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The Research Foundation to Tree Pruning: A Review of the Literature

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Abstract and Figures

Two hundred one research publications including 152 journal articles were compiled. Forty-four journals were represent-ed with the Journal of Arboriculture, Arboricultural & Urban Forestry, and Arboricultural Journal as the most frequently cited. Com-partmentalization, wounding, wound response, decay development, and wound treatment were the most frequently noted topic areas. The bibliography was organized in Zotero, an application using the Firefox web browser. Keywords were identi-fied for each publication. Where either the article or its abstract was available, an annotation was created. This pa-per describes the major topic areas identified in the review and discusses the future directions for pruning research. Pruning is at the heart of arboriculture, one of the most impor-tant services arborists provide. To paraphrase Alex Shigo (1989), pruning can be one of the best things an arborist can do for a tree and one of the worse things an arborist can do to a tree. Pruning impacts both tree health and structure. It is practiced worldwide. In 2007, the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA) contracted HortScience, Inc. to prepare a literature review on the topic of pruning. The focus of the review was the research literature. The emphasis was on arboriculture but the review could reference forestry and pomology literature as appropriate.
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Clark and Matheny: The Research Foundation to Tree Pruning
©2010 International Society of Arboriculture
The Research Foundation to Tree Pruning:
A Review of the Literature
Arboriculture & Urban Forestry 2010. 36(3): 110–120
James R. Clark and Nelda Matheny
Abstract. Two hundred one research publications including 152 journal articles were compiled. Forty-four journals were represent-
ed with the Journal of Arboriculture, Arboricultural & Urban Forestry, and Arboricultural Journal as the most frequently cited. Com-
partmentalization, wounding, wound response, decay development, and wound treatment were the most frequently noted topic areas.
The bibliography was organized in Zotero, an application using the Firefox web browser. Keywords were identi-
fied for each publication. Where either the article or its abstract was available, an annotation was created. This pa-
per describes the major topic areas identified in the review and discusses the future directions for pruning research.
Key Words: Tree Pruning; Literature Review.
Pruning is at the heart of arboriculture, one of the most impor-
tant services arborists provide. To paraphrase Alex Shigo (1989),
pruning can be one of the best things an arborist can do for a tree
and one of the worse things an arborist can do to a tree. Pruning
impacts both tree health and structure. It is practiced worldwide.
In 2007, the International Society of Arboriculture (ISA)
contracted HortScience, Inc. to prepare a literature review on
the topic of pruning. The focus of the review was the research
literature. The emphasis was on arboriculture but the review
could reference forestry and pomology literature as appropriate.
In developing the review, the authors focused on peer-reviewed
sources, particularly scientific journals. The process was ini-
tiated by compiling references from standard industry refer-
ences such as Gilman’s Illustrated Guide to Pruning (2nd edi-
tion, 2002), and Arboriculture (Harris et al. 2004). The authors
also relied on O’Hara’s review of the forestry literature dealing
with pruning and wounding (2007). The online archive of the
Journal of Arboriculture and Arboriculture & Urban Forestry
were searched for titles containing the word “pruning.” There
were 42 citations, some of which appeared prior to 1990—a
period when articles in the Journal of Arboriculture were not
necessarily research based. Major industry standards used in
the U.S. (ANSI 2008) and Europe (British Standards Institute
1989; ZTV-Baumpflege 2001; European Arboricultural Council
2008) were then reviewed as well as their supporting publica-
tions (Gilman and Lilly 2002; Kempter 2004; Lonsdale 2008).
ISA specifically requested an effort to access literature from
non-English sources. Literature from outside North America
was queried in several ways. First, two English-language jour-
nals published in Europe, the Arboricultural Journal (Arbo-
ricultural Association, UK) and Urban Forestry and Urban
Greening (Springer) were reviewed. This approach yielded
good results with Schwarze et al. (2007) and Dujeseifken
(2002) as examples. Second, links to non-English publica-
tions were searched. Finally, a draft of the literature review
was sent to scientists in Germany, Denmark, Italy, and France
for comment. Additional references were then incorporated.
There were limitations to this approach. First, journals
published in languages other than English were generally in-
accessible. Second, papers where pruning was not a key-
word may have been missed. Third, journals with limited ex-
posure and nonpublished dissertations were likely omitted.
Fourth, no commercial or university databases were used.
Zotero ( was selected as the bibliographic
management program. The program links to Firefox’s Mozilla
web browser. For each citation, keywords (called “tags” in Zote-
ro’s lexicon) were identified. In addition, an annotation (“note” in
Zotero) was prepared (Table 1). The breadth of both keywords and
annotation was limited by access to the complete paper. Journal of
Arboriculture and Arboriculture & Urban Forestry were unique
in that the online archive was completely accessible to members
of the International Society of Arboriculture. Older issues can be
accessed without membership. Most journals, however, were not
fully accessible. In almost all cases, abstracts were used. Approxi-
mately 75% of the citations had access to the full article. In the re-
maining 25%, annotations were either very limited or not entered.
Two hundred one citations were assembled. Among this group
were 20 books and 10 book sections. These had broad focus and
were included to identify general resources. For the professional
arborist, Gilman (2002) is likely to be the best reference as it
covers all aspects of the topic from young trees to mature speci-
mens, in a variety of settings. The book is also well-illustrated.
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Forest tree pruning was represented by Mayer Wegelin’s papers
(1936; 1952), the silvicultural textbook of Smith et al. (1996), and
a Hanley et al. (1995) volume on pruning of conifers. Also refer-
enced were resources written in German (Hoster 1993; Dujesiefken
1995; Pfisterer 1999; Stobbe et al. 2002a; Stobbe et al. 2002b),
and French (Drenou 1999; Austad and Hauge 2007). Palms were
referenced through Broschat and Meerow (2000). For the most
part, books were included as general references to the topic of
pruning but lacked extensive references to the scientific literature.
Journal articles comprised 152 of the 201 citations. For-
ty-four journals were referenced, published in 12 countries
(Table 2). Journal of Arboriculture (51), Arboriculture & Ur-
ban Forestry (12), and Arboricultural Journal (9) were the
most frequently referenced. Journals cited originated in Eu-
rope (25), North America (17), and the Asia-Pacific region (2).
