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PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, TOXICITY, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES

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BACKGROUNDS Curcuma longa is a plant whose rhizomes are used commonly as a spice, and the plant cultivated widely in the Indian sub-continent and many other countries of the world. The rhizomes reportedly possess glucose lowering and analgesic properties. The leaves of the plant are discarded; it was of interest to determine the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of the leaves. METHODS Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. RESULTS Administration of methanol extract of whole plant led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract dose-dependently reduced blood glucose levels by 12.9, 21.7, 24.7, and 30.8%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 35.4%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 24.1, 27.6, 31.0, and 34.5%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. CONCLUSION Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for Curcuma longa leaves. The leaves can be a readily available mean for lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, TOXICITY,
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES
WITH CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES
Mohammad Nazmul Hasan
1
, Aysha Ferdoushi
1
, Nargis Ara
2
, Shahnaz Rahman
3
, Md.
Shahadat Hossan
2
, Mohammed Rahmatullah
2
*
1
Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, Mawlana Bhashani Science &
Technology University, Santosh-1902, Tangail, Bangladesh.
2
Department of Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering, University of Development
Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209, Bangladesh.
3
Department of Pharmacy, University of Development Alternative, Dhanmondi, Dhaka-1209,
Bangladesh.
ABSTRACT
Background Curcuma longa is a plant whose rhizomes are used
commonly as a spice, and the plant cultivated widely in the Indian sub-
continent and many other countries of the world. The rhizomes
reportedly possess glucose lowering and analgesic properties. The
leaves of the plant are discarded; it was of interest to determine the
antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of the leaves. Methods
Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose
tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by
observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in
intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice.
RESULTS Administration of methanol extract of whole plant led to
dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded
mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract dose-dependently
reduced blood glucose levels by 12.9, 21.7, 24.7, and 30.8%, respectively compared to
control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when
administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 35.4%.
In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body
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2278 4357
Article Received on
7 June 2014,
Revised on 12 July 2014,
Accepted on 17 August 2014
*Correspondence for Author
Prof. Dr. Mohammed
Rahmatullah
Department of Biotechnology
& Genetic Engineering,
Mawlana Bhashani Science &
Technology University,
Santosh-1902, Tangail,
Bangladesh.
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 24.1, 27.6, 31.0, and 34.5%,
respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of
writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg
per kg body weight. CONCLUSION Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have
not previously been reported for Curcuma longa leaves. The leaves can be a readily available
mean for lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
Key Words Antihyperglycemic, Curcuma longa, OGTT, antinociceptive, Zingiberaceae.
INTRODUCTION
Curcuma longa is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Zingiberaceae family. In
English it is known as ‘turmeric’, and in Bangladesh it is known as ‘holud’. The rhizomes of
the plant are boiled, dried, powdered and used as a spice in various dishes of the country. The
plant is widely cultivated in Bangladesh and the rest of the countries of the Indian sub-
continent, and indeed in many other countries of the world. The plant and especially the
rhizome are considered to be of ethnomedicinal significance. Rhizomes are used to treat
menstrual disorders in Kerala, India.
[1]
Rhizomes are used to alleviate pain and for flu and
nasal congestion in northwest Pakistan.
[2]
In the northern part of Nara Desert, Pakistan, the
rhizomes are used for pain, inflamed joints, and tonsillitis.
[3]
The rhizomes and leaves are
used as tonic, stimulant and blood purifier in the valley districts of Manipur, India.
[4]
The
Malayali tribes of Yercaud Hills, Southern Eastern Ghats, Salem District, India use rhizomes
to treat beetle bite.
[5]
In Gaurnadi Upazila of Barisal district, Bangladesh, the rhizomes are
used to treat skin and gum diseases by folk medicinal practitioners.
[6]
The Bede community
residing by the Turag River in Dhaka district, Bangladesh use rhizomes of the plant to treat
abscesses and skin infections.
[7]
Folk medicinal healers of Sylhet Division, Bangladesh use
the rhizomes for helminthiasis and itches.
[8]
Pharmacological activity studies have revealed
that rhizomes of the plant possess considerable antihyperglycemic and analgesic activities.
Significant lowering of blood sugar has been reported in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats
when freeze-dried rhizome powder was orally administered following dissolving in milk.
[9]
Oral administration of rhizomes to healthy human subjects resulted in increased insulin
secretion.
