Article

The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You

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Abstract

Source: Democracy Now! JUAN GONZALEZ: When you follow your friends on Facebook or run a search on Google, what information comes up, and what gets left out? That's the subject of a new book by Eli Pariser called The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. According to Pariser, the internet is increasingly becoming an echo chamber in which websites tailor information according to the preferences they detect in each viewer. Yahoo! News tracks which articles we read. Zappos registers the type of shoes we wear, we prefer. And Netflix stores data on each movie we select. AMY GOODMAN: The top 50 websites collect an average of 64 bits of personal information each time we visit and then custom-designs their sites to conform to our perceived preferences. While these websites profit from tailoring their advertisements to specific visitors, users pay a big price for living in an information bubble outside of their control. Instead of gaining wide exposure to diverse information, we're subjected to narrow online filters. Eli Pariser is the author of The Filter Bubble: What the Internet Is Hiding from You. He is also the board president and former executive director of the group MoveOn.org. Eli joins us in the New York studio right now after a whirlwind tour through the United States.

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... O considerável volume de informações disponíveis nos meios digitais exigem dos usuários dessas plataformas um senso crítico capaz de filtrar conteúdos que representem fatos verdadeiros e que estejam de acordo com as suas crenças e preferências pessoais (Pariser, 2011). Assim, dever-se-ia esperar que nas pesquisas realizadas em ferramentas de buscas como o Google ou nos SRS (ex. ...
... Facebook, Instagram, Youtube, etc.) os resultados fossem semelhantes para todas as pessoas (Lazer, 2015;Sears e Freedman, 1967). Contudo, essa suposição não é verdadeira devido aos filtros de personalização (Bakshy et al., 2015;Pariser, 2011). ...
... Algoritmos de conteúdo online aplicam filtros para personalizar as informações apresentadas como resultados das ações do usuário; esses filtros criam uma espécie de 'bolha' de informações em torno de cada indivíduo nos meios digitais de forma que apenas conteúdos que o algoritmo considera relevante são apresentados em resultados de pesquisas realizadas em ferramentas de busca ou em SRS (Lazer, 2015;Pariser, 2011). No cenário atual, a edição dos algoritmos não se apresenta de maneira evidente nos resultados das pesquisas realizadas nos meios online, criando um universo único de informação para cada indivíduo (Bakshy et al., 2015;Pariser, 2011). ...
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O objetivo deste estudo é investigar a relação entre as fontes de informação utilizadas pelos adolescentes para se manterem informados e a importância/relevância dessas informações para o seu cotidiano. O estudo possui uma amostra de 1.361 respostas e foi executado por meio de Modelagem por Equações Estruturais-Path analysis. Os resultados sugerem que o Site de Rede Social (SRS) TikTok tem uma maior capacidade de despertar a percepção de relevância/importância dos conteúdos que estão sendo consumidos pelos seus usuários-essa percepção pode estar associada à capacidade do SRS de ir além da criação de bolhas informacionais e atuar como um sistema sociotécnico que desperta sentimentos únicos do ser humano. Ademais, observamos que os SRS TikTok e Facebook, respectivamente, são mais influentes do que os SRS Instagram, WhatsApp e YouTube no processo de gatekeeping e, assim, as informações dessas fontes são consideradas mais relevantes/importantes pelos adolescentes. Palavras-chave: comunicação digital; Facebook; filtro bolha; teoria da identificação do gatekeeping de rede; TikTok. [en] Information bubbles and the relevance of information from social networking sites for Brazilians teenagers Abstract. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the sources of information used by young people to stay informed of current affairs and the importance/relevance of this information to their everyday lives. The study includes a sample of 1,361 responses and was carried out with Structural Equation Modeling-Path analysis. The results suggest that the Social Networking Site (SNS) TikTok has a greater ability to create a perception of relevance/importance of the content being consumed by its users. This perception may be associated with the SNS's ability to go beyond the creation of informational bubbles and act as a sociotechnical system that stimulates certain affective responses. Furthermore, we observe that SNS TikTok and Facebook, respectively, are more influential than SNS
... In consequence, the recommender system-as opposed to unguided user choice-is responsible for 30% of YouTube video views (Clement & Davies, 2021). The YouTube recommender system could direct users' attention to video content that they otherwise might not have selected (Courtois & Timmermans, 2018;Pariser, 2011). For example, a recent study showed that users could reach conspiratorial content via the recommender system from videos about fitness, firearms, gurus, and even small houses (Alfano et al., 2020). ...
... Other studies have identified "filter bubbles" within the YouTube video network (O'Callaghan et al., 2013;O'Callaghan et al., 2015;Röchert, Weitzel, & Ross, 2020). A filter bubble refers to the algorithmically-curated presentation of homogenous content to users; this content is generally in line with the users' interest, ideas, and beliefs (Pariser, 2011). However, the idea of a filter bubble has also been challenged (Bruns, 2019). ...
... The bots and staged accounts that watched conspiratorial content received recommendations for further conspiratorial content. The findings support the notion of a filter bubble effect, as suggested byPariser (2011). By contrast, the study byFaddoul et al. (2020) found mixed results. ...
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There has been much concern that social media, in particular YouTube, may facilitate radicalisation and polarisation of online audiences. This systematic review aimed to determine whether the YouTube recommender system facilitates pathways to problematic content such as extremist or radicalising material. The review conducted a narrative synthesis of the papers in this area. It assessed the eligibility of 1,187 studies and excluded studies using the PRISMA process for systematic reviews, leaving a final sample of 23 studies. Overall, 14 studies implicated the YouTube recommender system in facilitating problematic content pathways, seven produced mixed results, and two did not implicate the recommender system. The review's findings indicate that the YouTube recommender system could lead users to problematic content. However, due to limited access and an incomplete understanding of the YouTube recommender system, the models built by researchers might not reflect the actual mechanisms underlying the YouTube recommender system and pathways to problematic content.
... We know this often happens. To cite a recent idea: there are internet filter bubbles (Pariser 2011) which may cause, say, a former USA Secretary of State to be viewed by those in a filter bubble as a child molester (with the attendant electoral risk). As problematical as this may be, it is less of an issue for large populations (than, say, for juries). ...
... Internet "influencer" is actually a job title. 13 Internet filter bubbles abound (Pariser 2011). Even some respectable versions of cultural evolutionary theory propose that following the behavior of highstatus individuals is a legitimate cultural evolutionary strategy. ...
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It is common to view appeals to popularity as fallacious. We argue this is a mistake and that Condorcet’s jury theorem can be used to justify at least some appeals to popularity as legitimate inferences. More importantly, the conditions for the application of Condorcet’s theorem (binary claim, competent judge, epistemic independence) can be used as critical tools when evaluating appeals to popularity. The application of these three concepts to appeals to popularity provide a more fine-grained critical strategy for argument evaluation and, also, allow us to see the real problems that often arise with such appeals more clearly.
... Individuals who belong to a specific group have the same social norms (Pariser, 2011). The subjective norm is also named the social norm; this is the feeling of an individual about how others in the immediate environment think of certain behaviour. ...
... However, beliefs that are not in accordance with the opinions of the in-group are excluded. As a result, members of the outgroup are seen as even more outsiders, and this leads to further division between the in-group and outgroup (Pariser, 2011). Additionally, several studies have displayed that members of an in-group prefer to talk negatively about members of an out-group (Tajfel & Turner, 1982). ...
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This review article introduces a number of essential linguistic and sociological notions concerning identity. The present paper tries to scrutinize the route towards the construction of identity and its existence in relation to how a person understands his or her relationship to the world. Analytical views throughout the areas of linguistics and sociology are highlighted in order to identify multiple types of identity and the methods that are implemented to expose those types. It also focuses on how and why certain types of identity have appeared.
... Por conta da hipermobilidade e da ubiquidade (SANTAELLA, 2013, p.15), o mundo virtual tornou-se um ambiente com o qual a sociedade convive constantemente. Essa realidade permitiu que o advento das inteligências artificiais e os algoritmos nos influenciassem diariamente por meio das redes sociais (PARISER, 2011). Nesse contexto, as formas de comunicação e produção de texto modificaram-se, permitindo que novas formas de expressão e aprendizado emergissem, como grupos de trocas de leituras do Wattpad. ...
