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Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: Characterization of the seed oil and essential oil

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Chemical composition and physical properties were established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya, Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber, ash, HCI-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value, saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%), linoleic (11,82%), palmitic (10.01%) and stearic (2.41%) acids. Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se, Sr, V and Zn) of seeds were also determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash. The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS. The oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%), daucene (8.74)%, (Z,Z)-α-farnesene (5.86%), germacrene D (2.34%), trans-α-bergamotene (2.41%) and β-selinene (2.20%). Whereas, carotol (30.55%), daucol (12.60%) and copaenol (0.62%) were the important components of edible carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both oils was carotol.
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RESUMEN
Composición química de semillas de zanahoria
(Daucus carota L.) cultivadas en Turquía: caracterización
del aceite de semilla y del aceite esencial.
Se determinó la composición química y las propiedades
físicas de las semillas de zanahoria (Daucus carota L.) ob-
tenidas en Konya, Turquía, con objeto de investigar usos po-
tenciales de las mismas. Se determinó la humedad, el peso,
el contenido proteico, en aceite, en fibra, en ceniza, en ceni-
za insoluble en ácido clorhídrico, los carbohidratos totales, y
el rendimiento de la obtención de aceite esencial a partir de
1000 semillas maduras. Asimismo se determinó la densidad
relativa, el índice de refracción, el contenido en ácidos gra-
sos libres, el índice de peróxidos, el índice de yodo, el índi-
ce de saponificación y el insaponificable del aceite de la se-
milla. Los principales ácidos grasos determinados por
cromatografía gaseosa fueron petroselénico (59.35%), lino-
leico (11.82%), palmítico (10.01%), y esteárico (2.41%). El
contenido mineral (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P,
Se, Sr, V and Zn) de la semillas fue determinado por espec-
troscopia de emisión de atómica (ICP-AES). Las semillas re-
sultaron ser ricas en proteína, fibra y ceniza. Las composi-
ciones del aceite esencial y del aceite comestible fueron
determinadas por GC y GC-MS. Los rendimientos de aceite
esencial y comestible fueron 0.83 y 7.84%, respectivamente.
Los constituyentes mayoritarios del aceites esencial fueron
carotol (66.78%), dauceno (8.74%), (Z,Z)-α-farneseno
(5.86%), germacreno D (2.34%), trans-α-bergamoteno
(2.41%), y β-selineno (2.20%). Por su parte, carotol
(30.55%), ducol (12.60%) y capaenol (0.62%) fueron los
componentes principales del aceite comestible.
PALABRAS-CLAVE: Aceite esencial – Apiaceae – Com-
posición – Ducus carota L. – Minerales – Semilla de zana-
horia.
SUMMARY
Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus
carota L.) cultivated in Turkey: characterization of the
seed oil and essential oil.
Chemical composition and physical properties were
established in carrot (Daucus carota L.) seeds from Konya,
Turkey to investigate their potential uses. Mature seeds were
evaluated for moisture, crude protein, crude oil, crude fiber,
ash, HCl-insoluble ash, total carbohydrate, essential oil yield
and weight of 1000 seeds. Also, relative density, refractive
index, free fatty acids, peroxide value, iodine value,
saponification number and unsaponifiable matter were
determined in the seed oil. The main fatty acids identified by
Chemical composition of carrot seeds (Daucus carota L.) cultivated in Turkey:
characterization of the seed oil and essential oil
By Mehmet Musa Özcan1* and Jean Claude Chalchat2
1* Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Selçuk University, 42031 Konya,Turkey.
e-mail: mozcan@selcuk.edu.tr
2Universite Blaise Pascal de Clermont, Laboratoire de Chimie des Huiles Essentielle,
63177 Aubiere Cedex, France.
gas chromatography were petroselinic (59.35%), linoleic
(11,82%), palmitic (10.01%) and stearic (2.41%) acids.
Mineral contents (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Se,
Sr, V and Zn) of seeds were also determined by Inductively
Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES).
The seeds were found to be rich in protein, fiber and ash.
The essential oil and edible oil compositions of carrot
seeds from Konya were investigated by GC and GC-MS.The
oil yields of essential and edible oil from carrot seeds were
established as 0.83% and 7.84%, respectively. The major
constituents of seed essential oil were carotol (66.78%),
daucene (8.74)%, (Z,Z)-α-farnesene (5.86%), germacrene D
(2.34%), trans-α-bergamotene (2.41%) and β-selinene
(2.20%). Whereas, carotol (30.55%), daucol (12.60%) and
copaenol (0.62%) were the important components of edible
carrot seed oil. However, the dominant component of both
oils was carotol.