More than half of the journals (24) were focused on for-
estry and forest science. Another 10, such as American Jour-
nal of Botany, were oriented to the traditional plant scienc-
es. Three journals were horticultural in focus; another five
were oriented to arboricultural and urban forestry. Two jour-
nals, Trees—Structure and Function and Tree Physiology,
crossed lines among forestry, arboriculture, and horticulture.
Citations arose primarily from English language journals
(113 of 201). Some journals, notably Arboriculture & Urban
Forestry, Arboricultural Journal, Canadian Journal of Botany,
Canadian Journal of Forest Research, and Journal of Arbori-
culture may provide abstracts in languages other than English.
Also included were citations in French, German, and Italian.
A small fraction of the citations had not undergone the nor-
mal peer-review process. Four citations were reports of the
USDA Forest Service, all authored by Shigo (Shigo and Lar-
son 1969; Shigo and Marx 1977; Shigo at al. 1979; Butin and
Shigo 1981). Such reports are normally reviewed by other sci-
entists within the agency. Articles in Arborist News, such as
Fraedrich and Smiley (1996) and Guggenmoos (2007), receive
technical review. The nature of the review for books, industry
standards, extension publications, conference proceedings, and
book sections was unknown. The main reason for including ma-
terial that had not been peer-reviewed was to highlight a specific
pruning topic. This will be discussed in the following section.
A list of all authors was compiled. The most frequently cited au-
thors were Alex Shigo of the United States and Dirk Dujesiefsken of
Germany. Both were noted 13 times. Authors cited with four or more
references included Ed Gilman, Jason Grabosky, Brian Kane, Dan
Neely, and Tom Smiley of the United States; Karen Barry and Eliza-
beth Pinkard of Australia; W. Liese, D. Eckstein, Francis Schwarze,
and Horst Stobbe, of Germany; and Francesco Ferrini of Italy.
Research topics were identified by the frequency with which
keywords were applied. The following discussion high-
lights a portion of the literature included in the bibliography.
The dominant theme of the literature review was wound-
ing, the tree’s response and possible treatments to affect that
response. Wounding and the tree response, to it were to-
gether noted as keywords in 30 of the 201 citations. They
were often linked to compartmentalization (24 citations), de-
cay (25), and wound dressing (10). O’Hara (2007) provided
a review of the literature on this topic, emphasizing wound
response and the goal of producing clear wood in timber.
Modern research activity in this area might begin with Shigo and
Larson’s (1969) photographic summary of the patterns of discolor-
ation and decay in hardwoods of the northeastern U.S. This report
focused on the relationship of external appearance to wood quality.
It was observational in nature, rather than founded in experimen-
tation. One finding was that covering pruning wounds with “dress-
ings” neither improved closure nor reduced the presence of decay.
In 1977, Shigo and Marx released their seminal report Com-
partmentalization of decay in trees, which introduced the CODIT
concept. Shigo et al. (1979) then reported on the relationship of
flush cuts to the development of internal decay and other defects
in black walnut (Juglans nigra). The authors noted, “When prun-
ing is done late in the life of a tree, care must be taken not to
remove the branch collars that form about the bases of dead and
dying branches.” Also in 1979, Shortle expanded on the compart-
mentalization model with very well-illustrated paper. He posed
the “heartrot” concept, describing how external wounds allow
decay fungi to enter and become established in the tree. Devel-
opment of the CODIT model culminated with two publications:
How tree branches are attached to trunks (Shigo 1985) and Com-
partmentalization: A conceptual framework for understanding
how trees grow and defend themselves (Shigo 1984). As noted
previously, the vast bulk of this work was observational in nature.
Shigo was neither the only scientist interested in tree re-
sponse to wounding nor the first to examine it. For example,
foresters have long had an interest in tree response to pruning
and wounding (McQuilkin 1950; Herring et al. 1958; O’Hara
2007). Von Aufsess (1975) noted the formation of a protective
zone at the base of branches. Neely (1970; 1979) observed that
production of callus (i.e., woundwood) at the margins of prun-
ing wounds was related to tree vigor, as measured by growth.
Research on the topic of tree wound response and its man-
agement continued through the following decades. Experiments
Table 1. Examples of annotations included in the literature
Gilman, E.F., and G. Knox. 2005. Pruning type affects decay and structure
of crapemyrtle. Journal of Arboriculture 31:38–47.
Established Lagerstroemia × Natchez trees were topped, pollarded
or unpruned for four years. Topping resulted in more dead stubs and
discolored wood than pollarding which had limited decay development.
Recommended developing pollards rather than routine topping. Nice
photos. Florida US.
Neilsen, W., and E. Pinkard. 2003. Effects of green pruning on growth Pinus
radiata. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 33:2067–2073.
Crowns of 6- to 8-year-old, plantation Monterey pine were raised. Rais-
ing to 45% of tree height had no effect on growth which was reduced
with greater crown removal. Suggests maintaining a live crown ratio of
55%. Tasmania Australia.
Schwarze, F., J. Gruner, M. Schubert, and S. Fink. 2007. Defence reactions
and fungal colonization in Fraxinus excelsior and Tilia platyphyllos after
stem wounding. Arboricultural Journal 30:61–82.
Describes the anatomy of the barrier zone (= CODIT wall 4), suggesting
that differences in this zone account in part for species differences in de-
cay resistance. Strong within species variation in discoloration associated
with both increment borer holes and chain saw cuts to the stem. Also
isolated fungi from around the wounds. Excellent photos. Good discus-
sion of fungal development and tree response. Freiburg Germany.
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focusing on application of wound dressings generally found ma-
terials to be ineffective. There has been excellent work study-
ing the development of reaction and barrier zones in response
to wounding of all types. Dujesiefken et al. (1999), Barry et
al. (2000), Pearce (2000), Schwarze (2001), and Schwarze
et al. (2007) provide detailed, very well-illustrated analyses.
The question of whether to employ flush or natural tar-
get (i.e., collar) cuts has generally sided with the latter (De-
florio et al. 2007). O’Hara (2007) suggested that one type or
style of cut may not meet all management needs. Researchers
tend to agree that smaller pruning wounds are preferable to
larger ones, and pruning is most appropriate on young trees.