... Because of hypermobility and ubiquity (SANTAELLA, 2013, p.15), the virtual world has become an environment with which society constantly coexists. This reality has allowed the advent of artificial intelligences and algorithms to influence us daily through social networks (PARISER, 2011). In this context, the forms of communication and text production have changed, allowing new forms of expression and learning to emerge, such as Wattpad reading exchange groups. ...
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RESUMO: Este artigo tem como objetivo detalhar por meio de um estudo de caso (YIN, 2015) um dos fenômenos dessas comunidades virtuais de leitura e escrita: os grupos de trocas de leitura no Wattpad. Por conta da hipermobilidade e da ubiquidade (SANTAELLA, 2013, p.15), o mundo virtual tornou-se um ambiente com o qual a sociedade convive constantemente. Essa realidade permitiu que o advento das inteligências artificiais e os algoritmos nos influenciassem diariamente por meio das redes sociais (PARISER, 2011). Nesse contexto, as formas de comunicação e produção de texto modificaram-se, permitindo que novas formas de expressão e aprendizado emergissem, como grupos de trocas de leituras do Wattpad. Esse artigo visa entender como as interações no grupo de troca de leitura no WhatsApp impactam na personalização dos filtros promovida por algoritmos da rede social de escrita Wattpad.
... Researcher E. Pariser writes about the ideological and informational isolation we fall into under the influence of technology in general and the Internet (social networks and messengers) in particular. Author introduces the term "Filter bubble", which describes the process of looking for information on the network, which passes the filter of the technical component of the Internet and computer, and ultimately shows us the information that ideologically corresponds to our previous searchesp [Pariser 2011]. The scientist notes: "The new Internet does not just know that you are a dog; it knows your breed and wants to sell you a bowl of premium kibble" [Pariser, 2011]. ...
... Author introduces the term "Filter bubble", which describes the process of looking for information on the network, which passes the filter of the technical component of the Internet and computer, and ultimately shows us the information that ideologically corresponds to our previous searchesp [Pariser 2011]. The scientist notes: "The new Internet does not just know that you are a dog; it knows your breed and wants to sell you a bowl of premium kibble" [Pariser, 2011]. ...
Book
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This monograph consists of three chapters, made up of the text material, illustrations and additions. This study rethinks the evolution of the Internet, in particular the concept of “virtual social creativity” and shows how the revolutionary scientific and technological discoveries and rapid development of digital technology in recent decades, there is a parallel virtual space of social communication and social networks. In the paper we can trace the ambivalence of this phenomenon, which, on the one hand, creates unprecedented opportunities for intensification of the communicative process, and on the other hand, has significant negative consequences. The study also examines impact of social networks on changing geopolitical vectors in the Arab countries (Arab Spring) and in Ukraine (Revolution of Dignity). The paper emphasizes decisive role of social networks in 2019 presidential-parliamentary campaign in Ukraine, as well as in the processes of further digitalization of Ukrainian society, in particular, in the introduction of e-government technologies. Considering the phenomenon of messengers as a new type of interpersonal communication, it is shown how these communicative platforms have imperceptibly become a special living space for a person. Based on empirical research, it is determined that modern youth use messengers mainly for interpersonal communication, as well as to escape from loneliness and existential problems. The undoubted novelty of the study is a comparative analysis of various aspects of messenger communication among Ukrainian and Polish student youth.
... online (Bakshy et al., 2015;Barberá et al., 2015;Cinelli et al., 2021;Pariser, 2011), seeing content that reinforces their existing beliefs and identities. However, there is debate over the strength of the echo chamber phenomenon, with some arguing that many people are exposed to more politically diverse news -or less political news in general -than many might expect (Eady et al., 2019;A. ...
... A growing body research has examined the potential role of social media in exacerbating political polarization (Persily & Tucker, 2020;Sunstein, 2018). A large portion of this work has centered on the position that social media sorts us into "echo chambers" or "filter bubbles" that selectively expose people to content that aligns with their pre-existing beliefs (Barberá, 2014;Cinelli et al., 2021;Del Vicario et al., 2016;Madsen et al., 2018;Pariser, 2011;. However, some recent scholarship questions whether the "echo chamber" narrative has been exaggerated (Bakshy et al., 2015;Eady et al., 2019). ...
Thesis
Why do people believe in and share misinformation? Some theories focus on social identity and politically motivated reasoning, arguing that people are motivated to believe and share identity-congruent news. Other theories suggest that belief in misinformation is not shaped by motivated reasoning, but is instead shaped by other factors, such as prior knowledge, lack of reflection, or inattention to accuracy. Integrating multiple perspectives, this thesis argues that the spread of (mis)information is shaped by two (often competing) motivations: accuracy and social motivations, in combination with other factors, such as personality variables and information exposure. Through a variety of methods, including analyses of large-scale social media datasets, online experiments, network analysis, and a digital field experiment, this thesis illustrates how accuracy motivations, social motivations, and other variables shape the belief and spread of (mis)information. Chapter 2 takes a big data approach to test whether online content that fulfills political identity motivations, such as out-group derogation and in-group favoritism, tends to receive more engagement online across eight large-scale datasets containing a total of 2.7 million tweets and Facebook posts. Chapter 3 experimentally manipulates accuracy and social motivations for believing in and sharing true and false news headlines in a series of four online experiments with 3,364 participants. Chapter 4 examines partisan asymmetries in the effectiveness of a popular misinformation intervention, the accuracy nudge. Chapter 5 links survey data to the Twitter data of 2,064 participants to examine how beliefs about the COVID-19 vaccine and politics are associated with following political elites online and interacting with low-quality news sources. Finally, Chapter 6 examines how manipulating participants’ online social networks in a naturalistic setting (e.g., incentivizing people to follow and unfollow specific accounts on Twitter in a randomized controlled trial) influences beliefs about the opposing political party and the sharing of misinformation.
... Although it was difficult for people to access overtly partisan sources of information in the past, today people can easily seek out information which is consistent with their beliefs (Bennet & Iyengar, 2008, s. 717-720) It is therefore Sabbah suggested that as cited in (Castells, 2008, p. 454) new media should not be considered mass media as online media offer the audience to select its messages and information sources thus increasing segmentation. These online digital platforms once regarded a boon to democracy, have been started to be considered leading to echo chambers and filter bubbles (Sunstein, 2001;Pariser, 2011) which empower individuals to avoid politics and causing them to have less information concerning political system and less likely to vote-all are considered threats to democracy (Dubois & Blank, 2018) Isolation from disagreeable information, thereby generates political polarization. According to Sunstein (1999, pp. ...
... PersPectivas desde los medios, el Periodismo y la educomunicación hiperconectada como el efecto de filtro burbuja (Pariser, 2011) en el que los nuevos ciudadanos adquieren información mediada por los intereses y relaciones de su propia red social y facilitados por los avances de algoritmos y agentes inteligentes informáticos. Las didácticas para la formación ciudadana requieren apoyar procesos de lectura crítica de esas condiciones informacionales. ...
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... Echo chambers thought to primarily result from pre-selected personalization are sometimes called filter bubbles (Pariser, 2011)-but these terms overlap, are often used interchangeably, and the normative concerns are much the same. So far, there is little evidence of filter bubble effects specifically (Bruns, 2019). ...
Article
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Concern over online news echo chambers has been a consistent theme in recent debates on how people get news and information. Yet, we lack a basic descriptive understanding of how many people occupy bounded online news spaces in different countries. Using online survey data from seven countries we find that (i) politically partisan left-right online news echo chambers are real, but only a minority of approximately 5% of internet news users inhabit them, (ii) in every country covered, more people consume no online news at all than occupy partisan online echo chambers, and (iii) except for the US, decisions over the inclusion or exclusion of particular news outlets make little difference to echo chamber estimates. Differences within and between media systems mean we should be very cautious about direct comparisons between different echo chambers, but underlying patterns of audience overlap, and the continued popularity of mainstream outlets, often preclude the formation of large partisan echo chambers.