KEY-WORDS:Apiaceae – Carrot seed – Composition –
Daucus carota L – Essential oil – Minerals.
1. INTRODUCTION
Carrot (D. carota L., Apiaceae) is one of the most
commonly used vegetables for human nutrition.
D.carota is called as “havuç tohumu”, “yere geçen”,
“kes
,ür” and “pörçüklü” in Turkish. It is a tall robust
biennial spiny-fruited herb growing in dried-out fields
or meadows. Carrots are cultivated worldwide. They
are characterized by relatively moderate
requirements for climate and soil. Owing to their
modest needs for cultivation and storage, they can
be sold fresh throughout the year (Baytop, 1984;
Vogel, 1996; Fritz and Stolz, 1989; Schaller and
Schnitzler, 2000; Schieber et al., 2001). Their juices
and blends are among the most popular non-
alcoholic beverages. A steady increase in carrot
juice consumption has also been reported from
other countries. It is regarded as a healthy food item
because of its high vitamin and fiber content
(Nilsson, 1987; Chen and Tang, 1998; Negi and Roy,
2000; Schieber et al., 2001; Gonny et al., 2004).
In the development of new oil seed crops interest
has turned to the members of the Umbelliferae
family. The yields per hectare (4-30 dt/ha) and oil
content of these oil crops (8-24%) are not extremely
high. But these agricultural crops, which contain
spice plants like caraway, celery, coriander, dill and
359
GRASAS Y ACEITES, 58 (4),
OCTUBRE-DICIEMBRE, 359-365, 2007,
ISSN: 0017-3495
parsley, are of interest due to their high amounts of
petroselinic acid (Kleiman and Spencer,1982; Rühl,
1993; Hondelman, 1985; Schuster, 1992; Reiter et
al., 1998a). Carrot seed essential oil is widely used
for its numerous applications concerring the
formulation of certain alcoholic liguors as well as
aromatic and fragrance compositions. It contains
about 0.5-1.6% (v/w) essential oil. Its essential oil is
used for medicinal purposes such as diuretic,
stomachic (Baytop, 1984; Bauer et al., 1990;
Lawrance 1992-1994; Mazzoni et al., 1999). The
high intensity of harsh carrot-like flavor in fresh plant
products is commonly considered to be genetically
determined and has therefore been reduced by
breeding in carrots. Nevertheless, unacceptable
flavor can occur at the consumer level and this is
connected with suboptimal postharvest storage
conditions and harsh handling during distribution. In
carrots, bitter and harsh as well as flat, insipid flavors
have been described in response to ethylene
exposure, mechanical stress or storage in low
oxygen atmospheres (Simon, 1985; Lafuente et al.,
1989; Seljasen et al., 2001; Seljasen et al., 2004).
Various attempts were made at utilizing carrot
pomace in food such as bread (Ohsawa et al., 1994),
cake, dressing and pickles (Ohsawa et al., 1995),
and for the production of functional drinks (Henn and
Kunz, 1996; Schieber et al., 2001). Several studies
on the chemical characterization of carrot seed and
seed oil have been caried out (Mazzani et al.,1999;
Gonny et al., 2004; Zlatanow, 1994; Seljasen et al.,
2004; Lie Ken Jie et al., 1996; Ochocka and
Lamparczyk, 1993; Parker et al., 2003).
Recently, one oil distilled from the blooming
umbels of D.corota L. ssp. carota growing wild in
Poland was characterized by a high content of
monoterpene hydrocarbons (84%), and the major
components were α-pinene (41%) and sabinene
(18%) (Staniszewska and Kula, 2001). No detailed
study on the physical properties, chemical
composition, essential oil composition and mineral
contents of the seeds of D. carota has been
performed so far. The aim of this study was to
establish physical and chemical properties of carrot
seed and oil and chemical composition of essential
and edible oil of the seed oil.
2. MATERIAL AND METHODS
2.1. Material
Carrot seeds were purchased locally from herbal
and vegetable suppliers in Konya in Turkey in the
year 2004. Carrot seeds were transported to the
laboratory in glass jars and held at room
temperature. They were cleaned in an air screen
cleaner to remove all foreign matter such as dust,
dirt, stones and chaff, and immature and broken
seeds were discarded as well. Their moisture
content was measured on arrival. Seeds were dried
to a constant weight at room temperature for
analyses. Prior to a chemical analysis, samples
(about 300 g) were ground to pass a 0.5 mm
screen. Methyl esters of fatty acids (palmitic,
palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, linoleic, petroselinic,
arachidic, vaccenic) were purchased from Sigma
Company. The solvents were used in p.a.quality.