Research in the area of wound response has also involved ex-
aminations of branch structure and strength. Eisner et al. (2002b)
characterized the relative size of branch to stem as aspect ratio
and used this measure to assess response to pruning. Removal of
branches with aspect ratios greater than 0.39 in red maple (Acer
rubrum) and 0.59 in southern live oak (Quercus virginiana)
resulted in greater discoloration in the parent. Branches with a
more vertical orientation were more likely to have pith continuous
with the stem. Removal of limbs with this pith connection resulted
in more discoloration in the parent stem. Gilman
and Grabosky (2006) observed that as aspect ratio
increased, the amount of discoloration and decay
also increased. Another key finding was the obser-
vation that pruning can slow down the growth of
a codominant stem to the extent that a branch pro-
tection zone forms. Another facet of branch struc-
ture research has been the documentation that as
aspect ratio increases, strength decreases (Gil-
man 2003; Kane 2007; Kane and Farrell 2008).
At the current time, the Hamburg Tree Prun-
ing System (Dujesiefken and Stobbe 2002;
Dujesiefken et al. 2005a) may best represent
the evolution of research into wound response.
It is based on observations of 750 wounds on
115 mature street and park trees. The system is
based on the natural target pruning approach
and has been integrated into German standards.
Another important topic encountered in the
review was pruning around overhead utility
lines (16 citations). The topic first appeared in
the Journal of Arboriculture in conference pa-
pers during the 1980s (Holewinski 1983; John-
stone 1983). Both raised ideas of using what has
become known as either natural or directional
pruning rather than traditional roundover trim-
ming. Goodfellow et al. (1987) demonstrated
that directional pruning resulted in less regrowth
than roundover. Johnstone (1988) followed with
a description of how directional pruning could
be successfully integrated into a utility’s vegeta-
tion management program. Directional pruning
certainly came of age with the publication of
Pruning trees near electrical utility lines (1990),
also known as Shigo’s “yellow book.” Although
it was not a research-based publication, the yel-
low book became a key element of utility prac-
tice. It has largely been superseded by Kempter’s
(2004) summary of best management practices.
In recent years, research in the utility side
of arboriculture has focused on three areas: 1) service reliabil-
ity (Galvin 2005; Guggenmoos 2007), 2) impacts of pruning on
tree structure and stability (Browning and Wiant 1997; Dahle
2006a; Dahle 2006b), and 3) the response of property owners
to changes in practice (Close 2001; Kuhns and Reiter 2007).
Outside of the U.S., there has been essentially no research in
the utility arboriculture area, at least that which has been pub-
lished in English language journals. One exception was Millet and
Bouchard’s (2003) application of the French architectural analy-
sis methods to the utility setting. They suggested species architec-
tural patterns should be considered in making pruning decisions.
Municipal arborists have benefited from research deal-
ing with pruning of street trees (10 citations). In 1981, Miller
and Sylvester addressed the question: What is the appropriate
length of the pruning cycle for municipal trees? Using Milwau-
kee, WI, as a test case, they concluded four to five years was
the appropriate pruning cycle. They observed that tree condi-
tion declined as the length of the pruning cycle increased. Tous-
saint et al. (2002) provided a somewhat similar assessment for
European linden (Tilia × europaea) street trees in France. They
Table 2. Journals referenced in the pruning bibliography.
Journal Origin No. of Citations
Acer Italy 7
Agroforestry Systems Netherlands 1
Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift Germany 1
American Journal of Botany United States 1
Annals of Applied Biology United Kingdom 3
Annals of Botany United Kingdom 1
Annual Review of Phytopathology United States 1
Arboricultural Journal United Kingdom 9
Arboriculture & Urban Forestry United States 12
Biological Conservation United Kingdom 1
Biotechnology Agronomy Society & Environment Belgium 1
Canadian Journal of Botany Canada 1
Canadian Journal of Forest Research Canada 7
European Journal of Forest Pathology Netherlands 1
European Journal of Forest Research Germany 1
Forest Ecology and Management United States 5
Forest Pathology United States 1
Forest Science United States 1
Forestry United Kingdom 1
Forst und Holz Germany 1
Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt Germany 3
Holz als Roh- und Werkstoff Germany 1
Holzforschung Germany 2
HortScience United States 3
International Association Wood Anatomy Bulletin United States 1
Journal of American Society Horticultural Science United States 2
Journal Applied Ecology United Kingdom 1
Journal of Arboriculture United States 51
Journal of Forestry United States 5
Journal of Wood Science United States 1
Neue Landschaft Germany 1
New Forests United Kingdom 1
New Phytologist United Kingdom 1
New Zealand Tree Grower New Zealand 1
Phytopathology United States 1
Proc. American Society of Horticultural Science United States 1
Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwese Germany 1
Sherwood Italy 4
Silva Fennica Finland 2
Tasforests Australia 1
Tree Physiology United Kingdom 1
Trees - Structure & Function Germany 4
Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Denmark 5
Western Journal Applied Forestry United States 1
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contrasted the costs of routine pruning to those associated with
topping, finding the former both less expensive and less dam-
aging in the long-term. Campanella et al. (2009) followed this
with an assessment of the long-term costs of roundover, resto-
ration, and thinning of European linden street trees in Belgium.
Nowak (1990) evaluated the results of street tree inventories
from 11 tree species in the U.S. He observed strong species-
specific results in pruning requirements, suggesting that prun-
ing cycle may be species-specific. American elm (Ulmus amer-
icana) and boxelder (Acer negundo) had the most urgent need
for pruning, with London plane (Platanus × acerifolia) and
honeylocust (Gleditsia triacanthos f. inermis) the least urgent.
Ehsen (1987) described street tree pruning in Germany
with a focus on how pruning needs change over the tree’s
life-span, moving from a focus on training in young trees to
maintenance (e.g., cleaning and raising) on mature trees to
reduction in overmature trees. Balder et al. (1997) summa-
rized street tree selection and management in Germany, using
Berlin as an example. Mascelli et al. (2008) used street trees
in Prato, Italy, as a case study of pruning and management.
The research foundation for the range of types or styles of
pruning varies widely. In some areas, research is only now catch-
ing up with long-time practice. In others, research provided clear
direction to practice. Where to make cuts and the need to use
wound dressings is but one example. The methods for, and value
of, pruning young trees to develop good structure has been well-
documented whether pruning involves retaining low branches
(Leiser et al. 1972), or selective bud removal (Oleksak et al. 1997).