... O que começou por parecer positivo, originou alguma preocupação, particularmente, a partir de 2009, quando a Google operou uma mudança fulcral no seu motor de busca. Os resultados de qualquer pesquisa deixavam de ser iguais para todos os utilizadores, uma vez que o algoritmo passava a ter em conta informações individuais e preferências de pessoas classificadas com perfis semelhantes, tentando desta forma prever os gostos individuais e modificando-se, assim, a forma como cada um encontra informação nova (Pariser, 2011). Esta dinâmica, que Pariser chamou de "filter bubble" representa uma cisão, na medida em que cada utilizador está sozinho na sua bolha, essa bolha é invisível e a participação nela não é opcional (Pariser, 2011, p. 12). ...
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As fake news e a manipulação informativa não são fenómenos novos. No entanto, as particulares circunstâncias tecno-sociais do nosso tempo criaram um contexto muito favorável ao aumento sua visibilidade. Este artigo propõe uma revisão não sistemática da literatura, articulando e problematizando dimensões que contribuam para uma compreensão mais profunda do momento atual, bem como das condições que delimitaram este trajeto. Começando pela dimensão historiográfica da mentira mediada pela imprensa, é analisado o processo que conduziu ao aparecimento da falsidade como consequência da rápida evolução do jornalismo. Posteriormente, propõe-se o seu enquadramento no complexo contexto da sociedade em rede, no qual se têm colocado desafios aos quais os jornalistas e as empresas de media têm tardado em responder. As dinâmicas cognitivas do indivíduo, que hoje tem acesso a uma quantidade inédita de informação, são também abordadas como peças da problematização multidimensional aqui proposta. Ao abordar um contexto que podemos classificar como promotor de uma sobredose informacional permanente e implacável, este artigo não pretende responder a dúvidas sobre a quantificação dos impactos da desinformação. Antes, são enfatizadas as complexas inter-relações que, ao longo dos anos, deram forma a um problema que, em última instância, é um desafio civilizacional.
... However, the use of algorithmic curation raises multiple concerns that add to the already controversial role of platforms in contemporary societies (Tufekci, 2015). The frequent lack of transparency in curation systems (Pasquale, 2015) creates anxieties about their potential for polarizing and fragmenting the public sphere (Pariser, 2011). Algorithms may not only limit user access to information but also facilitate radicalization and enable distribution of false information, particularly because users are often unaware that the content they are exposed to is, in fact, algorithmically curated (Eslami et al., 2015). ...
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Previous research highlighted how algorithms on social media platforms can be abused to disseminate disinformation. However, less work has been devoted to understanding the interplay between Facebook news curation mechanisms and propaganda content. To address this gap, we analyze the activities of RT (formerly, Russia Today) on Facebook during the 2020 U.S. presidential election. We use agent-based algorithmic auditing and frame analysis to examine what content RT published on Facebook and how it was algorithmically curated in Facebook News Feeds and Search Results. We find that RT’s strategic framing included the promotion of anti-Biden leaning content, with an emphasis on antiestablishment narratives. However, due to algorithmic factors on Facebook, individual agents were exposed to eclectic RT content without an overarching narrative. Our findings contribute to the debate on computational propaganda by highlighting the ambiguous relationship between government-sponsored media and Facebook algorithmic curation, which may decrease the exposure of users to propaganda and at the same time increase confusion.
... It has been demonstrated by recent work [12,14] that personalized news recommender systems can over-expose users to news articles supporting their preexisting opinions. With increasing reliance on personalized recommendations to consume news from digital news apps [2,6], such a filter bubble phenomenon paves the way for continued (and potentially increased) intellectual segregation and political polarization. ...
Preprint
Recent work in news recommendation has demonstrated that recommenders can over-expose users to articles that support their pre-existing opinions. However, most existing work focuses on a static setting or over a short-time window, leaving open questions about the long-term and dynamic impacts of news recommendations. In this paper, we explore these dynamic impacts through a systematic study of three research questions: 1) How do the news reading behaviors of users change after repeated long-term interactions with recommenders? 2) How do the inherent preferences of users change over time in such a dynamic recommender system? 3) Can the existing SOTA static method alleviate the problem in the dynamic environment? Concretely, we conduct a comprehensive data-driven study through simulation experiments of political polarization in news recommendations based on 40,000 annotated news articles. We find that users are rapidly exposed to more extreme content as the recommender evolves. We also find that a calibration-based intervention can slow down this polarization, but leaves open significant opportunities for future improvements
... Today, epistemic environments are predominately digital, and we therefore have remarkable capacities for customisation. Of course, much of the information we are exposed to is determined by algorithms, whose inner workings we do not have access to (Pariser, 2011). Nevertheless, those algorithms are fed by our behaviour: we tell them what we want to see, through our clicks, likes, and shares. ...
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Levy (2021) argues that bad beliefs predominately stem from automatic (albeit rational) updating in response to testimonial evidence. To counteract such beliefs, then, we should focus on ridding our epistemic environments of misleading testimony. This paper responds as follows. First, I argue that the suite of automatic processes related to bad beliefs extends well beyond the deference-based processes that Levy identifies. Second, I push back against Levy's claim that bad beliefs stem from wholly rational processes, suggesting that, in many cases, such processes are better characterised as arational. Finally, I note that Levy is too quick to dismiss the role that individuals can play in cleaning up their own epistemic environments, and I suggest one route through which this is possible.
... With the personalized recommendation, users are exposed to information targeting their interests and reinforcing their belief instead of seeing balanced information. Consequently, users are isolated in the bubbles, where only the information consistent with their viewpoints can be seen (Pariser, 2011). -Echo chamber is caused by the lack of diverse perspectives and framed by like-minded users, especially on social media platforms (Cinelli et al., 2021). ...
Preprint
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With the remarkable increase in the number of scientific entities such as publications, researchers, and scientific topics, and the associated information overload in science, academic recommender systems have become increasingly important for millions of researchers and science enthusiasts. However, it is often overlooked that these systems are subject to various biases. In this article, we first break down the biases of academic recommender systems and characterize them according to their impact and prevalence. In doing so, we distinguish between biases originally caused by humans and biases induced by the recommender system. Second, we provide an overview of methods that have been used to mitigate these biases in the scholarly domain. Based on this, third, we present a framework that can be used by researchers and developers to mitigate biases in scholarly recommender systems and to evaluate recommender systems fairly. Finally, we discuss open challenges and possible research directions related to scholarly biases.
... Finding like-minded individuals has never been easier, making it simpler to create an echo chamber around oneself. For example, personalization in search engines and networked platforms creates 'filter bubbles' using algorithms to reinforce ideological segregation by only recommending contents that individuals are most likely to like (Flaxman et al., 2016;Pariser, 2011). Information search becomes self-confirmatory and reinforced with association with like-minded others. ...
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From #Pizzagate to anti‐vaxxers, passing by 9/11 or Obama ‘birthers’, we have seen many communities growing on social media around conspiracy theories and thereby gaining public prominence. Debunking or presenting alternative views to conspiracy theories often fails because individuals within these communities can grow more resolute, encouraging and reinforcing their beliefs online. Instead of withering in the face of contradiction, such communities hunker down; escalating their commitment to their conspiratorial beliefs. By interacting over social media platforms, they develop a sense of a shared social identity, which in turn fosters escalating behaviours and can lead to radicalization. For some people, the choice of abandoning or moderating these beliefs is unthinkable because they are too deeply invested to quit. This study advances a second‐order affordance for identity‐driven escalation that explains the process of conspiracy theory radicalization within online communities. We offer a theoretical account of the way social media platforms contribute to escalating commitment to conspiracy radicalization. We show how the sequential and combined actualization of first‐order affordances of the technology enables a second‐order affordance for escalation.
... In his opinion, the information received by users is often affected by retrieval history, reading behavior, and habits, which will be controlled by algorithms. [4] The growing maturity of algorithms and the increasing computing power of artificial intelligence make the "customized information" exposed to the audience more "palatable". ...
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Nowadays, the products carried by artificial intelligence are all over people’s life, such as online shopping, intelligent security, remote diagnosis and treatment, life services, driverless, online distance education, and other services. Artificial intelligence not only allows people to enjoy convenient and fast life benefits, but also brings a certain degree of anxiety to the times. In recent years, with the continued popularity of the “artificial intelligence + culture” industry, the integration of cultural industry and artificial intelligence has become an inevitable development trend. The promotion of technology ultimately serves to improve the quality of human life. Artificial intelligence not only brings convenience, but also brings opportunities and challenges to the cultural industry.
