effectively improves fatigue recovery and exercise performance [8,9]. In review papers, it is stated that omega-3 ingestion could be a new ergogenic aid for young adults and athletes [10,11]. ...
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Chapter
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