In contrast, other pruning practices have less well-devel-
oped foundation. There is no research to suggest crown thin-
ning improves either tree health or structural stability. And,
while it has been common practice for many years, reduc-
tion pruning to a branch at least one-third the diameter of
the stem lacked a scientific basis. It was not until Grabosky
and Gilman (2007) evaluated reduction cuts on two ma-
ture oak species that a tentative basis could be established.
The architectural style of pruning is common in France
(Stefulesco 1995; Drenou 1999; Drenou 2000). In many
ways, research has followed practice, as this pruning tech-
nique is quite old. Timing and techniques of architectural
pruning have been elucidated by the research of scien-
tists such as Bory et al. (1996) and Clair-Maczulajtys et al.
(1999) who have focused on carbohydrate storage patterns
in trees. Pollards are also a common feature of the Euro-
pean landscape. Both Austad and Hauge (2007) and Fer-
rini (2006c) discuss their physiology and management.
Much of the work with crown-raising has occurred in for-
estry, where the objective is to have the lower trunk free of
branches. From Slabaugh (1957) to Neilsen and Pinkard
(2003), research has documented that removal of up to
50% of the live crown of young trees by lifting does not ad-
versely impact growth. In summarizing the results from
8 field studies with Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii),
O’Hara (1991) suggested 33% crown removal as the limit.
Pruning is considered one of the important tools in the prac-
tice of plant health care. Svihra (1994) summarized the litera-
ture regarding eradicative pruning (i.e., the removal of infested
and infected branches). Pruning has been used to manage dis-
ease problems such as Dutch elm disease (Gregory and Al-
lison 1979) and oak wilt (Appel 1994; Camilli et al. 2007). It
is also important in the management of bronze birch borer
(Ball 1992) and bark beetles (Barger and Cannon 1987). One
of the key results of such work is the knowledge that many
insects are attracted to fresh pruning wounds. For this rea-
son, pruning should take place when insects are not active.
Arborists have long believed that proper pruning reduced
the likelihood of damage during storms. Duryea et al. (1996)
documented the effects of Hurricane Andrew in Florida, sup-
ported this observation for some species. Luley et al. (2002)
documented branch failures in sweetgum (Liquidambar
styraciflua) trees in Rochester, NY, over an eight-year period.
Pruning did not reduce the number of failures (most of which
occurred while the tree was in leaf), but did result in fewer
service requests. Kane (2008) examined the pattern of tree
failure following a severe windstorm in Massachusetts find-
ing that pre-storm pruning “had little effect on (tree) failure.
Pruning has been used as a tool in evaluating tree response to
wind, particularly related to the affect on trunk movement. Smiley
and Kane (2006), Pavlis et al. (2008), and Gilman et al. (2008a;
2008b) simulated wind conditions to evaluate trunk movement
of young trees in response to crown thinning, raising and reduc-
tion pruning. Both crown reduction and crown thinning reduced
trunk movement (Gilman et al. 2008a; Gilman et al. 2008b) and
wind load (Smiley and Kane 2006). Essentially, the more crown
mass removed, the lower the trunk movement or wind load.
Gilman et al. (2008a) noted the response was a complex one,
and the authors cautioned against extrapolating to larger trees.
Moore and Maguire (2005) examined the effects of crown-
raising on movement of 14 m to 20 m Douglas-fir trees. Nat-
ural sway frequency increased as pruning level increased,
although this was not noticeable until 80% of the canopy
had been removed. Changes in sway frequency were related
to how crown mass was distributed. They noted that treat-
ing branches as a lumped mass may not be appropriate.
Standards for pruning are found in the U.S. (ANSI 2008), the
United Kingdom (British Standards Institute 1989), and Germa-
ny (ZTV-Baumpflege 2001). In each case, the standard provides
a common vocabulary and procedures for pruning activities. In
the U.S., the International Society of Arboriculture (Gilman and
Lilly 2002; Kempter 2004) produced a companion volume to the
standard, aimed at defining best practice. In a somewhat similar
manner, the European Arboricultural Council (2008) recently up-
dated the European Tree Pruning Guide. In Italy, the concept of
industry standards remains under discussion (see di Lobis 2003).
Arboricultural practice should have a foundation in research.
In the area of pruning, a foundation is present to some extent.
It seems clear that employing removal and reduction cuts has
been documented by experimentation and careful observa-
tion. Research by Shigo and more recently by Dujesiefken
has supported use of the branch collar, natural target ap-
proach to selecting the location of a removal cut. Although
less well-defined, the same is true for reduction pruning, pri-
marily through work of Ed Gilman and Jason Grabosky.
In utility arboriculture, reduction cuts take the form of di-
rectional pruning—the effort to use a tree’s natural growth
pattern to aid in maintaining clearance. The literature docu-
ments the value of directional pruning and the problems as-
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©2010 International Society of Arboriculture
sociated with topping and traditional roundover trimming.
Future research could further validate the few experiments
in this area. In addition, research along the line of Millet and
Bouchard’s (2003) application of architectural analysis to
line clearance would enhance the idea of directional growth.
Additional research is needed to support the use of pruning
in the area of plant health care. Although effectiveness of sanita-
tion or eradicative pruning has been documented, use of cleaning
and thinning to improve overall plant health has not. In a similar
manner, an answer to the question, “Does pruning reduce the po-
tential for windthrow, windsnap, or failure during storms?” has
not yet been developed. Most recent research has been with rela-
tively small trees rather than mature individuals. A recent article
by Kane and Harris (2008) reviews the research on this topic.
Access to non-English language journals and those in fields
such as forestry is ever-increasing but is not without its limitations.
First, many but not all journals have some online presence. Ab-
stracts can generally be accessed free of charge. Articles, however,
must be purchased. A second limitation to a broader application
of the world-wide literature is the lack of a common vocabulary.
Is early pruning the same as formative pruning? Is forestry’s green
pruning equivalent to crown raising? Comparison of professional
standards will reduce confusion about terms. A third limitation is
language, as only few journals provide abstracts in other languag-
es. Fewer still offer table and figure captions in a second language.
Acknowledgments. The authors very much appreciate the comments
and suggestions of two anonymous reviewers as well as those of the
editor. We acknowledge the encouragement and support of the ISA Sci-
ence and Research Committee, particularly Greg McPherson and Sharon
Lilly. Thanks to the Department of Plant Biology, University of Califor-
nia (Davis) for providing access to the campus library.
Harris, R., J. Clark and N. Matheny. 2004. Arboriculture—Integrated
management of landscape trees shrubs and vines. 4th edition. Pren-
tice Hall. Upper Saddle River NJ.