[10]
A water-soluble peptide, turmerin, has been isolated from rhizomes with
antihyperglycemic properties as demonstrated by inhibition of -amylase and -glucosidase
activities.
[11]
Human pancreatic -amylase inhibitory activity has also been demonstrated for
bisdemethoxycurcumin, present in rhizomes.
[12]
Curcumin, another compound present in
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
rhizomes, has also been found to be beneficial in Type 2 diabetes.
[13]
The protective effect of
crude C. Longa drug and its methanolic extract has been reported in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.
[14]
Treatment with curcumin has been found to attenuate pain and enhance functional
recovery after incision.
[15]
Modulation of pain by curcumin has also been reported for
different pain models in mice.
[16]
Although rhizomes of C. Longa and various components
present in the rhizomes have reportedly beneficial effects in diabetes and pain, the leaves of
the plant have not been studied yet to the best of our knowledge. Since the plant is a perennial
plant, the leaves can form a continuous and much more affordable source for possible
antihyperglycemic and analgesic drugs. The objective of the present study was therefore to
conduct antihyperglycemic (through oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT) and analgesic
(through acetic acid-induced pain model) activity experiments with methanolic extract of
leaves of the plant in Swiss albino mice.
METHODS
Plant Material Collection
Leaves of C. Longa were collected during October 2013 from Santosh in Tangail district,
Bangladesh, and taxonomically identified at the Bangladesh National Herbarium (Accession
Number 38,737).
Preparation of Methanolic Extract of Leaves
Leaves were cut into small pieces, air-dried in the shade, and 200g of dried and powdered
leaves were extracted with methanol (w:v ratio of 1:5, final weight of the extract 9g).
Chemicals and Drugs
Glibenclamide, aspirin, and glucose were obtained from Square Pharmaceuticals Ltd.,
Bangladesh. All other chemicals were of analytical grade.
Animals
Swiss albino mice, which weighed between 14-18g were used in the present study. The
animals were obtained from International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research,
Bangladesh (ICDDR,B). The animals were acclimatized for three days prior to actual
experiments. The study was conducted following approval by the Institutional Animal Ethical
Committee of University of Development Alternative, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests For Evaluation Of Antihyperglycemic Activity
Oral glucose tolerance tests were carried out as per the procedure previously described by Joy
and Kuttan (1999)
[17]
with minor modifications. Briefly, fasted mice were grouped into six
groups of five mice each. The various groups received different treatments like Group 1
received vehicle (1% Tween 80 in water, 10 ml/kg body weight) and served as control, Group
2 received standard drug (glibenclamide, 10 mg/kg body weight). Groups 3-6 received
methanolic leaf extract (MECL) at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. All
substances were orally administered. Following a period of one hour, all mice were orally
administered 2 g glucose/kg
of body weight. Blood samples were collected 120 minutes after
the glucose administration through puncturing heart. Blood glucose levels were measured by
glucose oxidase method.
[18]
The percent lowering of blood glucose levels were calculated
according to the formula described below.
Percent Lowering Of Blood Glucose Level = (1 W
e
/W
c
) X 100,
where W
e
and W
c
represents the blood glucose concentration in glibenclamide or MECL
administered mice (Groups 2-6), and control mice (Group 1), respectively.
Analgesic Activity Evaluation Through Abdominal Writhing Test
Analgesic activity of MECL was examined as previously described.
[19]
Mice were divided
into seven groups of five mice each. Group 1 served as control and was administered vehicle
only. Groups 2 and 3 were orally administered the standard antinociceptive drug aspirin at
doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, respectively. Groups 4-7 were administered
MECL at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, respectively. Following a
period of 60 minutes after oral administration of standard drug or MECL, all mice were
intraperitoneally injected with 1% acetic acid at a dose of 10 ml per kg body weight. A period
of 5 minutes was given to each animal to ensure bioavailability and onset of chemically
induced irritation of acetic acid
[20]
, following which period, the number of abdominal
constrictions (writhings) was counted for 10 min. The percent inhibitions of abdominal
constrictions were calculated according to the formula given below.
Percent Inhibition = (1 W
e
/W
c
) X 100
where W
e
and W
c
represents the number of writhings in aspirin or MECL administered mice
(Groups 2-7), and control mice (Group 1), respectively.
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Acute Toxicity Test
Acute toxicity test was conducted as previously described.