... These personalised models automatically filter counter-attitudinal content and feed users with information that is T A B L E 1 Mechanisms of SMIP Theory/mechanism Description Example Algorithm filtering Users' information is algorithmically filtered according to their preferences on online platforms, which leads to a narrowing of information diversity and reinforces their opinions (Pariser, 2011). Kitchens et al., 2020 Cognitive dissonance Users feel more convincing about opinion-reinforcing information and are more likely to accept it, while more likely to dismiss information that refutes previously held beliefs (Festinger, 1957). ...
Article
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Opinion polarisation in social media has recently become a significant issue. The existing literature mainly attributes polarisation to online friends' informational social influence, that is, users are more likely to interact with others with similar opinions, which leads to the echo chamber effect. However, the impact of social interaction on individual polarisation may also result from normative social influence, which varies with social settings on the platform. In this paper, we leverage a quasi‐experiment to investigate the normative social influence of online friends on focal users' review polarity. We use fixed effects and difference‐in‐differences approaches, along with propensity score matching, to address the potential endogeneity in users' friend function adoption decisions. Our results indicate that adopting the friend function leads users to post less extreme ratings. We further separate the reviews into positive and negative, finding that the reduction in the review polarity for positive reviews is more prominent than for negative ones. Regarding user heterogeneity, our causal forest analysis uncovers that users with a higher engagement level on the platform are less affected by adopting the friend function than those with less engagement. Our study has clear implications for managers and platform designers, highlighting the importance of social function design in reducing social media induced polarisation.
... Las últimas actualizaciones de dichas tecnologías, con la popularización de las redes sociales, estarían llevando esta situación hacia uno de sus extremos: "El uso de los nuevos medios reduce aún más que los viejos medios la capacidad de aprendizaje directo desde la acción" (van Dijk, 2006, p. 212). La transformación acontecida en las dos últimas décadas, que debía permitir una sociedad red redefiniendo la morfología de las relaciones sociales (Castells, 2006), ha derivado en un marco cerrado de relaciones virtuales en el que se genera un efecto paradójico: son los algoritmos que rigen este entorno los que determinan la clase de relaciones que podemos llevar a cabo (Pariser, 2017). ...
Article
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En los últimos 20 años, a medida que se ha desarrollado la sociedad de la información, también ha sido tendencia olvidar a los referentes que ayudaron a comprender la mass communication society. Se ha producido un vaciamiento conceptual que debemos enmendar para problematizar los discursos del odio, la polarización y la fractura de la experiencia entre lo real y lo virtual. Para ello, en este ensayo partimos de una recopilación bibliográfica constructivista que conecta las industrias culturales, como entidades productoras de consensos; los medios de comunicación, como instituciones de socialización colectiva; el proceso de virtualización digital, como ruptura con la experiencia no mediada; y la mediatización, como expresión de (no) participación social. El análisis nos lleva a proponer la idea de la sociedad de las turbas, la sociedad de la incomunicación, un modelo de convivencia propio de las sociedades globalizadas, caracterizado por la extrema individualización y la virtualización de la experiencia comunicativa. Como hechizados por la luz que emana de los teléfonos móviles, nos estaríamos desconectando del significado etimológico de compartir del verbo comunicar. Se estaría creando así la situación ideal para la propagación de des- información y la radicalización. En ese sentido, se plantea la siguiente hipótesis: si el siglo XX fue el periodo de las masas, el siglo XXI será el de las turbas.
... We are interested in controlling opinions on connected networks with arbitrary degree distribution. In recent years, recommendation algorithms on social platforms have greatly enhanced confirmation bias by showing users content that is the most susceptible to match their interests -the so-called "filter bubble" effect [2]. As a consequence more and more isolated, tightly clustered online communities of similar-minded individuals have arisen in various domains such as politics [3,4,5], healthcare [6,7] or science [8]. ...
Article
We explore a method to influence or even control the diversity of opinions within a polarised social group. We leverage the voter model in which users hold binary opinions and repeatedly update their beliefs based on others they connect with. Stubborn agents who never change their minds (“zealots”) are also disseminated through the network, which is modelled by a connected graph. Building on earlier results, we provide a closed-form expression for the average opinion of the group at equilibrium. This leads us to a strategy to inject zealots into a polarised network in order to shift the average opinion towards any target value. We account for the possible presence of a backfire effect, which may lead the group to react negatively and reinforce its level of polarisation in response. Our results are supported by numerical experiments on synthetic data.
... What results are "echo chambers" or online spaces/communities where people encounter others who share similar ideologies, interests, or beliefs. According to Pariser (2011), these echo chambers and the filter bubbles that create them "dramatically amplify confirmation biases" as users inadvertently participate in an ongoing "communal reinforcement" of misinformation that, over time, becomes accepted as indisputable truth. The fervor with which angry parents are currently going after "woke" or "leftist" teachers is a testament to this bias. ...
Article
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In this article, we provide a brief history of efforts to demonize educators and dismantle public education in the US, framing them as moral panics. We then explore some of the structural conditions that promote current attacks on educators, followed by an examination of who is largely responsible for this trend. The article concludes with a review of the effects that these attacks are having on educators and on public education, and provides recommendations for change.
... Previous research also shows that social media produces echo chambers, where users interact with individuals who share similar ideologies, leading them to strengthen their own political identities (Ivarsson, 2019) while reducing their level of tolerance and understanding of others' political views (Kelly & François, 2018;Koiranen et al., 2022;Von Behr et al., 2013). Social media algorithms intensify such views, presenting stories and information that correspond with users' own political beliefs, enticing them to click on stories with headlines that evoke strong feelings of agreement or disdain (Pariser, 2011), prioritizing such content to attract views (Munn, 2020). Presenting stories and information that affirm users' beliefs result in increased anger, distrust, and polarization. ...
Article
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Much qualitative research has drawn an association between social media and domestic terrorism, with the studies reaching different conclusions. However, few empirical studies have evaluated whether the surge in social media participation affects domestic terrorist events. Controlling for common explanations in the literature, we conduct a cross-national, time-series analysis of up to 151 countries from 2000 to 2019 to assess the impact of social media penetration on domestic terrorism. We find that greater social media penetration increases the likelihood of domestic terrorism in countries as it supports extremists’ ability to recruit, mobilize, and train terrorists. Using mediation analysis, we also find that greater social media penetration amplifies online and political polarization, increasing the likelihood of domestic terrorism events. Our work indicates the possible mechanisms linking social media and domestic terrorism and the need to develop and apply appropriate counterterrorism strategies to mitigate terrorist operations.
... En un contexto de comunicación predominado por: una alta carga sentimental, la pluralidad de opiniones y contenidos (desinformativos o no), y el efecto ¨filtro burbuja¨ que condiciona el acceso a contenido diferentes a las posturas ideológicas que detentan los ciudadanos. Además de una creciente desdramatización de los acontecimientos políticos transmitidos desde los medios tradicionales como digitales actuales (Pariser, 2011;Innerarity, 2018;Barandiarán, Unceta y Peña, 2020). Lo que condicionan las forma en la que la ciudadanía (usuarios) asume la relación con la política y con los diferentes acontecimientos políticos, en especial ante la influencia de lo expuesto por autores como Jivkova-Semova et al. (2017), Campos--Domínguez (2017), Chaves-Montero, Relinque y Fernández (2020), Martínez Juan y Marqués-Pascual (2020) o Pérez-Curiel y Martínez Juan (2020), quienes destacan el éxito han tenido redes sociales como Twitter, como espacio para el desarrollo de la comunicación política y la viralización de mensajes destinados a captar la atención de potenciales seguidores y electores, en especial durante las campañas electorales. ...
Article
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El trabajo busca comprender la incidencia política de Twitter en el tipo de cultura política y la polaridad de opiniones promovidas por los principales grupos políticos españoles en los últimos tres procesos electorales en España (2016 y 2019). Para ello se lleva a cabo un análisis de tópicos, extraídos de los mensajes publicados por los casos estudiados, aplicando técnicas de modelado de temas mediante machine learning, a través del algoritmo Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). El estudio muestra cómo los principales grupos políticos españoles emplean unas estrategias de comunicación asimétricas en Twitter, muy polarizados y centrados en la confrontación con los oponentes y la promoción de una cultura política fundamentada discursivamente en significados abstractos y generales, empleados para diferenciar y dotarse de credibilidad en el escenario electoral estudiado.