2.2. Oil extraction
The oil was extracted from crushed seeds with
petroleum ether (50 oC) in a Soxhlet extractor. The
extract was evaporated in a vacuum. The lipid
extract was collected in a flask. The extracted lipid
was weighed to determine the oil content and
stored under nitrogen at 4 oC for further analysis.
2.3. Recovery of essential oil
Dried carrot seeds were ground into small
pieces and subjected to hydrodistillation for 4 h
using a Clevenger-type apparatus (Clevenger,
1928), and the oils obtained were dried over
anhydrous sodium sulfate. Essential oil yield on a
dry weight basis was 0.83%.
2.4. Physicochemical properties of seed
and oil
The weight of 1000 seeds was determined. The
chemical and physical properties (moisture, crude
protein, crude oil, crude fiber, crude energy, ash,
HCl-insoluble ash, relative density, refractive index,
free fatty acids, peroxide value, saponification
number and unsaponifiable matter) were analyzed
according to AOAC (1984, 1990). The total amount
of carbohydrate was found by subtracting the
amount of ash protein and fat from total dry matter
(Çag˘larırmak, 2003).
2.5. Determination of fatty acids
Fatty acids were derived using the boron
trifluoride method (Hıs
,ıl, 1988). The fatty acids were
converted to their methyl esters by heating in 10%
BF3-methanol (Küsmenog˘lu et al., 1997).
Commercial mixtures of fatty acid methyl esters
were used as reference data for the relative
retention times (AOCS, 1990). Results are given as
mean values of two replicates.
2.6. Determination of mineral contents
About 0.5 g dried and ground carrot seed
sample were put into a burning cup and 15 ml pure
HNO3were added.The sample was incinerated in a
MARS 5 Microvawe Oven at 200 oC and dissolved
ash diluted to a certain volume with water. Three
replications of incineration were made. Duration of
incineration was 60 minute. Concentrations were
determined with an Inductively Coupled Plasma
Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) (Skujins,
1998).
360 GRASAS Y ACEITES, 58 (4), OCTUBRE-DICIEMBRE, 359-365, 2007, ISSN: 0017-3495
M. MUSA ÖZCAN AND J. C. CHALCHAT
Working conditions of ICP-AES:
Mineral contents were established by an ICP-
AES (Varian-Vista) ınstrument. RF Power was
0.7-1.5 kw (1.2-1.3 kw for Axial). Plasma gas flow
rate (Ar) was 10.5-15 L/min. (radial) and 15 L/min.
(axial). Auxiliary gas flow rate (Ar) was 1.5 L/min.
Viewing height, copy and reading time and copy
time were calibrated as 5-12 mm, 1-5 s (max. 60 s)
and 3 s (max. 100 s), respectively.
2.7. Identification of essential oil components
For identification of components, analytical HP
5890 gas chromatograph equipped with FID (GC)
was performed using a DELSI 121 C apparatus
fitted with a flame ionization detector and a CP
WAX 51 fused silica column (25 m 0.3 mm; 0.25
mm film thickness). Temperature was programmed
from 50°C for 5 min and programmed to reach
220°C at the rate of 3°C per min. ACP WAX 51
fused silica WCOT column (60 m 0.3 mm) for GC/
MS was used with helium as carrier gas. For
GC/MS a CPWAX 52 fused silica CB column (50m
0.25 mm) was used with helium as carrier gas
(flow rate 1 ml/min) and coupled to a HP mass
spectrometer: ionization energy 70 eV. Temperature
programming was from 50-240°C at the rate of
3°C/min.The samples were injected at injector
temperature 240°C. The components were
identified by comparing linear Kovats indexes (KI),
their retention times (RT) and mass spectra with
those obtained from the authentic samples and/or
the MS library.
The percentage composition of the essential oils
was computed from 6C peak areas without
correction factors. Qualitative analysis was based
on a comparison of retention times and mass
spectra with corresponding data in the literature
(Adams, 2001).
2.8. Statistical analysis
Results were analyzed for statistical significance
by analyses of variance (Püskülcü and I
.kiz, 1989).
Analyses of variance and least significant difference
tests were conducted to identify differences among
means. Data were reported as mean ± Standard
deviation.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The proximate properties of carrot seed are
given in Table 1. The oil contents of all investigated
specimens are constant, but differ considerably
within the species: fennel 10.5-14.6%, caraway 9.5-
14.3%, coriander 9.2-16% (Reiter et al., 1998a).