[21]
Mice were divided into nine
groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group 1 was given 1% Tween 80 in normal
saline (2 ml per kg body weight). The other eight groups (Groups 2-9) were administered,
respectively, 100, 200, 300, 600, 800, 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg of MECL per kg body
weight. All animals were closely observed for the next 8 hours to notice any behavioral
changes or mortality and were kept under close observation for the next two weeks.
Statistical analysis
Experimental values are expressed as mean ± SEM. Independent Sample t-test was carried
out for statistical comparison. Statistical significance was considered to be indicated by a p
value < 0.05 in all cases.
[22]
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening
Preliminary phytochemical analysis of MECL for presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids,
and flavonoids were conducted as described before.
[23]
RESULTS
Toxicity Evaluation
The crude extract did not show any toxicity in mice even at the highest dose tested. There
were no changes in behavioral pattern and mortality was not observed.
Preliminary Screening Of Phytochemicals
Various tests conducted for presence of phytochemicals in MECL indicated the presence of
alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and tannins.
Antihyperglycemic Activity Evaluation Results
When administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, MECL caused
dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At the afore-
mentioned four doses, the percent reductions in blood glucose levels were, respectively, 12.9,
21.7, 24.7, and 30.8%. However, the results were significant only at the higher three doses of
the extract. In comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when
administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose levels by 35.4%.
The results are shown in Table 1 and suggest that the extract possessed antihyperglycemic
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
properties, which although not so potent as glibenclamide, may still prove to be beneficial for
reducing blood glucose levels in diabetic patients.
Analgesic Activity Evaluation Results
MECL, when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, caused
dose-dependent and significant reductions in the number of abdominal constrictions
(writhings) caused by intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid in mice. At these four
doses, the number of abdominal constrictions was reduced, respectively, by 24.1, 27.6, 31.0,
and 34.5%. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin, when administered at doses of 200 and 400
mg per kg body weight, caused, respectively, a 31.0 and 51.7% fall in the number of
constrictions. The results are shown in Table 2 and show that at the highest dose of the
extract, it was more potent than 200 mg aspirin. Thus MECL can be used as an alternative to
aspirin by people suffering from pain.
Table 1: Effect Of Crude Methanol Extract Of C. Longa Leaves (MECL) On Blood
Glucose Level In Hyperglycemic Mice Following 120 Minutes Of Glucose Loading.
Dose(Mg/KgBodyWeight)
Blood Glucose Level
(Mmol/L)
% Lowering Of Blood
Glucose Level
10 ml
5.26 ± 0.15
-
10 mg
3.40 ± 0.30
35.4*
50 mg
4.58 ± 0.42
12.9
100 mg
4.12 ± 0.31
21.7*
200 mg
3.96 ± 0.25
24.7*
400 mg
3.64 ± 0.14
30.8*
All administrations were made orally. Values represented as mean ± SEM, (n=5);
*
P < 0.05;
significant compared to hyperglycemic control animals.
Table 2: Antinociceptive Effect Of Crude Methanol Extract Of C. Longa Leaves
(MECL) In Acetic Acid-Induced Pain Model Mice.
Treatment
Dose (mg/kg body weight)
Mean number of abdominal constrictions
% inhibition
Control
10 ml
5.8 ± 0.37
-
Aspirin
200 mg
4.0 ± 0.84
31.0*
Aspirin
400 mg
2.8 ± 0.37
51.7*
(MECL)
50 mg
4.4 ± 0.24
24.1*
(MECL)
100 mg
4.2 ± 0.20
27.6*
(MECL)
200 mg
4.0 ± 0.63
31.0*
(MECL)
400 mg
3.8 ± 0.73
34.5*
All administrations (aspirin and extract) were made orally. Values represented as mean ±
SEM, (n=5); *P < 0.05; significant compared to control.
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DISCUSSION
Curcuma genera plants appear from the published scientific literature to be good candidates
for potent analgesic drugs. Analgesic properties of different parts of Curcuma zedoaria have
been reported.
[24]
Analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of ethanolic extract of Curcuma
mangga rhizomes have also been demonstrated.
[25]
O-coumaric acid, protocatechuic acid,
syringic acid, and vanillic acid has been reported to be present in leaves of C. Longa.
[26]
Antiinflammatory and analgesic properties of protocatechuic acid have been shown in
different rat and mice models of pain and inflammation.