... The previous research, although closely similar to this one, only looked at how COVID-19 messages were received by the public during the initial wave of the virus. This research, on the other hand, adds to the results of the previous study by looking at audience perceptions of the virus from its inception to the present day, as well as what Edo State inhabitants believe of the virus's mass media advertising.A research on "media monitoring of COVID-19" was also conducted byPariser (2011).The study's goals were to determine the frequency of COVID-19 mass media surveillance, investigate the frames given to COVID-19 reporting by the media and determine the prominence of COVID-19 mass media surveillance. The study used the framing theory and content analysis as the research technique, with the coding sheet serving as the research instrument. ...
Thesis
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This study examines the perception of COVID-19 media campaigns among Edo State residents. The researcher employed the descriptive survey design and questionnaire served as research instrument. The population of the study was 683, 266, (six hundred and eighty three thousand, two hundred and sixty six). The study adopted the Cochran sample size determination formula. The sample size was therefore 384 but sequel to its retrieval to 382 copies of the questionnaire was retrieved while four copies were lost. Based on research findings, it was discovered, that mass media campaigns on COVID-19 created more awareness of the virus among Edo state residents. It was also concluded that the degree of exposure and perception of awareness of media campaigns of COVID-19 among residents was high. The reason for this was due to high media campaigns on COVID-19 in Edo state which gave the people much exposure as well as information about the virus. It was other things to ensure avoidance of contracting the virus in Edo state, and her environs. Edo state residents should not be carefree about COVID-19 as media campaigns have shown that the virus is real and existed in Edo state whether the believe it or not.
... YouTube tend to follow homophily as the algorithms mostly suggest similar content, particularly favoring far-right and radical videos and channels (O'Callaghan et al., 2014;Kaiser & Rauchfleisch, 2020;Röchert et al., 2020). It might ultimately lead to the filter bubble phenomenon (Pariser, 2011), as the algorithms follow homophily patterns and suggest more like-minded content; and to the formation of echo chambers (Sunstein, 2001), as the platform might turn into a space that provides content for users to reinforce their beliefs and potentially become more radicalized. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT - In this study, we address how YouTube videos promote misinformation about hydroxychloroquine in Brazil. We follow two research questions. RQ1: How is pro-hydroxychloroquine content propagated on YouTube? RQ2: How does YouTube’s recommendation system suggest videos about hydroxychloroquine on the platform? We use mixed methods (content analysis and social network analysis) to analyze 751 YouTube videos. We found that most pro-HCQ videos in our dataset are posted by mainstream media channels (RQ1) and that YouTube was more likely to recommend pro-HCQ videos than anti-HCQ videos (RQ2). Consequently, the Brazilian mainstream media and YouTube’s algorithms fueled the spread of pro-HCQ content. RESUMO – Neste estudo, abordamos como os vídeos no YouTube promovem desinformação sobre a hidroxicloroquina no Brasil. Seguimos duas questões de pesquisa. RQ1: Como o conteúdo pró-hidroxicloroquina é propagado no YouTube? RQ2: Como o sistema de recomendação do YouTube sugere vídeos sobre hidroxicloroquina na plataforma? Usamos métodos mistos (análise de conteúdo e análise de redes sociais) para analisar 751 vídeos do YouTube. Descobrimos que a maioria dos vídeos pró-HCQ em nosso conjunto de dados foi postado pelos principais canais de mídia (RQ1) e que o YouTube era mais propenso a recomendar vídeos pró-HCQ do que vídeos anti-HCQ (RQ2). Consequentemente, a imprensa tradicional brasileira e os algoritmos do YouTube fomentaram a disseminação de conteúdo pró-HCQ. RESUMEN – En este estudio, abordamos cómo videos en YouTube promueven desinformación sobre la hidroxicloroquina en Brasil. Seguimos dos preguntas de investigación. RQ1: ¿Cómo se propaga el contenido pro-hidroxicloroquina en YouTube? RQ2: ¿Cómo el sistema de recomendaciones de YouTube sugiere videos sobre hidroxicloroquina en la plataforma? Utilizamos métodos mixtos (análisis de contenido y análisis de redes sociales) para analizar 751 videos de YouTube. Descubrimos que la mayoría de los videos pro-HCQ en nuestro conjunto de datos son publicados por los principales canales de medios de comunicación (RQ1) y que era más probable que YouTube recomendara videos pro-HCQ que videos anti-HCQ (RQ2). En consecuencia, los principales medios de comunicación brasileños y los algoritmos de YouTube impulsaron la difusión de contenido pro-HCQ.
... The recommender systems with collaborative filtering consider accuracy to be the most important; therefore, the recommended items are primarily based on user profiles and past preferences. This often causes the recommendation of limited items with similar properties to be connected to a "filter bubble", which produces a narrow range of suggestions and interrupts users from exploring new information [1]. To address this issue, various strategies with beyond-accuracy have been proposed to increase user satisfaction with the recommendations. ...
Article
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Increasing diversity is becoming crucial in recommender systems to address the “filter bubble” issue caused by accuracy-based algorithms. Diversity-oriented algorithms have been developed to solve this problem. However, this diversification has made it difficult for users to discover what they really want from the variety of information provided by the algorithm. Users spend their time wandering around the recommended content space but fail to find content they want to watch. Therefore, they rely on external services to gather information that does not appear on the recommended list. This could lead to a reduction in the services’ ability to compete with other subscription video on-demand (SVOD) services. To address this problem, this study proposes a human-centered approach to diversification through social recommendations. We conducted an experiment to understand how perceived diversity affects user perceptions and attitudes. Specifically, by incorporating social recommendations into the SVOD service, this experiment was changed to examine the following conditions: (1) influencers vs. online friends, and (2) human recommendation lists vs. algorithmic recommendation lists. The findings indicated that perceived diversity influences the manner in which the users perceive information quality and playfulness, both of which have a positive effect on their intention to use. Additionally, the participants’ perceptions of information quality were greater in the scenario with the human recommendation than in that with the algorithmic recommendation. This study contributes to the development of a theoretical framework based on perceived diversity through social recommendations and the design of an SVOD interface with social recommendations to provide better user experiences.
... Moreover, individuals may increasingly align their search to acquire similar information, which leads to less exploration of the space of possible solutions. For example, this is observed in relation to the passive emergence of filter bubbles and echo chambers [112,113], but also when individuals actively adapt too much to each other's knowledge and thinking [107,114]. ...
Article
The human capacity for abstraction is remarkable. We effortlessly form abstract representations from varied experiences, generalizing and flexibly transferring experiences and knowledge between contexts, which can facilitate reasoning, problem solving and learning across many domains. The cognitive process of abstraction, however, is often portrayed and investigated as an individual process. This paper addresses how cognitive processes of abstraction—together with other aspects of human reasoning and problem solving—are fundamentally shaped and modulated by online social interaction. Starting from a general distinction between convergent thinking, divergent thinking and processes of abstraction, we address how social interaction shapes information processing differently depending on cognitive demands, social coordination and task ecologies. In particular, we suggest that processes of abstraction are facilitated by the interactive sharing and integration of varied individual experiences. To this end, we also discuss how the dynamics of group interactions vary as a function of group composition; that is, in terms of the similarity and diversity between the group members. We conclude by outlining the role of cognitive diversity in interactive processes and consider the importance of group diversity in processes of abstraction. This article is part of the theme issue ‘Concepts in interaction: social engagement and inner experiences’.
... Recent research has highlighted how today's societies are fractured by partisan identities and feedback loops of accom modating information, identity narratives, and anti-expertise (Kreiss, 2019; Lewandowsky, Ecker, & Cook, 2017;Pariser, 2011). For example, previous results have shown that the information shared in social media is more radical and partisan than that of open websites (Faris et al., 2017), thus facilitating the spread of appealing falsehoods (Vosoughi, Roy, & Aral, 2018). ...
Article
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This article presents an integrative model for the endorsement of pseudoscience: the explanation-polarisation model. It is based on a combination of perceived explanatory satisfaction and group polarisation, offering a perspective different from the classical confusion-based conception, in which pseudoscientific beliefs would be accepted through a lack of distinction between science and science mimicry. First, I discuss the confusion-based account in the light of current evidence, pointing out some of its explanatory shortcomings. Second, I develop the explanation-polarisation model, showing its explanatory power in connection with recent research outcomes in cognitive and social psychology.