The crude protein, crude fiber, crude oil and crude
ash contents of carrot seeds were higher than for
terebinth fruits reported by Özcan (2004). The oil
content of carrot seed was found lower compared
with caper seed oil (14.6% - 39.0%) determined by
Akgül and Özcan (1999) and Matthaus and Özcan
(2005). Results show that there are some
differences compared with literature values. These
differences can probably be due to different plant
seed, soil characteristics and environmental
factors.
The extracted oil was yellowish in color. Its
physical and chemical characteristics are given in
Table 2. The oil had a relative density of 0.9811,
lower than the value reported by Akgül and Özcan
(1999) for caper oil (1.0840-1.1045). The
unsaponifiable matter content was 9.3 g/kg, and
this value is different than that of other terebinth fruit
oil (Özcan, 2004), but higher than that of many seed
oils, eg caper. The values were reported by Akgül
and Özcan (1999). The peroxide and acidity values
were 1,6 meq/kg and 5,6%, respectively, lower than
generally recommended for commercial edible
crude vegetable oils (<10) (TSE,1971).
The mineral contents of carrot seeds were
determined by ICP-AES (Table 3). Seeds were found
rich in Ca, P, K, Na, Mg and Al. Generally, mineral
contents of carrot seeds were found lower compared
with olive, banana and fig (Cemerog˘lu and
Acar,1986) and terebinth fruit (Özcan, 2004). Also, K,
P, Ca and Fe Mg, Al, Na concentrations were lower
than those in caper seeds (Özcan, 2005).
The fatty acid composition of carrot seed oil was
determined by gas chromatography (Table 4).
Petroselinic acid (59.35%) was present in the
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARROT SEEDS (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) CULTIVATED IN TURKEY...
Table 1
Physical and chemical properties of carrot seed
(dry matter basis; n:3)
Property Value
Moisture (%) 6.41*±0.87**
Crude protein (Nx6.25) (%) 25.19±1.13
Crude oil (%) 7.89±0.68
Crude fibre (%) 31.99±2.21
Ash (%) 11.52±0.14
Total carbohydrate (%) 52.3±2.13
HCl insoluble ash (%) 0.0056±0.0012
Weight of 1000 seeds (g) 2.68±0.18
Essential oil yield (%) 1.01±0.02
* mean
** Standard deviation
Table 2
Physico-chemical properties of carrot seed oil
(n:3)
Property Value
Relative density (d2020) 0.9811*±0.0013**
Refractive index (n20D) 1.473±0.004
Acidity (oleic,%) 5.60±1.13
Peroxide value (meq/kg) 16.0±2.1
Saponification number 143.6±12.7
Unsaponifiable matter (g/kg) 9.3±1.2
* mean
** Standard deviation
highest concentration, followed by linoleic
(11.82%), palmitic (10.01%) and stearic (2.41%).
Palmitoleic, oleic and arachidic, gadoleic acids were
present in minor amounts. Reiter et al. (1998a)
found that the contents of the main fatty acids of
seed oils of fennel varieties were 4.3-4.4 % palmitic,
0.9-1.4 % stearic, 71.9-73.9 % petroselinic, 4.6-5.3
% oleic and 0.3-0.4 %vaccenic and 15.8-16.5%
linoleic avids. Seed oils of caraway (Carum carvi)
varieties extracted with petroleum ether in a Soxhlet
extractor contained about 4.0-4.7% palmitic, 1.1-
1.7% stearic, 33.5-42.7% petroselinic, 15.2-24.0%
oleic and 34.8-36.5 % linoleic acid and had the
lowest total saturated fatty acids among all tested
oils (Reiter et al., 1998a). The same researchers
(Reiter et al., 1998a) established 3.2-4.4% palmitic,
0.6-1.1% stearic, 67.1-73.0% petroselinic, 8.1-9.2%
oleic and 14.2-18.5% linoleic acid in coriander
(Coriandrum sativum) seed oil. Cold pressed carrot
seed oil contained about 82% oleic, 13.19%
linoleic, 3.71% palmitic acid and had the lowest
total saturated fatty acids among all tested oils
(Parker et al.,2003). The same researchers
established 12.11% palmitic, 24.03 % oleic, 55.82
% linoleic, 3.43% stearic acid in caraway seed oil.