[27]
Antioxidative and antidiabetic
effect of protocatechuic acid has also been shown in STZ-diabetic rats.
[28]
Thus this
compound can be responsible for the observed antihyperglycemic and analgesic effects as
observed in the present study. Syringic acid, extracted from Herba dendrobii, reportedly
inhibited diabetic cataract pathogenesis by inhibiting aldose reductase activity,
[29]
and thus is
another potential candidate for the observed antihyperglycemic effects. Antiinflammatory and
analgesic effects have also been observed with vanillic acid in Swiss mice and male Wistar
rats.
[30]
Preliminary phytochemical analysis of MECL showed the presence of alkaloids,
flavonoids, saponins and tannins. Various reports have mentioned that compounds belonging
to these four groups or extracts containing one or more of these four groups possess
antihyperglycemic and/or analgesic effects. For instance ethanol extract of Sida cordifolia
roots showed analgesic activity. Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract indicated the
presence of reducing sugar, alkaloids, steroids and saponins.
[31]
Crude extracts of Holoptelea
integrifolia have been shown to possess antihyperglycemic and analgesic activities.
Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins,
tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines.
[32]
Ethanolic extract of whole plant of Tridax procumbens reportedly showed hypoglycemic
effect in STZ-diabetic rats. Alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins were present in the extract.
[33]
Aqueous extract of Vernonia condensata leaves has been reported to exhibit antinociceptive
activity in writhing tests; the extract was found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins.
[34]
Diabetes is reaching endemic proportions in the world and pain is an affliction which
affects human beings in an acute or chronic manner very commonly. An abundant source of
blood glucose lowering components or pain alleviating components like C. Longa leaves can
prove to be beneficial not only for diabetic patients but also people who suffer from acute
pain arising from injury or chronic pain as occurs during rheumatoid arthritis or cancer. C.
Longa is easily available and its leaves merit scientific attention for identifying the
responsible bioactive components. Not only these components may prove to novel
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Rahmatullah et al. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
compounds, but the extract by itself can form the basis of a crude and affordable drug for
patients with diabetes or painful conditions.
CONCLUSION
The results suggest that methanolic extract of C. Longa can be used for lowering of blood
glucose and for alleviating pain.
Conflicts Of Interest
The author(s) declare that they have no competing interests.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work was funded through internal funding of the University of Development
Alternative.
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... Traditional medicinal systems in Bangladesh like Ayurveda, Unani or folk and tribal medicines have always placed emphasis on plants for treatment of diabetes [3,4]. Since Bangladesh is rich in fl oral species, we had been over the last few years systematically screening various plant extracts and polyherbal formulations for their antihyperglycemic activities as determined through oral glucose tolerance tests in mice [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. We had previously reported the antihyperglycemic activity of Colocasia esculenta (known locally as mankochu) stems [13] and Spilanthes calva (known locally as oshon shak) aerial parts S. calva is an erect annual herb with somewhat hairy stems and branches. ...
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Introduction: Diabetes is a debilitating disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels, which is rapidly r eaching endemic proportions throughout the world including Bangladesh. We had previously evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential of methanolic extract of aerial parts of Spilanthes calva and tubers of Colocasia esculenta. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is any synergistic antihyperglycemic activity between the methanolic extracts of the plant parts of the two plants.
... Among the parts utilized for medicinal purposes, leaves of 13 species (28.85%), whole plant (15.38%), bark (13.46%), roots (11.54%), wood (9.62%), fruit (7.69%), flowers and seeds (5.77% each), and stem (3.85%) were utilized (Ahmad and Habib, 2014). Our findings of the frequent use of leaves corroborate the results of Sohel et al. (2016) and (Hasan et al., 2014a). Mostly local healers advised for ingestion of herbals for the treatment of different disorders but other routes like topical were of great importance for skin disorders, wounds, poisonous bites, rheumatism, weakness and body pain. ...