Kane, B., and R. Harris. 2008. Does pruning reduce the risk of tree fail-
ure? Arborist News 17:46-48.
Shigo, A. 1989. Tree Pruning—A worldwide photo guide. Shigo and
Trees Associates. Durham NH.
James R. Clark (corresponding author)
HortScience, Inc.
P.O. Box 754
Pleasanton CA 94566, U.S.
Nelda Matheny
HortScience, Inc.
P.O. Box 754
Pleasanton CA 94566, U.S.
Résumé. Deux cents une publications de recherches, incluant 152
articles de journaux, ont été compilés. Quarante-quatre journaux étaient
représentés, et le Journal of Arboriculture, le Arboricultural & Urban
Forestry ainsi que le Arboricultural Journal étaient les plus fréquemment
cités. La compartimentation, les blessures, la réaction aux blessures, le
développement de la carie et le traitement des blessures étaient les sujets
les plus fréquemment traités.
La bibliographie a été montée sur Zotero, une application faisant ap-
pel au navigateur Firefox. Les mots-clés ont été identifiés pour chacune
des publications. Lorsque l’article ou le résumé était disponible, une an-
notation a été inscrite. Cet article décrit les sujets majeurs traités qui ont
été identifiés dans cette revue et présente une discussion des directions
futures en ce qui regarde l’élagage.
Zusammenfassung. 201 Forschungspublikationen, einschließlich
152 Journalartikel wurden zusammengestellt. 44 Journale, einschließlich
Journal of Arboriculture, Arboricultural & Urban Forestry, und Arbori-
cultural Journal als die meist zitierten, wurden präsentiert. Kompartmen-
talisierung, Verletzung, Wundreaktion, Fäuleentwicklung und Wundbe-
handlung waren die häufigsten Themen.
Die Bibliographie wurde in Zotero organisiert, eine Applikation
von dem Browser Firefox, welcher die Schlüsselworte in jeder Publika-
tion identifiziert. Wo entweder der Artikel oder sein Abstrakt erhältlich
war, wurde ein Vermerk gemacht. Diese Studie beschreibt die Haupt-
themengebiete, die in der Durchsicht identifiziert wurden und diskutiert
die zukünftigen Richtungen für die Baumpflege.
Resumen. Se compilaron 201 publicaciones de investigaciones in-
cluyendo 152 artículos de journal. Cuarenta y cuatro jornals estuvieron
representados por el Journal of Arboriculture, Arboricultural & Urban
Forestry, y Arboricultural Journal como los más frecuentemente cita-
dos. Compartimentación, herida, respuesta a la herida, desarrollo de la
descomposición y tratamiento de heridas fueron los tópicos más fre-
cuentes. La bibliografía estuvo organizada en Zotero, una aplicación que
usa el navegador Firefox. Se identificaron palabras claves para cada pub-
licación. Cuando el artículo o su abstract estuvieron disponibles, se creó
una anotación. Este trabajo describe los tópicos principales identificados
en la revisión y discute las direcciones futuras para la investigación sobre
la poda.
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... In most cities, street trees are regularly maintained for attractive shapes; while in some cities encountering periodic storms and typhoons, the maintenance routine is additionally targeted at reducing life or property threats from tree failures. Among various maintenance applications, pruning in many areas has been applied as a maintenance routine to achieve multiple objectives, such as controlling pests or diseases, increasing light penetration and air movement, providing aesthetic views, raising the crown height, and improving growth forms and tree structures [14,15]. On the other hand, tree pruning implies an unavoidable loss in the provision of ES, not to mention the additional losses from inappropriate pruning-caused deterioration of tree condition, physical damage, or disease infection [14,16]. ...
... Among various maintenance applications, pruning in many areas has been applied as a maintenance routine to achieve multiple objectives, such as controlling pests or diseases, increasing light penetration and air movement, providing aesthetic views, raising the crown height, and improving growth forms and tree structures [14,15]. On the other hand, tree pruning implies an unavoidable loss in the provision of ES, not to mention the additional losses from inappropriate pruning-caused deterioration of tree condition, physical damage, or disease infection [14,16]. However, the potential loss of ES due to pruning has seldom been studied or discussed. ...
... Sustainability 2022, 14, 6637 ...
Full-text available
Trees provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) and are generally considered an important natural-based approach for climate change adaptation and mitigation. In urban areas, proper pruning practices can help enhance ES provided by trees, but in areas with issues of typhoons or storms, routinely intensive pruning may reduce ES. Therefore, it is critical to determine proper pruning intensity in balancing the ES provision and life/property protection. With the aim of promoting sustainable urban forestry management, we applied the i-Tree Eco to quantify ES and ES values of air pollution removal and runoff avoidance provided by a total of 87,014 Taipei street trees and developed an analytical method to estimate the potential loss caused by different pruning intensities. Based on the i-Tree Eco estimates, the Taipei street trees on average provide ES values of air pollution removal and runoff avoidance at $2.31 and $1.87 USD/tree/y, respectively. By changing the ratio of crown missing as a surrogate for different pruning intensities, we found that with a less than 25% pruning intensity, the decline ratio of ES values was relatively constant, and the potential loss was estimated at $0.47 USD/tree/y at the 25% pruning intensity. As such, in general maintenance situations, we recommend a less than 25% pruning intensity. However, during typhoon or monsoon seasons, a less than 45% pruning intensity is suggested to balance the ES provision and public safety with an estimated loss at $0.96 USD/tree/y. We also suggest creating visualization maps incorporating the potential ES and the local in situ environmental and tree conditions at a community level to support decision making for a more comprehensive management plan. Based on the framework and method developed in this study, the science-based information can be used to assist maintenance practices and highlight the potential ES values to be enhanced by choosing proper pruning intensity for a more sustainable future.
... As total leaf area increases with ontogeny PM accumulation is therefore related to tree diameter at breast height, tree height and tree age . However, particularly in road-side trees, canopy and thus leaf area are also shaped by pruning (Clark and Matheny, 2010;Fini et al., 2015;Speak and Salbitano, 2023). The amount of PM accumulated per tree must not be related to the amount of PM accumulated per unit leaf area, but rather is controlled by the tree leaf surface area and arrangement of leaves. ...