When petroselinic acid value was compared with
the literature, it was found to be low. It seems
possible that this oil was extracted from immature
seeds.The extremely high value of petroselinic acid
(91%) obtained by Thies (1993) may be explained
by an insufficient separation of methylthio
derivatives of fatty acids, which does not allow an
exact quantification (Reiter et al., 1998a).
Petroselinic acid contents of caraway seed oil was
found as 42.0%, 35.4% (Kleiman and Spencer,
1982) and 40.3% (Gunstone,1991). Petroselinic
acid (71.8%) is the predominant acid of coriander
seed oil (Griffithhs et.al.,1992). Reither et al.
(1998b) determined 42.4 and 73.7% petroselinic,
15.2 and 4.8% oleic and 0.6 and 0.3% cis-vaccenic
acid in caraway (C.carvi) and fennel (Foeniculum
vulgare) seed oil, respectively. In general, oil plants
(exept of genetically modified or breeded) are not
able to accumulate more than 80% of one fatty acid
due to oilcrop biochemistry (Murphy, 1993;Reiter et
al., 1998a).
Carrot seed oil contains aproximately 70%
petroselinic acid (cis-6-18:1) (Dutta and Appelqvist,
1989). Petroselinic acid is the predominant fatty
acid in storage lipids of many members of the
Apiaceae and has considerable industrial potential
(Dutta, 1992). The fatty acid composition of
vegetable oils is affected by growth conditions,
harvest and postharvest (I
.lisulu, 1973).
The components identified in the essential oil of
carrot seed and edible seed oil are listed in Table 5
in the order of their experimental Retention Indices
(RI). The essential oil exhibited a light yellow color.
The GC and GC-MS analyses of seed essential oil
and seed oil resulted in the identification of 34 and
14 components, respectively. The major
constituents of seed essential oil were carotol
(66.78%), daucene (8.74%), (Z,Z)-α-farnesene
(5.86%), germacrene D (2.34%), trans-α-
bergamotene (2.41%), β-selinene (2.20%), β-
bisabolene (1.90%), bicyclogermacrene (1.87%)
and β-caryophyllene (1.10%) (Table 5). Carotol and
β-caryophyllene comprised 49.51and 47.99% of the
seed extract, respectively (Jasicka-Misiak et al.,
2002). Whereas, carotol (30.55%), daucol (12.60%)
and copaenol (0.62%) were the important
components of edible carrot seed oil (Table 6).
However, the dominant component of both oils was
carotol.
Gonny et al., (2004) found that the Corsican oil of
Daucus carota L. contained E-methylisoeugenol
(33.0%), α-pinene (24.9%) and elemicin (11.4%) as
its major components. As was reported previously
(Mazzoni et al., 1999), trans-dauca-8,11-
diene,duaca-5,8-diene, acora-4,9-diene, acora-4,10-
diene, (E)-β-10,11-dihydro-10,11-epoxyfarnesene
and (E)-methylisoeugenol were identified as the
major components of Daucus carota seed oil.
Geranyl acetate (51.74%-76.95%) was the major
component of D.carota subsp.gummifer fruits (Pinilla
362 GRASAS Y ACEITES, 58 (4), OCTUBRE-DICIEMBRE, 359-365, 2007, ISSN: 0017-3495
M. MUSA ÖZCAN AND J. C. CHALCHAT
Table 3
Mineral contents of carrot seed
(dry matter basis;n:3) (mg/kg)
Fatty acids Concentrations
Al 23.31*±2.17**
B 0.306±0.073
Ca 164.11±31.02
Cr 0.086±0.011
Cu 0.06±0.01
Fe 8.21±0.93
K 180.55±37.36
Mg 15.48±1.61
Mn 0.403±0.083
Na 24.35±4.39
Ni 0.059±0.008
P 75.40±19.28
Se 0.005±0.001
V 0.184±0.038
Zn 0.281±0.061
* mean
** Standard deviation
Table 4
Fatty acid composition of carrot seed oil
(mg/100g) (n:3)
Fatty acids Concentrations
Palmitic (16:0) 10.01*±0.13**
Palmitoleic (16:1) 0.64±0.02
Stearic (18:0) 2.41±0.06
Oleic (18:1) 0.17±0.01
Linoleic (18:2) 11.82±1.17
Petroselinic (18:1) (n-6) 59.35±3.81
Vaccenic (18:1) (n-11) 0.55±0.01
Arachidic (20:0) 0.81±0.03
Unknown 14.26
* mean
** Standard deviation
et al.,1995). Also,the oil obtained from the air dried
seed essential oil of D.carota contained α-
terpinolene, β-caryophyllene, α-pinene, myrcene, α-
terpinene and limonene (Schaller and Schnitzler,
2000). Our results were generally different from the
literature findings on the major components. These
variations may be due to different climatological
factors, the nutritional status of the plants, variety and
other factors that can influence oil composition.