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This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds. Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for various diseases in the remote areas of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan Usos etnomedicinais de plantas para várias doenças nas áreas remotas da Floresta
... Among the parts utilized for medicinal purposes, leaves of 13 species (28.85%), whole plant (15.38%), bark (13.46%), roots (11.54%), wood (9.62%), fruit (7.69%), flowers and seeds (5.77% each), and stem (3.85%) were utilized (Ahmad and Habib, 2014). Our findings of the frequent use of leaves corroborate the results of Sohel et al. (2016) and (Hasan et al., 2014a). Mostly local healers advised for ingestion of herbals for the treatment of different disorders but other routes like topical were of great importance for skin disorders, wounds, poisonous bites, rheumatism, weakness and body pain. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World's largest artificial planted forest "Changa Manga", Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds. Resumo Este estudo tem como objetivo relatar o conhecimento indígena sobre a flora medicinal dos habitantes do entorno da maior floresta artificial plantada do mundo, a Changa Manga, no Paquistão. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas diretas e reuniões em grupo de 81 habitantes, incluindo 32 curandeiros locais, com informações sobre o uso de plantas medicinais indígenas durante o período de um ano. Diferentes ferramentas estatísticas foram aplicadas para analisar os dados, incluindo citação de frequência (FC), citação de frequência relativa (RFC), valor de uso, fator de consenso dos informantes e nível de fidelidade. Este estudo relatou 73 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 37 famílias de plantas e 46 gêneros. A maioria das espécies de plantas pertence à família Compositae. As plantas medicinais mais utilizadas foram P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L., P. harmala L., P. emblica Ethnomedicinal uses of plants for various diseases in the remote areas of Changa Manga Forest, Pakistan Usos etnomedicinais de plantas para várias doenças nas áreas remotas da Floresta
... Among the parts utilized for medicinal purposes, leaves of 13 species (28.85%), whole plant (15.38%), bark (13.46%), roots (11.54%), wood (9.62%), fruit (7.69%), flowers and seeds (5.77% each), and stem (3.85%) were utilized (Ahmad and Habib, 2014). Our findings of the frequent use of leaves corroborate the results of Sohel et al. (2016) and (Hasan et al., 2014a). Mostly local healers advised for ingestion of herbals for the treatment of different disorders but other routes like topical were of great importance for skin disorders, wounds, poisonous bites, rheumatism, weakness and body pain. ...
... Among the parts utilized for medicinal purposes, leaves of 13 species (28.85%), whole plant (15.38%), bark (13.46%), roots (11.54%), wood (9.62%), fruit (7.69%), flowers and seeds (5.77% each), and stem (3.85%) were utilized (Ahmad and Habib, 2014). Our findings of the frequent use of leaves corroborate the results of Sohel et al. (2016) and (Hasan et al., 2014a). Mostly local healers advised for ingestion of herbals for the treatment of different disorders but other routes like topical were of great importance for skin disorders, wounds, poisonous bites, rheumatism, weakness and body pain. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims at reporting the indigenous knowledge of the medicinal flora from the inhabitants of surroundings of the World’s largest artificial planted forest “Changa Manga”, Pakistan. Data were collected by direct interviews and group meetings from 81 inhabitants including 32 local healers having information regarding the use of indigenous medicinal plants over a period of one year. Different statistical tools were applied to analyze the data including Frequency citation (FC), Relative frequency citation (RFC), Use Value, Factor of informants consensus and fidelity level. This study reported 73 plant species belonging to 37 plant families and 46 genera. The majority of plant species belong to compositae family. The most commonly used medicinal plants were P. hysterophorus L., P. dactylifera L., S. indicum L, P. harmala L., P. emblica L., and A. indica A.Juss. The greatest number of species was used to cure gastrointestinal disorders. The highest fidelity level (68.18%) was of E. helioscopia to cure gastrointestinal disorders. Maximum fresh uses (17) were reported by C. dactylon (L.) Pars. While the highest number of species reporting fresh uses in similar number was 13. In this study, five novel plants are being reported for the first time in Pakistan for their ethnomedicinal worth. Our data reflect unique usage of the medicinal plants in the study area. The statistical tools used in the study proved useful in pointing the most important and disease category specific plants. High use value plant and the new reported medicinal plants might prove an important source of the isolation of pharmacologically active compounds
... Since diabetes and pain are common afflictions in Bangladesh and indeed throughout the world, we had been evaluating various plants of Bangladesh for their antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential in an effort to enable people to get access to better and more affordable medicines. [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20] The objective of the present study was to evaluate the methanol extract of beans of Lablab purpureus 'Chittagong' variety for its antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential. To our knowledge, this is the first such bioactivity studies with this variety of beans, which are common in the Chittagong region but not in other parts of Bangladesh. ...