... Терминът "филтриращ балон" е въведен от Ели Парисър, и се отнася до концепцията, че алгоритмите за персонализиране на facebook съдържанието избирателно предсказва най-интересната за потребителя информация, въз основа на данни за всеки потребител като например историята на харесванията, история на търсенето и друго минало онлайн поведение, което от своя страна това създава условия за онлайн изолация от разнообразни мнения. [19] Концепцията за "филтриращите балони", която се фокусира конкретно върху последиците от алгоритмичната персонализация, е допълнение към предишни изследвания за потреблението на политическа информация в интернет. Те показват, че потребителите преобладаващо избират да четат статии, които са в съответствие с техните политически мнения, като заедно с това много често споделят и обсъждат това съдържание в рамките на социалната група, към която принадлежат. ...
Article
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Този доклад е базиран върху разбирането за политическата комуникация като поле на символни интеракции, където смисълът на политическата реалност се дискутира и конструира. Основната цел е да се концептуализира въздействието на социалните медии върху политическия активизъм и влиянието им върху демокрацията, политическата поляризация и фрагментация, отразяването на ежедневните политически процеси в символната дименсия на политическата комуникация. Ключови думи: социални медии, символна политика, политическа комуникация
... As many commentators have noted, the more serious challenges within the current public sphere centre on a lack of trust in institutions (including the media) and increasing social and political polarisation. The effect is that audiences will tend to listen only to channels they already know, will quickly discount alternative sources of information and tend of be attracted to commentary which 'feels right' (Pariser, 2011). Are we all prepared to actively seek out competing sources of information, to be literate in factchecking procedures, to educate ourselves on the need to not automatically accept things which immediately resonate with what we believe? ...
Chapter
Growing isolation and labour precarity in media work (Deuze 2007, 2011) has generated novel forms of collectivism and activism within the Creative Industries. This chapter discusses Enspiral (NZ), an entity that draws on a blend of digital literacies to mediate participant experience of unstable livelihoods and professional identities, whilst fostering social entrepreneurship. This organised network, or “orgnet” (Lovink, 2007; Rossiter, 2006; Lovink & Rossiter) has created relatively fluid, hybridised structures and practices to move beyond the rigid hierarchical interaction that characterises corporate organisations. An example is cloud-based software that permits cohesive, carefully governed and recorded horizontal — “democratic” — decision-making by a spatiotemporally distributed group. The stability of the network is performed in various modes that demonstrate consensus around ethical boundaries, and members write commentary and host and participate in public via a range of physical and digital platforms, reformulating activism as an interventionist narrative that promotes the global whilst valorising and nurturing the local. I begin with my inspiration: a career in the Creative Industries, starting in agencies before taking the leap with my own business and participating in the inspiring culture of coworking spaces. I then introduce Lovink and Rossiter’s concept of the “orgnet”, a move that permits me to explain the primary causes of uncertainty in a present and future world, whilst locating the discussion in the Creative Industries and tracing a genealogy for socio-technical and environmental conditions that have given rise to increasingly coherent and and stable organised networks of media workers. Here, global systems and conditions have generated labour precarity in the (proposed) geological epoch, the Anthropocene, and the post-industrial circumstances ofcontemporaneous media work. Finally, I describe Enspiral’s history, technology use and cultural features before drawing tentative conclusions about what this orgnet reveals of the future, and the growing importance of precarity to researchers and creatives alike. Keywords: future work, collaboration, social enterprise
... There are potential examples of designs which pose a threat to users in this sense as well. For example, personalized content recommendation systems expose users to a limited set of ideas based on their engagement potential, thereby limiting their view and perspective of the world around them (Pariser, 2011). However, this threat also did not surface in our analysis of dark patterns, since threats to authenticity are potentially more systemic, i.e., a result of dark infrastructure rather than dark patterns (Westin & Chiasson, 2021). ...
Article
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Dark patterns have received significant attention in literature as interface design practices which undermine users’ autonomy by coercing, misleading or manipulating their decision making and behavior. Individual autonomy has been argued to be one of the normative lenses for the evaluation of dark patterns. However, theoretical perspectives on autonomy have not been sufficiently adapted in literature to identify the ethical concerns raised by dark patterns. The aim of this paper is to conceptualize user autonomy within the context of dark patterns. In this paper, we systematically review 151 dark patterns from 16 taxonomies to understand how dark patterns threaten users’ autonomy. We demonstrate through this analysis that implications for autonomy arise along four dimensions, because autonomy itself can be understood as subsuming several distinguishable concepts. These are agency, freedom of choice, control and independence. We argue that an assessment of whether a design pattern qualifies as ‘dark’ should account for the sense in which autonomy is threatened, as individuals’ rights and expectations of autonomy vary in various contexts and depend upon the interpretation of autonomy. This paper aims to contribute to the development of the normative lens of individual autonomy for the evaluation of dark patterns, as well as for persuasive design more broadly.
... These acts of crowding bespeak how the Internet and social media act as sites of gathering and aggregation from a distance. Partly this derives from the "economy of attention" of online spaces, the role of various algorithms involved in shaping visibility (Van Dijck and Poell 2013), and the connected filter bubble effect of social media (Pariser 2011). There has been an intense discussion about how these mechanisms lead to polarization and the limits of the filter bubble theory (see, for example, Jones-Jang and Chung 2022). ...
Article
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The diffusion of social media has profoundly transformed the nature and form of the contemporary public sphere, facilitating the rise of new political tactics and movements. In this article, I develop a theory of the social media public sphere as a “plebeian public sphere” whose functioning is markedly different from the traditional public sphere, described by Jürgen Habermas. Differently from Habermas’ critical-rational publics, this social media public sphere is dominated by online crowds that come together in virtual gatherings made visible by a variety of social media reactions and metrics that measure their presence. It can be best described as a “reactive democracy,” a plebiscitary form of democracy in which reactions are understood as an implicit vote indicating the mood of public opinion on a variety of issues.
... The echo chamber effect of social media Social media is an individual networking media platform that has a filtering effect (Pariser, 2011). Users can control the content to which they are exposed, confining their contacts to like-minded individuals, and avoiding those whom they would like to ignore. ...
Article
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This study aims to understand the determinants of escape from echo chambers. Social media users can control the content to which they are exposed by confining their contacts to like-minded individuals. The resulting echo chamber effect can reinforce existing views and discourage rational discussion. We conducted a survey with a representative sample of 1969 respondents in 2020. Contrary to common expectation, a liberal political orientation was insignificant in predicting reference to differing views, but political partisanship, media trust, time spent on social media, education levels, and gender were significant. Those who spent more time on social media and had lower trust in media were found to refer to other views more frequently and were less susceptible to the echo chamber effect. The results of this study suggest that open-mindedness, independence, critical scepticism, and social activeness are significant resources for one to escape from the echo chamber.
... Participants' search for images introduces important questions about the reliability and meaning of our findings. In addition to the impact of social desirability bias on participants' image selection, their location and browser's search history would have shaped the images offered them (Pariser, 2011). Algorithms used by search engines have been critiqued for perpetuating societal stereotypes (Baker & Potts, 2013;Dewey, 2016), and we have no idea whether participants selected the first results return on a search or whether they scrolled through pages of images before picking one. ...
Article
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In 2015, Bay-Cheng proposed that sexual stereotypes of young women had evolved into four types: sexually abstinent and in-control Virgins; sexually experienced and in-control Agents; sexually experienced and out-of-control Sluts; and sexually abstinent and out-of-control Losers. Bay-Cheng also speculated that perceptions of the four types would align with the Stereotype Content Model’s (Fiske et al., 2002) dimensions of competence-incompetence and warmth-coolness. We tested this through a fine-grained visual content analysis of 833 images selected by 175 participants (aged 19–64) to represent the four sexual types. We coded each image’s composition (e.g., appearance, pose, attire, setting, race) for indicators of the depicted woman’s competence, incompetence, warmth, and coolness. Analyses indicated that images representing both Virgins and Agents included more visual markers of competence and fewer markers of incompetence than Sluts and Losers; however, Agents were distinct from Virgins in having significantly more markers of coolness. Images of Sluts had more visual markers of coolness than Virgins and Losers, but significantly fewer markers of warmth than Virgins and Agents. Images of Losers were distinct in displaying the least competence and the most incompetence compared to the other sexual types. In a separate analysis of race, Losers were also disproportionately represented by Asian Pacific Islander Desi American women whereas Black women and women of mixed or ambiguous race were disproportionately selected as Agents. Findings indicate that although sanctions against sexually active young women (i.e., Agents and Sluts) may be receding, young women who are involuntarily abstinent may be vulnerable to ridicule.