As a result, differences in the physical properties
of fruits having about the same size were probably
due to environmental conditions in conjunction with
the analytical methods used (Guil et al., 1998). In
addition, moisture, crude protein, ash, crude fiber
and crude oil contents and fatty acid compositions
of seeds are affected mainly by variety and growth
conditions. Carrot seed oil has a high content of
petroselinic acid. Their high protein and oil contents
along with their pleasant odor and taste suggest
that this fruit can be of use in the food industry.
Future studies could include amino acid contents,
glucosinolates, sterol, tocopherol contents of carrot
seeds and their oils. By-products of plant food
processing represent a major disposal problem for
the industry concerned, but they are also promising
sources of compounds which may be used because
of their favorable technological or nutritional
properties (Schieber et al., 2001).
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work was supported by Selçuk University
Scientific Research Project (S.U.-BAP, Konya-
Turkey).
REFERENCES
Adams R. 2001. Essential oil components by Quadrupole
GC/MS. Allured Publishing Corp., Carol Stream, IL,
USA.
Akgül A., Özcan M. 1999. Some compositional
characteristics of capers (Capparis spp.) seed and oil.
Grasas y Aceites 50, 49-52.
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARROT SEEDS (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) CULTIVATED IN TURKEY...
Tabla 5
Chemical composition of carrot seed essential and edible oil
RT RI Compounds Essential oil (%) Edible oil (%)
9.14 939 α-pinene 0.67 –
9.64 953 Camphene 0.04
10.56 971 Sabinene 0.10
10.64 980 α-pinene 0.52 –
11.21 991 Myrcene 0.17
12.46 1031 Limonene 0.43
14.42 1088 Terpinolene 0.08
14.84 1098 Linalool 0.34 0.25
14.93 1100 n-nonanal 0.05
16.00 1139 Trans-pinocarveol 0.04
16.20 1144 Trans-verbenol 0.08
17.42 1180 p-cymene-8-ol 0.07
17.59 1195 α-terpineol 0.07 –
18.09 1204 Verbenone 0.03
19.08 1243 Carvone 0.03
22.92 1380 Daucene 8.74 0.43
23.71 1415 Cis-α-bergamotene 0.13 –
23.87 1418 β-caryophyllene 1.10 –
24.02 1420 Z-α-farnesene 0.19 –
24.26 1435 Trans-α-bergamotene 2.41 0.26
24.3 1446 E-β-farnesene – 0.47
24.47 1449 Epi-β-santalene 0.15 –
24.79 1461 (Z,Z)-α-farnesene 5.86 –
25.17 1480 Germacrene D 2.34 0.25
25.39 1481 Ar-curcumene 0.23
25.56 1490 β-selinene 2.20 0.47
25.76 1498 α-selinene 0.89 0.08
25.86 1500 Bicyclogermacrene 1.87 0.61
26.02 1506 β-bisabolene 1.90 0.35
26.17 1515 Z-γ-bisabolene 0.05 0.18
26.35 1523 β-sesquiphellandrene 0.46 –
27.25 1563 15 copaenol 0.26 0.62
28.56 1595 Carotol 66.78 30.55
29.10 1638 Daucol 0.45 12.60
29.67 1671 α-eudesmol+alfa-cadinol 0.21 –
35.5 1957 Oleic acid 0.80
Toplam 98.94 47.92
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Recibido: 10/11/06
Aceptado: 26/6/07
GRASAS Y ACEITES, 58 (4), OCTUBRE-DICIEMBRE, 359-365, 2007, ISSN: 0017-3495 365
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF CARROT SEEDS (DAUCUS CAROTA L.) CULTIVATED IN TURKEY...
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Relevance. Evaluation of nutritional value of seeds of agricultural crops is considered to be highly significant for revealing new sources of antioxidants for humans. Material. The aim of the present investigation was antioxidant status and selenium accumulation levels by chicory seeds (13 cultivars) and comparison of the results with antioxidants status of seeds of other root vegetables: celery (5 cultivars), parsley (2 cultivars), parsnip (3 cultivars) and carrot (7 cultivars). Results. Among agricultural crops studied chicory was characterized by 3-4 higher levels of selenium accumulation by seeds and relatively low total antioxidant activity and polyphenol content. Anomalously high protein content in chicory seeds may explain the efficiency of selenium accumulation while relatively low antioxidant activity may be connected with lower levels of essential oil. Direct correlations between polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity were demonstrated for carrot (r=+0.924; P<0.01) and chicory (r= 0.803; P<0.01) seeds.