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Background. Lablab purpureus is an important bean crop of Bangladesh. A particular variety is popular and grown in the Chittagong region of the country, which differs from normal Lablab purpureus in several aspects. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive properties of methanol extract of these beans (fruits containing seeds) of the plant. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to determine antihyperglycemic activity. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results. Administration of methanol extract of beans led to dose- dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood glucose levels by 18.5, 31.7, 35.9, and 48.8%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 48.0%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 11.1, 22.2, 40.7, and 55.6, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 33.3 and 51.9%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. To our knowledge, this is the first report on oral glucose tolerance and antinociceptive activity evaluation of fruits of this variety of the plant Since the plant is widely cultivated in the Chittagong and other parts of Bangladesh, the fruits can be used as a source for lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients and for alleviating pain.
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Background. Olanzapine is a prescription drug used for treatment of psychotic mental disorders. Some reports have indicated diabetes risk following chronic administration of olanzapine. It was of interest to see whether chronic olanzapine treatment leads to impaired glucose tolerance in mice. Methods. Impairment of glucose tolerance was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) in mice. Results. Oral administration of olanzapine to mice at a dose level of 100 mg olanzapine per kg body weight led to statistically significant elevations in blood glucose levels compared to control animals (without olanzapine) following OGTT. After 1, 2 and 4 weeks of olanzapine administration, in oral glucose tolerance tests, the elevations in blood glucose in glucose-challenged mice were, respectively, 119.8, 161.1, and 166.4% compared to control mice (100.0%). Conclusion. Chronic administration of olanzapine can cause impaired glucose tolerance, which can serve as a model to explore other medications to alleviate the problem.
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Various parts of Musa sapientum plant varieties (banana) like leaf, pseudostem, root and fruit have been reported to demonstrate antihyperglycemic activity. The objective of the present study was to determine the antihyperglycemic effects of methanol extract of Musa seminifera (also considered as Musa sapientum var. sylvestris) ripe fruit peels in glucose-challenged mice. Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Administration of Methanol Extract of Musa seminifera fruit peels (MEMS) at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg per kg body weight each to glucose-loaded mice reduced blood glucose levels by 16.5, 25.2, 29.8, and 35.1%, respectively compared to control (untreated) mice. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 41.6%. A combination of MEMS at 400 mg per kg and glibenclamide at 10 mg per kg reduced blood glucose level by 42.9% suggesting that the fruit peels can be an effective combination with glibenclamide.
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Sylhet division lies in the north-eastern corner of Bangladesh and comprises of four districts - Sylhet, Habiganj, Sunamganj, and Moulvibazar. The division contains a diversity of floral species, some of which are quite distinct from the rest of the country. A randomized ethnomedicinal survey was conducted among the folk medicinal practitioners of Komolganj in Moulvibazar district, Gulapganj of Sylhet district, and Chunarughat of Habiganj district. Informed consent was obtained from the healers and the survey was conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire. In the present survey, the methodology employed was that of the guided field-walk, where the healers took the interviewers to localities from where they collected their medicinal plants and pointed out the plants besides describing the plant parts used and the ailments that they were used for. Plant specimens were collected from the field, dried in situ and identification completed at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. Information on 107 plant species distributed into 53 families was obtained. The Asteraceae family contributed the largest number of plant species (seven) followed by the Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae families (six each). Leaves comprised the major plant part used for the treatment of different ailments (48.3%) followed by fruit (15.9%) and bark (10.3%). Most plants were used to treat common ailments like gastrointestinal disorders, helminthiasis, debility, pain, skin problems, respiratory problems, fever, bleeding from cuts and wounds, urinary tract problems and sexual disorders. However, a number of plants were also used to treat more complicated ailments like cardiovascular disorders, hepatic disorders, epilepsy and cancer or tumors. In the majority of cases, a single plant part was used for treatment of any given ailment. Folk medicine in Bangladesh has a history of usage going back thousands of years. The medicinal plants used by the folk medicinal healers thus possess considerable potential for discovery of lead compounds or novel compounds that may serve as the source of effective modern drugs.