... On social media, in the feeds of websites like Facebook and Twitter, the information users are exposed to is selected through recommendation algorithms [Liao and Fu 2013]. These black-boxes, tuned to optimize engagement, were accused of separating users from news and opinions they disagreed with [Pariser 2011]. ...
Conference Paper
The popularization of Online Social Networks has changed the dynamics of content creation and consumption. In this setting, society has witnessed an amplification in phenomena such as misinformation and hate speech. This dissertation studies these issues through the lens of users. In three case studies in social networks, we: (i) provide insight on how the perception of what is misinformation is altered by political opinion; (ii) propose a methodology to study hate speech on a user-level, showing that the network structure of users can improve the detection of the phenomenon; (iii) characterize user radicalization in far-right channels on YouTube through time, showing a growing migration towards the consumption of extreme content in the platform.
... Masalahnya, ruang yang selama ini diasumsikan sebagai ruang yang terbuka, demokratis dan partisipatif ini ternyata tidak sepenuhnya terbuka seperti yang kita bayangkan. Banyak sekat-sekat di ruang virtual yang terbangun karena kristalisasi sudut pandang yang sempit dalam merespon berbagai persoalan (Pariser, 2011). Perlu pikiran yang terbuka dalam mencerna informasi yang kita akses melalui internet agar kita tidak mudah terombang-ambing dengan informasi yang beredar di internet. ...
Article
Remaja di lingkungan masjid Al-Ikhlas Tamantirto Kasihan Bantul Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta memiliki tantangan yang dihadapi oleh generasi Z pada umumnya. Apalagi di masa pandemi Covid-19 yang mengharuskan mereka untuk lebih banyak tinggal di rumah dan menggunakan internet untuk keperluan belajar, maka ketergantungan terhadap internet menjadi semakin tinggi. Sementara itu, kebutuhan pemanfaatan teknologi internet yang sangat tinggi ini belum diimbangi dengan kemampuan literasi digital yang memadai sehingga para remaja ini rentan terhadap dampak negatif dari teknologi yang mereka akses sehari-hari. Sebagai solusi dari permasalahan diatas, tim pengusul program pengabdian masyarakat bekerja sama dengan takmir masjid memberikan bekal pelatihan dan panduan literasi digital kepada para remaja masjid serta orang tua dari para remaja tersebut. Peran orang tua dinilai juga masih sangat penting untuk ikut memantau aktifitas para remaja ini selama menggunakan akses internet di masjid maupun di rumah mereka masing-masing. Solusi yang dijalankan yaitu, penyelenggaraan pelatihan literasi digital untuk remaja masjid dengan pendekatan yang terintegrasi dari aspek etika komunikasi dan nilai-nilai agama serta penyelenggaraan psikoedukasi tentang peran pengawasan dan kontrol oleh orang tua terhadap anak dan remaja. Hasil pelaksanaan program menunjukkan bahwa pendekatan yang terintegrasi dalam literasi digital tersebut memberikan kesan yang lebih mendalam bagi para remaja maupun orang tua yang berpartisipasi.
Chapter
Soziale Medien haben sich zu zentralen Informationsquellen entwickelt und sind dadurch zu einem wichtigen Faktor im Prozess der politischen Meinungsbildung geworden. Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt, inwiefern soziale Medien die Voraussetzungen für Meinungsbildung verändern und wie sich ihre Rolle dabei von der traditioneller Massenmedien unterscheidet. Davon ausgehend werden die Debatten um zentrale Chancen und Risiken für die Gesellschaft skizziert, die mit sozialen Medien in Verbindung gebracht werden: Zufällige Nachrichtennutzung oder die Konfrontation mit unterschiedlichen Ansichten („cross-cutting exposure“) einerseits, Filterblasen und Echokammern, Fragmentierung, Polarisierung und Desinformation („Fake News“) andererseits.
Chapter
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Web tarayıcılarının gelişimi arama motorunun tanıtımı derken sosyal ağların ortaya çıkışıyla birlikte yeni iletişim teknolojilerinin birey ve toplum üzerindeki etkisine yönelik tartışmalar giderek artmıştır. Bireylerin gerçeklerden ziyade kendi duygu ve inançlarına uygun olan bilgileri kabul etmeye eğilimli olmaları bu tartışmaların başında yer almaktadır. Dolayısıyla hakikatin önemini yitirdiği bu çağa vurgu yapmak için alanyazında “hakikat sonrası çağ” kavramı kullanılmaktadır. Hakikat sonrası çağ kavramına yönelik tartışmaların yanı sıra sosyal ağların hayatımıza girişiyle birlikte algoritmalar üzerine de pek çok görüş ortaya konulmaktadır. Algoritmaların bireylerin sosyal ağlar üzerinde daha önce gerçekleştirdikleri beğenileri, paylaşımları vb. gibi hareketlerinden yola çıkarak beğenebilecekleri seçenekleri karşısına çıkarması ve bir süre sonra bireysel ve toplumsal düzeyde birtakım kutuplaşmaların daha da güçlenmesine sebep olduğuna dair görüşler mevcuttur. Bu durumun, bireylerin gerçeklerden ziyade duygu ve inançlarına uygun olan bilgilere yönelme eğilimi de göz önünde bulundurulduğunda, bireylerdeki düşüncelerin daha da derinleşmesine ve karşıt görüşler arasındaki kutuplaşmaların daha da artmasına hizmet edeceği düşünülmektedir. Gerçekleştirilen alanyazın taraması ışığında bu çalışmada, öncelikle “hakikat sonrası çağ” kavramı ve “yankı odası etkisi” kavramlarından bahsedilecek ve kavrama yönelik tartışmalara yer verilecektir. Ardından We Are Social Raporu (2022)’na göre en çok kullanılan ilk üç sosyal ağ içerisinde olan “Facebook”, “YouTube” ve “Whatsapp”, yankı odası etkisi bağlamında ele alınacaktır. Son olarak ise yankı odası etkisine dair farkındalık oluşturabilmek adına neler yapılabileceği üzerinde durulacaktır.
Thesis
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Este estudo trata da definição, do enfrentamento e desenvolvimento do conceito de privacidade e da proteção de dados pessoais relacionados ao direito da personalidade. A metodologia utilizada para desenvolver este estudo incluiu as pesquisas, documental-jurídico-teórica, a bibliográfico-dogmática. Na pesquisa documental, consultaram-se documentos oficiais de órgãos e convenções nacionais e internacionais, constituições e farta legislação pertinente. Na pesquisa bibliográfica investigaram-se pressupostos teóricos de egrégios teóricos, em livros, artigos, periódicos, dissertações, teses manuscritos e em fontes virtuais que tratam da temática em tela. Para o arcabouço teórico da pesquisa discutiu-se a pertinência do conceito de autonomia privada utilizado como base para a argumentação sobre formulação de variáveis e a interpretação das relações que podem surgir entre elas e o objeto de estudo desta tese. O objetivo geral foi estudar a regulação dos dados pessoais com base na autonomia e na heteronomia e conferir maior segurança jurídica e aprimorar as técnicas existentes para a sua tutela. Para tanto, definiu-se discorrer sobre a regulação dos dados pessoais, tarefa que contou com o suporte da discussão entre autonomia e a heteronomia, destacando o direito à privacidade e à autodeterminação informativa na sociedade contemporânea, à sua vinculação aos direitos fundamentais e à análise de situações latentes envolvendo tutela individual e coletiva, critério de responsabilidade civil, regulação e autorregulação. Como objetivos específicos, destacaram-se o aprimoramento da política legislativa relacionada à proteção de dados pessoais e sua aplicação estruturante, a privacidade e a autodeterminação informativa à estruturação de modelos de negócio. Questionaram- se pressupostos teóricos anteriormente definidos e o resultado da discussão apontou para um novo panorama interpretativo do direito à privacidade e à autodeterminação informativa.