... The characteristics of crown and leaf traits, often change with the season (especially in deciduous trees) or with development, at the leaf/needle level (hairiness, cuticular waxes) or with the age of a tree (crown size, architecture). In urban settings, management (Clark and Matheny, 2010;Fini et al., 2015;Speak and Salbitano, 2023) and stress such as pollution, drought, pests and diseases affect tree health/allometry, and thus alter crown and leaf traits (Fitzky et al., 2019;Rai et al., 2010;Samson et al., 2017a). Furthermore, accumulated PM can vary within crowns, depending on (interacting) exposure to pollution, wind and rain and leaf traits (Hofman et al., 2014). ...
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Particulate matter (PM) pollution poses a significant threat to human health. Greenery, particularly trees, can act as effective filters for PM, reducing associated health risks. Previous studies have indicated that tree traits play a crucial role in determining the amount of PM accumulated on leaves, although findings have often been site-specific. To comprehensively investigate the key factors influencing PM binding to leaves across diverse tree species and geographical locations, we conducted an extensive analysis using data extracted from 57 publications. The data covers 11 countries and 190 tree species from 1996 to 2021. We categorized tree species into functional groups: evergreen conifers, deciduous conifers, deciduous broadleaves, and evergreen broadleaves based on leaf habit and phylogeny. Evergreen conifers exhibited the highest PM accumulation on leaves, and in general, evergreen leaves accumulated more PM compared to deciduous leaves across all PM size classes. Specific leaf traits, such as epicuticular wax, played a significant role. The highest PM loads on leaves were observed in peri-urban areas along the rural-peri-urban-urban gradient. However, the availability of global data was skewed, with most data originating from urban and peri-urban areas, primarily from China and Poland. Among different climate zones, substantial data were only available for warm temperate and cold steppe climate zones. Understanding the problem of PM pollution and the role of greenery in urban environments is crucial for monitoring and controlling PM pollution. Our systematic review of the literature highlights the variation on PM loading among different vegetation types with varying leaf characteristics. Notably, epicuticular wax emerged as a marker trait that exhibited variability across PM size fractions and different vegetation types. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the importance of greenery in mitigation PM pollution. Our findings underscore the significance of tree traits in PM binding. However, lack of data stresses the need for further research and data collection initiatives.
... For example, in Taipei, the capital of Taiwan with 2.6 million people, there are more than eighty-thousand street trees in the city. These trees are regularly maintained for multiple social objectives, such as attractive shapes, increasing light penetration, improving air movement, and providing aesthetic views (Clark and Matheny, 2010;Ryder and Moore, 2013). Taipei street trees are also routinely pruned during periodic typhoons or storm seasons to reduce risks of property damage and threats to lives from tree failures, but the intensive pruning may cause potential losses in ES (Wei and Cheng, 2022). ...
... Results indicated that several Taipei street trees encountered a higher than 25% leaf area loss (Table 3), which exceeds a commonly suggested live foliage removal of 25% on an annual basis (American National Standard Institute [ANSI], 2008), and in many cities, a more conservative pruning intensity of 10% was applied to avoid defective tree physiology. Although pruning can be one of the most prevailing practices to rearrange branch distribution, enhance tree structure and growth, reduce competition between trees, and control pests or diseases (Badrulhisham and Othman, 2016), improper pruning operation can damage tree viability, induce new diseases, even lead to death (Clark and Matheny, 2010). Our analysis revealed that trees were clustered in different neurons reflecting different conditions in their leaf areas and thus causing losses in ES. ...
Full-text available
Urban trees provide multiple ecosystem services (ES) to city residents and are used as environmentally friendly solutions to ameliorate problems in cities worldwide. Effective urban forestry management is essential for enhancing ES, but challenging to develop in densely populated cities where tradeoffs between high ES provision and issues of periodic disaster-caused risks or maintenance costs must be balanced. With the aim of providing practical guidelines to promote green cities, this study developed an AI-based analytical approach to systematically evaluate tree conditions and detect management problems. By using a self-organizing map technique with a big dataset of Taipei street trees, we integrated the ES values estimated by i-Tree Eco to tree attributes of DBH, height, leaf area, and leaf area index (LAI) to comprehensively assess their complex relationship and interlinkage. We found that DBH and leaf area are good indicators for the provision of ES, allowing us to quantify the potential loss and tradeoffs by cross-checking with tree height and the correspondent ES values. In contrast, LAI is less effective in estimating ES than DBH and leaf area, but is useful as a supplementary one. We developed a detailed lookup table by compiling the tree datasets to assist the practitioners with a rapid assessment of tree conditions and associated loss of ES values. This analytical approach provides accessible, science-based information to appraise the right species, criteria, and place for landscape design. It gives explicit references and guidelines to help detect problems and guide directions for improving the ES and the sustainability of urban forests.
... However, botanical gardens spend resources and efforts in staff education and training to reach the standards stated by their institutional mission [12,51,54], also concerning awareness promotion on climate change effects or other abiotic/biotic environmental threats [42,51]. The skills and attitudes of the botanical garden staff can ensure the proper management of trees: correctly performed pruning in the early stages of a tree's life can enhance its growth rate [55], while incorrect pruning can leave a large and slow-to-heal wound, exposing a tree to diseases [56,57]. ...
Full-text available
Botanical gardens are dynamic systems of high scientific, ecological, cultural, and historical value. They are irreplaceable places where to cultivate, manage, study, and preserve tree diversity. One of the ongoing biggest challenges worldwide in managing and preserving trees is the climate change, which exposes specimens to more stressful and severe environmental conditions, causing an increase in mortality. In our research, we aim to assess the future climate change impact on the tree collection of Botanic Garden of Pisa, in order to outline the expected consequences about trees cultivation and management. Under the most pessimistic scenario, in 2090 more than 60% of the tree species cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Pisa is expected to fall outside of their climatic niche. Future chances and pitfalls in managing urban green areas, focusing on the botanical garden community, are also explored.
... In recent years, techniques for walnut cultivation have been perfected in Durango as a strategy to increase walnut yield and total production. The implementation of pruning as an arboriculture practice [7] is carried out between the months of February and March and is intended to favor the entry of light into a dense canopy developed in walnut trees, balancing between the source and the demand for photoassimilates [8]. ...