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The methanolic extract of Trichosanthes anguina fruits was evaluated for its antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potentials in Swiss albino mice. Antihyperglycemic activity was evaluated through oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded mice, while antinociceptive potential was evaluated in pain model mice, where pain was induced through intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid, resulting in pain and concomitant abdominal constrictions (writhings). In antihyperglycemic activity tests conducted with glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice, methanolic extract of fruits significantly and dose-dependently reduced blood glucose concentrations. At extract doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight mice, the percent lowering of blood sugar by the extract was, respectively, 18.9, 27.6, 35.0, and 51.4. The results were both dose-dependent and statistically significant. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered to glucose-loaded mice at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood sugar levels by 55.2%. The results demonstrate that the methanolic extract possesses antihyperglycemic potential. In antinociceptive activity tests conducted with intraperitoneally administered acetic acidinduced pain model in mice, the extract at the afore-mentioned four doses dosedependently and significantly reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice caused by pain, respectively, by 35.3, 38.2, 41.2, and 44.1%. A standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of writhings by 47.1 and 61.8%, respectively. The results thus demonstrate also significant antinociceptive potential of fruits of the plant. The results suggest that phytochemicals present in fruits deserve further scientific attention towards possible discovery of antihyperglycemic and pain-alleviating drugs.
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Zingiberaceae is one of the largest families of the plant kingdom with 53 genera and over 1300 species. About 80 species are mainly distributed in Eastern Himalaya to Southern China, India and South- Eastern Asia, 22 genera and 178 species are recorded in India, 9 genera and 70 species in South India. Out of 19 genera and 88 species available in North East India, 42 species have been recorded from Manipur State. Out of which 24 species were recorded to have ethnomedicinal value in the valley districts of Manipur.
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Aim: The present study aims to evaluate whether ascorbic acid (AA) and curcumin, two substances with redox properties, have similar effects on different models of pain in mice. Materials and methods: This study included a total of 28 mice that were divided into four groups. One group (AA) received intraperitoneally 500 mg/kg b.w. AA for 21 days and the 2-nd group (curcumin) received 120 mg/kg b.w. curcumin by gastric gavage for two weeks. Other two groups serve as control and received vehicle in a dose--time manner similar to that of the treated groups. The pain models (oro-facial formalin induced pain, paw formalin induced pain and visceral pain) were performed 24 h after the last dose. Results: When compared with control groups, curcumin significantly decreases pain perception in oro-facial (p = 0.01 1-st phase, p = 0.002 2-nd phase) and paw formalin induced pain (p = 0.04 1-st and 2-nd phase) while AA stimulates pain perception in acid acetic induced visceral pain (p = 0.05) and increases oro-facial inflammatory pain induced by formalin ( p = 0.02) but demonstrates analgesic effects on paw formalin induced pain (p = 0.003 1-st phase, p = 0.01 2-nd phase). Conclusions: ROS production is important in pain modulation. Structures involved in the process of pain have different antioxidant defense capacities. Curcumin and AA are able to modulate pain perception, but beside their antioxidant capacities, there are other mechanisms involved.
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Hygrophila auriculata (Schum) Heine (syn) Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Acanthaceae was described in ayurvedic literature as Ikshura, Ikshugandha, and Kokilasha. The plant was extensively used in traditional system of medicine for various ailments like rheumatism, inflammation, jaundice, hepatic obstruction, pain, etc. The aqueous extract of aerial parts (HAA) and root(HAR) were screened for its anti-nociceptive property using both chemical and thermal methods of nociception in mice. In chemical method acetic acid writhing test and in thermal methods hot plate and tail flick tests were performed. Both the extracts at doses 100 and 200 mg/kg/p.o inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and also increased the pain threshold of mice towards the thermal source in a dose dependent manner. The activity exhibited by the extracts was comparable to that of the standard drug aspirin (100 mg/kg/p.o). From the results it was concluded that both extracts exhibited anti-nociceptive activity by central and peripheral mechanism(s).
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Holoptelea integrifolia (Ulmaceae) is a versatile medicinal plant used in various indigenous systems of medicine for curing routine healthcare maladies. It is traditionally used in the treatment and prevention of several ailments like leprosy, inflammation, rickets, leucoderma, scabies, rheumatism, ringworm, eczema, malaria, intestinal cancer, and chronic wounds. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological investigations on crude extracts and isolated compounds showed antibacterial, antifungal, analgesic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, adaptogenic, anticancer, wound healing, hepatoprotective, larvicidal, antiemetic, CNS depressant, and hypolipidemic activities. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of terpenoids, sterols, saponins, tannins, proteins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinines. Numerous compounds including Holoptelin-A, Holoptelin-B, friedlin, epifriedlin, β -amyrin, stigmasterol, β -sitosterol, 1, 4-napthalenedione, betulin, betulinic acid, hexacosanol, and octacosanol have been identified and isolated from the plant species. The results of several studies indicated that H. integrifolia may be used as an effective therapeutic remedy in the prevention and treatment of various ailments. However, further studies on chemical constituents and their mechanisms in exhibiting certain biological activities are needed. In addition, study on the toxicity of the crude extracts and the compounds isolated from this plant should be assessed to ensure their eligibility to be used as source of modern medicines.