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The main aim of the present study was to establish the influence of different fertilization regimes and rates in carrot seed production on some sowing parameters and the chemical composition of the seeds. The experiments were carried out with carrot 'Tushon' variety. The seed plants were grown using the standard technology through stecklings. Three levels of NPK fertilization were tested, as follows N-0, 50, 70, 90 kg.ha-1 , P-0, 90, 140, 190 kg.ha-1 and K-0, 100, 150, 200 kg.ha-1 , applied once and twice, respectively. The weight of 1000 seeds, germination energy and germination were studied. The content of dry matter, moisture, ash, raw protein, carbohydrates and total lipids in carrot seeds were evaluated. The highest germination energy and germination were counted at N90P90K200 for once application and for twice one it was observed for N90P90K200 and N50P190K100. The highest changes were observed in the content of total lipids. Middle to strong positive correlation was found between the content of raw protein, lipids and carbohydrate and germination energy. Polynomial regressions between evenly increased fertilization rate and content of above-mentioned compounds with high determination coefficients were established.
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Oil contents of seeds changed between 15.89 g/100 g (purslane) and 38.97 g/100 g (black radish). Palmitic acid contents of oil samples were found between 2.2 g/100 g (turnip) and 15.0 g/100 g (purslane). While oleic acid contents of oil samples change between 12.1% (turnip) and 69.8% (purple carrot), linoleic acid contents of oils were determined between 8.9% (black radish) and 57.0% (onion). The highest linolenic acid was found in purslane oil (26.7%). While α-tocopherol contents of oil samples range from 2.01 mg/kg (purple carrot) to 903.01 mg/kg (onion), γ-tocopherol contents of vegetable seed oils changed between 1.14 mg/kg (curly lettuce) and 557.22 mg/kg (purslane). While campesterin contents of seed oils change between 203.2 mg/kg (purple carrot) and 2808.5 mg/kg (cabbage Yalova), stosterin contents of oil samples varied from 981.5 (curly lettuce) to 4843.3 mg/kg (purslane). The highest brassicasterin and δ5-avenasterin were found in red cabbage oil (894.5 mg/kg) and purslane seed oils (971.3 mg/kg), respectively. Total sterol contents of seed oils changed between 2960.4 mg/kg (purple carrot) and 9185.1 mg/kg (purslane). According to the results, vegetable seeds have different bioactive compound such as fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol. graphical abstract Fullsize Image
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This study investigated the proximate composition and fatty acid profiles of Tenualosa sp. (Tenualosa ilisha, Tenualosa keli) at three leading capture points on the east coast of India i.e., Chilika, Chandravaga, and Chandipur. The Tenualosa sp. contained 89.03, 7.52, 1.66, and 1.04% of moisture, protein, fat, and ash respectively. Out of 33 detected fatty acid components, myristic acid (C14:0) (684.67 mg/100g) was found to be the predominant saturated fatty acid (SFA) content. The ω-3 and ω-6 PUFA contents in the fish flesh ranged between 123.4-239.43 (avg. 177.89 mg/100g) and 293.43-543.37 (avg. 391.96 mg/100g) respectively. The highest DHA of 1.29 mg/100g) was registered for the Tenualosa sp. of Chilika lagoon. The atherogenicity indices (AI), thrombogenicity indices (TI), hypocholesterolaemia / hypercholesterolemic ratio (H/h) were found to be 1.5,0.63, and 0.62 respectively, and <2 which indicated safe for human consumption as per Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-UN). The trace metal concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr) were also recorded within the safe limit for consumption as suggested by the world health organisation (WHO). Hence, the Tenualosa sp. proved to be safe for consumption and can be regarded as a dietary component for good health.