Full-text available
Walnut tree (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) is a plant species showing ecological, social, and economic importance in México. The objective was to determine biomass productivity and to characterize the raw material and biomass briquettes obtained from walnut thinning pruning. The variables evaluated were tree total height (TH), fresh biomass (FB) and dry biomass (DB) per hectare (kg ha −1). Briquettes were made by using the biomass obtained in both orchards. Laboratory tests for original biomass included moisture content (MC), ash content (AC), volatile matter (VM) and fixed carbon (FC), as well as high heating value (HHV). Briquette studies also included diameter (D), weight (W), length (L), volume (V), density (Ds), and HHV. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (ANOVA) under a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement. Thinning pruning in walnut orchards provides 12 kg tree −1 (998 kg ha −1) of dry biomass, with acceptable levels of AC ≤ 5%, FC (75 to 76%), VM (18.7 to 19.7%) and HHV (16.2 to 16.7 MJ kg −1). The briquette international quality standards were fulfilled: MC≤ 10%, AC ≤ 5% and HHV > 18 MJ kg −1. The integrated use of walnut residues reduces the management problems registered during nut production and the sustainable options to generate bioenergy will be expanded.
... Eradicative pruning is a classical practice in plant protection (Svihra, 1994;Clark and Matheny, 2010), and removal of infected host branches or wood by cutting has been recommended for the control of many plant diseases or decay (Shigo, 1982). This technique has been used, with various degrees of success, for the management of Dutch elm disease (Gregory and Allison, 1979), oak wilt (Camilli et al., 2007), and played a strategic role in the control of fire blight (Paulin, 1996). ...
Full-text available
2022) Recovery after curettage of grapevines with esca leaf symptoms. Phytopathologia Medi-terranea 61(3): 473-489. Summary. Grapevine curettage was reintroduced in France in the early 2000s, and is important for facilitating recovery of plants from esca disease. This surgical practice involves removal of deadwood of vines with leaf symptoms, focusing on white rot generally observed at the centres of grapevine trunks. Assessment of the efficacy of this practice was initiated in the Bordeaux region in 2014. One 'Sauvignon Blanc' vineyard severely affected by esca was initially surveyed in the summer of 2014, to identify and treat vines with esca foliar symptoms. Annually thereafter, from 2014 to 2018, selected vine stocks were curetted. Two other 'Sauvignon Blanc' vineyards also displaying high levels of esca damage were added to the study in 2015 and 2016. Curettage treatments ceased in 2018, resulting in 11 trials (vineyard × year combinations). In total, 856 vines (422 curetted and 434 control vines) were then surveyed annually up to 2021, for assessments and comparisons of esca development. At each site, plants with esca symptoms recovered well after curettage: on average 85% of all curetted vines became asymptomatic the year immediately after the treatment. Six years after treatment, for curettage campaigns carried out in 2014 and 2015, more than half of the curetted vines were symptom-free, whereas <12% of the control vines were asymptomatic, and gradual loss of efficacy was observed at each site. The mean annual proportion of efficacy erosion was approx. 8% per year. This study highlights the possible short-and mid-term benefits of trunk surgery to enable recovery of esca-affected vines, and for them to recover and remain leaf-asymptomatic for several years.
... In current arboricultural practice, urban trees in public are often managed in this manner [40]: for young trees, branches at the lower side of the canopy will be trimmed off to allow for traffic to pass under, which is called lifting or crown raising; before the trees reach a certain height, part of dense branches can be removed to avoid collision and to reduce competition between leading branches for space and light, which is known as crown thinning; any branches growing close to power lines, traffic lanes and private spaces, are often removed or reduced in length, which is called crown reduction. Current best practice includes many more arboricultural measures and specifications for their application (e.g., ATTC [41], Lilly, Gilman [42]) For all these approaches, pruning stands at the heart of arboriculture [43]. Pruning not only alters the short-term appearance of trees but impacts phytohormone (i.e., auxincytokinin) distribution inside them (i.e., apical dominance [44]). ...
Full-text available
Trees integrated into buildings and dense urban settings have become a trend in recent years worldwide. Without a thoughtful design, conflicts between green and gray infrastructures can take place in two aspects: (1) tree crown compete with living space above ground; (2) built underground environment, the other way round, affect tree’s health and security. Although various data about urban trees are collected by different professions for multiple purposes, the communication between them is still limited by unmatched scales and formats. To address this, tree information modeling (TIM) is proposed in this study, aiming at a standardized tree description system in a high level of detail (LoD). It serves as a platform to exchange data and share knowledge about tree growth models. From the perspective of architects and landscape designers, urban trees provide ecosystem services (ESS) not only through their overall biomass, shading, and cooling. They are also related to various branching forms and crown density, forming new layers of urban living space. So, detailed stem, branch and even root geometry is the key to interacting with humans, building structures and other facilities. It is illustrated in this paper how these detailed data are collected to initialize a TIM model with the help of multiple tools, how the topological geometry of stem and branches in TIM is interpreted into an L-system (a common syntax to describe tree geometries), allowing implementation of widely established tree simulations from other professions. In a vision, a TIM-assisted design workflow is framed, where trees are regularly monitored and simulated under boundary conditions to approach target parameters by design proposals.
... The trees in the streets are in a different environment since they are planted in urban areas. Street trees require good management and maintenance such as pruning for them to maintain their aesthetic function (Clark & Matheny, 2010) since streets are harsh and stressful environments (Behrens, 2011). The understanding of urban trees' composition and their environment can help the local authorities and other agencies in managing their resource sustainably. ...
Full-text available
Most urban trees need a periodic process such as branch pruning to fulfil the requirements of the quintessential characteristics related to its longevity, safety, and removal, based on specific reasons. These processes contribute towards the increment of waste capacity and the cost of maintenance. Therefore, waste should be managed properly since might become a valuable resource for economic benefit. Thus, the study aims to identify the value of urban tree species whereas their waste can be utilised as an alternative for furniture lumber. Seven major roads were selected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia as the areas for the case study. Methods such as literature review and tree inventory were performed to gather significant data. The results acknowledged four valuable urban tree species that can be utilised as furniture lumber. These trees are under the big tree category within 10 to 45 m in height with more than 1m diameters of bolewood, which is their waste is suitable for lumber production. The finding also provides good practice in managing the waste of urban trees for economic worth.