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Background Alternanthera sessilis is used by folk medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh for alleviation of severe pain. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze the analgesic (non-narcotic) property of aerial parts of the plant along with antihyperglycemic activity. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests. Analgesic (non-narcotic) activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal writhings in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results Administration of methanol extract of aerial parts led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood sugar levels by 22.9, 30.7, 45.4 and 46.1%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 48.9%. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal writhings by 27.6, 37.9, 41.4, and 44.8%, respectively. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion The results validate the folk medicinal use of the plant to alleviate pain. At the same time, the antihyperglycemic activity result suggests that the plant may be a potential source for blood sugar lowering drug(s).
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To study the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The whole plant of T. procumbens was collected in different regions of Madurai districts, Tamil Nadu. The air dried whole plant of T. procumbens was extracted with ethanol (95%) in a Soxhlet apparatus for 72 h. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by streptozotocin (50 mg/jk, i.p.) and nicotinamide (120 mg/kg, i.p) injection. The dry mass of the extract was used for preliminary phytochemical and pharmacological analysis. Diabetic rats were treated with glibenclamide (0.25 mg/kg, p.o.) or T. procumbens extract (250 and 500 mg/k, p.o.) for 21 consecutive days. The blood samples were collected at regular intervals to access hypoglycemic effect of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens. At the end of the experiment, serum lipid profile and liver enzymes levels were analyzed for all the experimental animals and compared with diabetic control. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens indicated the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and phenolic compounds. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens at 250 and 500 mg/kg has significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities. The diabetic control animals exhibited a significant decrease in body weight compared with control animals. T. procumbens inhibited streptozotocin-induced weight loss and significantly alter the lipid levels. The ethanolic extract of the whole plant of T. procumbens showed significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activities against streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.
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Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) are possibly the most ancient practitioners of traditional medicine in Bangladesh and in general are the primary health-care providers to a majority of the rural population and a substantial segment of the urban population in the country. The Kavirajes rely almost exclusively on medicinal plants for treatment of various ailments. The medicinal plants chosen by the Kavirajes vary considerably even between adjacent villages. To get a comprehensive view of folk medicinal practices, it is therefore important to survey as many Kavirajes of different villages as possible. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages, Gaurnadi Upazila, Barisal district, which lies in the southern section of the country. Informed consent was obtained of the Kavirajes and interviews conducted with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All plant specimens as pointed out by the Kavirajes were collected and brought back for identification at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. It was observed that the Kavirajes of Paschim Shawra and Palordi villages used 51 plants distributed into 33 families for treatment of various ailments. The Fabaceae family contribued the higest number of species (6 plants) followed by the Lamiaceae (4 plants), Lythraceae and Zingiberaceae families (3 plants per family). Leaves constituted the major plant part used (43%), followed by whole plant(12%), rhizome (6%), bark (4%).The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorders (23 plants), suggesting that this is the most prevalent disorder in the area. Respiratory tract disorder (11 plants) like coughs, chest pain, bronchitis, asthma and whooping cough and sexual disorders (11 plants) including leucorrhea, sexual weakness, menstrual problem, gonorrhea and loss of libido formed the second most common disorders treated by the Kavirajes. 10 plants were used for the treatment of skin diseases like tinia infection, scabies, and eczema. The Kavirajes also used medicinal plants for treatment of ailments including diabetes, urogenital disorder, hepatic disorder, neurological disorder, pain and inflammation, fever, weakness, infectious, cancer, blood purifier, blood clotting agent, anemia, snake bite, insect bite ,aging, appetizer, blood pressure, malaria, heart disease and others. A perusal of the scientific literature showed that uses of several plants by the Kavirajes are validated by scientific studies on the pharmacological activities of the relevant plant species. Overall, the plants present considerable potential for further scientific studies leading to discovery of novel drugs.