Article
Can television have a mitigating effect on xenophobia? To explore this question, we investigate a natural experiment in which individuals in some regions of East Germany could not—due to their geographic location—consume West German television until 1989. By analyzing survey data from the periods before and after German reunification, we provide evidence that individuals who received West German television during the GDR period and were thus more frequently exposed to foreign media have developed less xenophobia. We document that West German television programs positively affected individuals' attitudes towards foreigners and led to a higher likelihood of supporting refugees, for example by donating money to refugee aid. In addition to the survey evidence, we show that regions that could receive West German television before reunification were less likely to vote for extreme right‐wing parties during the national elections from 1990 to 2017, and experienced fewer criminal offenses against refugees.
Article
In the midst of digitalization, a polarization has developed between autonomous and proactive consumers and those who prefer altruistic and accidental consumption. Consumers who prefer accidental consumption seek context-dependent, instantaneous consumption, and unpredictable, impulsive satisfaction. Inspiration associated with consumption behavior can satisfy this impulse satisfaction and motivate subsequent purchase-related behavior. In this paper, we review existing research on “consumer inspiration,” which is important when considering marketing in response to accidental consumption. Consumer inspiration is examined from the three perspectives of “mechanism,” “antecedents,” and “effects”. There are three issues for future research. (1) Since inspiration is diffuse, it is necessary to establish a marketing perspective to deal with it. (2) It is necessary to examine individual differences and situational factors in the digital environment. (3) It is necessary to study the cognitive Consequences of consumer inspiration.
Chapter
Der Beitrag diskutiert den Partizipationsbegriff im Zusammenhang mit Sozialen Medien aus unterschiedlichen Perspektiven. Grundlegend wird argumentiert, dass Partizipation sowohl als Formativ als auch als konstitutive Bedingung für das Verständnis von Sozialen Medien anzusehen ist. Ausgangspunkt hierfür bildet die Perspektive auf den Medienwandel, der durch neue Technologien und daraus resultierende Plattformen ermöglicht wurde. Das skizzierte Prinzip der Partizipation erfasst das Zusammenwirken informationstechnologisch zur Verfügung gestellter Partizipationspotenziale und die konkreten Nutzungspraktiken der Anwender*innen, da nicht nur sie über die Verteilung der Inhalte bestimmen, sondern in hohem Maße auch technische Rahmungen wie Algorithmensteuerung. Betont wird, dass Partizipation auch aus negativer Perspektive (‚Fake News‘, ‚Hate Speech‘) zu betrachten ist und insofern als normatives Konzept zu hinterfragen sei. Thematisiert wird zudem die Rolle von Datenbesitz und Datenanalyse im Zusammenhang mit Partizipationskulturen und der Kontrolle über die algorithmischen Distributionsstrukturen.
Chapter
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Opening Part II of this book on how to strengthen the civic body against the rising tide of optimisation of emotion and its incubation of false information online, this chapter examines six core social and democratic harms arising from false information online. Firstly (1) it produces wrongly informed citizens that (2) in certain circumstances, for certain communities, are likely to stay wrongly informed in digital echo chambers and (3), more widely, be emotionally provoked (given the affective nature of much false information), thereby fuelling polarisation, partisan misperceptions, incivility and hatred. Added to this is a fourth problem: (4) contagion, where false, emotive information incubated in digital echo chambers and highly partisan enclaves influences wider social media and mainstream news, thereby spreading its pollutants far and wide. Meanwhile, (5) profiling and microtargeting raise core democratic harms comprising fragmentation of important national conversations; targeted suppression of voters; and undue influence over susceptible citizens, although this is hard to directly prove. Also related (6) is the impact of false information in seeding distrust in important civic processes and institutions, from health messaging to democratic processes.
Chapter
Das Verhältnis von Raum und Zeit beschäftigt die Sozialwissenschaften schon seit ihrer Entstehung. Während die Auseinandersetzung mit dem Thema in den letzten Jahren weiter in den Vordergrund gerückt ist, hat die Kommunikations- und Medienwissenschaft es bis jetzt nur bedingt für sich entdeckt. Umgekehrt haben die Soziologie und die Humangeografie das Verhältnis von Raum und Zeit als zentral thematisiert, nicht aber die Rolle der digitalen Medien darin. Soziale Medien brachten neue Charakteristika und Nutzungsweisen mit sich, welche Raum und Zeit noch einmal neu in Szene setzen. Dieser Beitrag hat zwei Ziele: Erstens sollen einige der zentralen Debatten zur Frage von Raum und Zeit (und auch Medien) zusammengefasst, zweitens sollen diese anhand konkreter Bespiele aus dem Bereich der sozialen Medien auf ihre Aktualität hin diskutiert werden. Zur Rahmung dienen dabei drei Modi von Raum-Zeit-Bezügen: das Ephemere, das Stabile und das Situative.
Chapter
Der Begriff der Öffentlichkeit ist eines der wichtigsten sozialwissenschaftlichen Konstrukte. Wie Öffentlichkeit zu fassen und welchen normativen Anspruch das Konzept erhebt, wurde und wird in der Literatur umfangreich und vielschichtig diskutiert. Die modernen digitalen Kommunikationsumgebungen bedingen einen grundlegenden Wandel, der von einer „Transformation der Öffentlichkeit“ sprechen lässt. Insbesondere die Spezifika und Dynamiken der sozialen Medien treiben die Transformationsprozesse voran. In diesem Beitrag werden daher, ausgehend von klassischen sozialwissenschaftlichen Öffentlichkeitsmodellen, ausgewählte Konzepte vorgestellt, die in den vergangenen 15 Jahren einen Beitrag geleistet haben, diesen Wandel zu erklären und für weiterführende Analysen zu erschließen.
Article
The way new media technologies such as Artificial Intelligence (AI) are implemented in our cultures is not only configured by technologies themselves, but also by circulating narratives, appropriations, and rhetorics. This article takes on the topic of AI rhetorics, using the example of mass media’s depiction of the role Germany and Europe play regarding these new technologies. It does so by (1) discussing the current state of Critical Algorithm Studies research, (2) presenting the results of a case study of German newspaper articles, and (3) reflecting on starting points for an applied rhetoric. In public discourse, AI systems are – implicitly – framed as being uncircumventable for our cultures, and specific issues that they entail appear to be unambiguous at first glance. Based on my findings, I contend that there is a pressing need for differentiated studies on AI rhetorics, just as much as there is a need for rhetorically educated subjects to shape our collective futures and conceive of new utopias.
Thesis
Les effets prêtés aux « médias sociaux » sont interrogés ici en termes de déplacements potentiellement stimulés voire induits dans les trajectoires politiques des sociétés. Les rapports sociaux investissent différentes médiations composant les sociétés pour tenter d’en faire pencher les productions (idéelles, institutionnelles, etc.) en leur faveur. Deux éléments nous conduisent à penser que les spécificités algorithmiques et interfaciales des médiations socionumériques sont favorables aux tendances hégémoniques.Nous affilions les cadres des entreprises qui les conçoivent à la bourgeoisie de la Silicon Valley, elle-même figure de proue de l’hégémonie contemporaine. Nous identifions les médiations socionumériques comme des médiatisations issues d’un processus d’industrialisation largement façonné par des logiques capitalistes.Nous avons conçu une application web de lecture d’actualités où nous avons exposé trois groupes distincts d’enquêté·e·s aux mêmes contenus mais avec des variations d’interface et d’algorithme. Le répertoire lexical associé au corpus hégémonique s’est retrouvé significativement plus présent dans les articles favorisés par les méthodes de tri socionumérique. Nous avons également relevé au sein de l’échantillon que :· l’algorithme d’inspiration socionumérique a favorisé la concentration des clics et des interactions sur un petit nombre d’articles par rapport au tri antichronologique,· le groupe que nous avons tenté de stimuler en ce sens (via l’interface) a significativement plus « liké » les contenus que les deux autres groupes,· Les actualités aux titres et chapeaux employant un ton racoleur ont enregistré de meilleures performances, à l’exception des articles du journal Le Monde.
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