Full-text available
The evergreen and perennial Royal tree, Santalum album L., is an eco-conservator because it houses a wide variety of organisms. One such group is moths. Intensive surveys were conducted in sandalwood plantations in south India to understand the diversity of moths supported by sandalwood. A total of 56 species of moths belonging to 15 families were found in sandalwood, and the record of 27 moths forms the first report on sandalwood. Out of 15 families, the family Erebidae is dominant with twenty-one species, followed by Geometridae with eight species and Psychidae with six species each. The remaining moths include three species each of Cossidae and Limacodidae; two species each of Crambidae, Eupterotidae, Lecithoceridae, Noctuidae and Tortricidae; and a single species in each of the remaining 5 families. Further, the pruned plantations showed a significantly negative impact on the diversity of moths and greatly influenced the level of their infestation on the trees. Implications for insect conservation: Our analysis provides an effective groundwork for addressing the principle of conservation for not only target insect species but also in general. Further, immediate action is specified for the protection of vegetation and proper maintenance of structural integrity of trees, which directly influences the distribution and habitats of insects.
Full-text available
Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the micronutrient (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) amounts removed with pruning residuals in Clementine mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) grafted on bitter orange. Material and Methods: In order to meet the above objective , at the end of two production seasons (2015 and 2016), measurements and analyses were carried out by collecting pruning residual samples from 50 groves located in the province of İzmir and Aydın (Turkey). Results: While the biomass value varied between 2.90 and 4.90 kg/tree in the 1st year, it varied in the range of 3.00-5.00 kg/tree in the 2nd year. The concentration (mg kg-1) values for the first year were as Fe: 44-115, Cu: 11-32, Mn: 33-75, Zn: 17-26, while these for the second year were Fe: 48-101, Cu: 16-38, Mn: 40-88 and Zn: 20-30. The yield value was 64-102 kg/tree for the 1st year and 65-94 kg/tree for the 2nd year. Conclusion: The mean values of the microelement amounts removed with pruning residuals may be listed as Fe > Mn > Zn = Cu for both years. The micronutrient amount removed with pruning residuals (g/tree) was found to be Fe: 0.15-0.41, Cu: 0.04-0.13, Mn: 0.12-0.3 and Zn: 0.05-0.13 for the 1st year and Fe: 0.16-0.44, Cu: 0.06-0.16, Mn: 0.15-0.36 and Zn: 0.07-0.13 for the 2nd year. It is suggested that these amounts should be included in plant fertilization programs.
Full-text available
A standard practice for many decades has been for homeowners and arborists to prune tree limbs flush with the trunk and to paint over the wound surface with a tree wound compound. This practice still exists today with many homeowners and some arborists. The use of tree wound compounds is claimed to be of little value (4-6). We investigated this practice in the humid, warm, extended growing seasons of the deep south of the United States.
Full-text available
Trunk development of young container-grown trees was influenced by pruning and staking practices. The conventional nursery practice of staking and severely pruning laterals of container-grown trees produces plants which usually cannot stand without support when planted in the landscape. However trees were produced that were able to stand erect without staking by eliminating stakes during production, leaving lateral branches on the trunk, and spacing plants so their tops were free to move. Even though rigidly staked trees with lower limbs removed grew taller, they developed less caliper at the trunk base, much less taper to the trunk, and a smaller root system. Most of the trees staked during production, regardless of whether they were lightly or severely pruned, were not able to stand upright when planted out, while the unstaked trees needed no support.
COMPREHENSIVE in scope and based on research from worldwide sources, Ornamental Palm Horticulture presents virtually everything ever published about the subject in a concise, readable format, illustrated with 110 color plates and 81 black-and-white photographs. The first complete treatment of palms, the book covers palm biology, palm propagation, environmental influences, mineral nutrition and fertilization, insect and disease pests, container and field production, transplanting, and landscape and interiorscape management.
Therapeutic pruning for Dutch elm disease control has not been widely used in Minnesota because of fear of low success, operational difficulties, and difficulty in obtaining funds for such a program. We report a study in which trees were identified for pruning during routine tree inspections, and pruned by contractors. Of 32 pruned trees, 8 have died. Had trees not been pruned, removal costs would have been $5351. The pruning and removal of trees which died subsequently cost $1856. The pruning program reduced the Dutch elm disease program budget in participating communities, and prolonged the life of the pruned elms.
The implementation of lateral trimming, proper crew scheduling, tree removal and/or replacement and growth regulator injections were proposed in 1982 as techniques necessary for a utility manager to stretch available funds in order to maintain a reliable electric system. Expectations were exceeded at Delmarva Power as these techniques allowed the budget to be reduced while reliability was improved.
The branch and sprout growth response of six species of street trees (Norway maple, box elder, silver maple, sugar maple, Siberian elm and green ash) following electric line clearance pruning was studied in Green Bay, Wl. Differences in tree regrowth were observed after three and four growing seasons between species, pruning methods, and crown positions at which the pruning had occurred. Top pruning regrowth rates generally exceeded side regrowth rates. Regrowth associated with roundover pruning was observed to exceed that of natural (lateral/drop crotch) pruned trees, with more variability in regrowth rates associated with trees having been roundover pruned.
Proper tree care starts with a thorough understanding of trees and the many treatments used to help trees stay attractive, safe, and healthy. In the real working world of trees, it is almost impossible to do all the needed treatments perfectly all the time. A professional arborist must know what proper tree care is. Each part of each procedure for proper tree care becomes a target. I believe that the degree of professionalism of an arborist centers about knowing where the targets are, and how to hit them. The clearer the targets are to you, the better your chances of hitting them more often. I try here to clarify further some of the targets for proper tree care.
From 1982 to 1984, inflight smaller European elm bark beetles, Scolytus multistriatus, were captured on American elms, Ulmus americana, that were therapeutically pruned for Dutch elm disease control. Pruning wounds were treated with wound dressing or left untreated to determine effects of the treatments on beetle attraction. Significantly more beetles were captured at pruning sites than were captured away from pruning sites, regardless of treatment. No differences were detected in beetle captures at pruning sites with or without wound dressing. Male to female sex ratios were unaffected.
Maintenance of trees growing near electric distribution facilities is one of the highest annual maintenance expenses experienced by utilities. It is also usually the first area to receive budget reductions during lean years. Most utility foresters would say that funds are simply inadequate to properly maintain facilities for service reliability. However, present funds can be stretched if proper management methods are instituted, such as proper scheduling of crews, trimming trees by the lateral method, problem tree removal and/or replacement, and the use of growth regulators.