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It is known that modern possibilities of pharmacotherapy of various diseases have significantly increased. The search for and creation of effective and safe drugs with a wide range of pharmacological activity remains relevant. Plants of the genus Daucus are a promising plant for a detailed pharmacognostic research. Representatives of the genus have been used for centuries in folk medicine of different countries and exhibit a wide range of medicinal properties. Carrot plants have not been sufficiently studied in phytochemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to analyze the scientific literature and databases of PubMed, Google Scholar on the botanical characteristics, phytochemical composition and medicinal uses of plants of the genus Daucus. The presence of coumarins, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, essential oils, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, niacin, thiamine, tocopherol and lutein has been proven in extracts from plant raw materials of different varieties of carrots. The content of biologically active substances can be determined by such factors as variety, temperature, air quality and carbon dioxide content in it, processing and storage. Plants of the genus Carrot (Daucus) are rich in biologically active substances, are actively used in both folk and official medicine, exhibit a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant, cytotoxic, antitumor, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiphteric, hepatoprotective, antihypertensive, carminative, diuretic, antispasmodic, wound-healing and immunostimulatory effects. Analysis of the world experience in the use of plants of the genus Daucus in folk medicine, experimental research on the phytochemical composition of plants of the said genus and a wide range of their pharmacological activity showed that aboveground and underground organs of different species of plants of the genus Daucus can be considered promising raw materials for further research on their basis of new phytopreparations of a wide range of action. Key words: Daucus carota L; garden carrot; wild carrot; phytochemistry; medicinal use.
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Peony seeds oil (PSO) is a high-end vegetable edible oil with good health care and edible value, and peony seeds shell (PSS) and peony seeds cake (PSC) are the two important by-products in the process of PSO production. The total mass of PSS and PSC accounts for more than 70% of peony seeds. The study on chemical and bioactivity of PSS and PSC plays a critical role in the healthy development of oil peony industry. PSS and PSC are rich in plant proteins, polysaccharides, monoterpene glycosides, oligostilbenes, flavonoids, sterols, phenolic acids and other active ingredients with various biological activities. The active ingredients in PSS and PSC can be used as raw material in food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, the present article aims to summarize structures, extraction, bioactivities and application of the active ingredients from the by-products of PSO processing, provide a reference for the development and utilization of PSS and PSC, and construct a foundation for the healthy development of oil peony industry. It is reasonable to believe that with the deepening of research, more high value-added products will be studied, developed and utilized from the nutritional profiles of PSS and PSC.
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The influences of harvest date on weight loss and the carbohydrate composition of carrots cv Express OE 20, a Nantes type, at harvest and during long-term storage were investigated over two seasons. Root yield, total sugar production and carotene content of the roots were closely correlated with the number of degree-days over 6°C from sowing to harvest. The growing conditions mainly influenced the content of sucrose in the roots. Dry matter content, free amino acids and carotene increased over the harvest period. The hexose content of the roots increased rapidly, and their sucrose content decreased during the first 60–90 days of the six months’ storage period at 0−1°C, after which there was little further change. The changes in carbohydrate composition during storage followed the same pattern, independent of harvest date, thus maintaining differences between the harvest dates throughout storage.
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This is the first report on the fruit oil composition of two Capparis species from Turkey. The fruits of C.spinosa and C.ovata contained 17.7 and 15.9% oil respectively. Myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, elaidic, linoleic, linolenic acids were determined mainly by GC and GC/MS. β-sitosterol was determined in the unsaponifiable matter of the oils.
Chapter
There is a long history of genetic and environmental influences on carrot flavor. In the tenth century A.D., Arabian red-rooted carrots were considered tastier than white-rooted types, and warm weather was thought to develop a more “acrid” flavor than cool weather. In eighteenth-century Europe, purple and yellow carrots were considered best flavored, orange roots less desirable, and white roots nearly unpalatable (Banga 1957A,B). More recent reports have considered bitterness, sweetness, and harsh flavor in fresh, stored, and processed carrots (see reviews by Aubert et al. 1979; Simon et al. 1981). Like many vegetables, no single compound has been found to account for a distinctively “carrot-like” flavor. However, it has been possible to determine several of the compounds which contribute to carrot flavor and to attribute variation in carrot flavor to certain genetic, environmental, and postharvest factors or treatments.
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Fresh carrots (Daucus carota L cv ‘Nantes’) were packed in Netlon and ventilated low-density polyethylene bags and stored in ambient, cool chamber and cool store conditions. Blanching and drying conditions were standardised and the sliced carrots were dehydrated to 7–9% moisture content using the best blanching and drying combination. Dehydrated carrots were packed in single and double layers of high-density polyethylene bags and stored in ambient and cool store conditions for 9 months. The shelf-life of fresh carrots varied from 3 to 20 days depending on the packaging and storage condition. A reduction in β-carotene and ascorbic acid content and an increase in electrolyte leakage were observed during storage of fresh carrots. Blanching and drying caused a significant reduction in β-carotene and ascorbic acid content, which further decreased during storage of dried product. The storage study of dried product showed that retention of β-carotene and ascorbic acid was better in double-packed and cool-stored samples, and it also showed minimum browning during storage. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry