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Strength training is a critical exercise stimulus for inducing changes in muscular strength, size and power (6). Recently, linear position transducers have gained in popularity as a means to monitor velocity in strength training exercises. The measurement error of such devices has been shown to be low and both relative and absolute reliability have been shown to be acceptable (2, 7, 11). The purpose of this article is to provide the overview and benefits of monitoring movement velocity in strength training exercises, along with providing the basis for novel “velocity-based” strength training prescription. We have covered the following practical applications: Guidelines to develop a velocity/load profile for athletes; Using the velocity load/profile to predict and monitor changes to maximal strength; Using velocity monitoring to control fatigue effects of strength training; Using velocity monitoring as an immediate performance feedback to promote the highest level of effort in specific training exercises and stronger adaptive stimuli. Linear position transducers are reliable and valid tools to help strength and conditioning practitioners monitor and optimize their strength training programs.
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... [8][9][10] Applications of VBT include the provision of feedback during resistance training, [11][12][13][14] autoregulatory prescriptive methods, 15,16 fatigue monitoring 17 and prediction of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) from submaximal loads. 18,19 The successful implementation of VBT relies on instruments which are reliable and valid. 20 While it is widely accepted that linear position transducers (LPTs) outperform other technologies including accelerometers and optic laser devices, [21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] the price of an LPT presents a barrier of entry for practitioners. ...
... 10%), moderate (5%-10%), or good (\ 5%). 55 The magnitude of the ES were considered trivial (\ 0. 19 55 This study considered the variables highly reliable if they met the following 3 criteria: very large correlation ( . 0.70), moderate CV (410%), and a small ES (\ 0.60). ...
... This supports previous findings that daily predictions of maximal strength are not sensitive enough to detect fatigue or modify training load, 70 as originally propositioned. 10,19 Intriguingly, a recent study found bench press 1-RM can be estimated more accurately with machine learning methods than the MVT method, 71 but it is unknown if this can be translated into free-weight examinations. This should be a consideration for future research. ...
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The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of load-velocity profiles (LVPs) and validity of 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) prediction methods in the back-squat using the novel Vitruve linear position transducer (LPT). Twenty-five men completed a back-squat 1-RM assessment followed by 2 LVP trials using five incremental loads (20%-40%-60%-80%-90% 1-RM). Mean propulsive velocity (MPV), mean velocity (MV) and peak velocity (PV) were measured via a (LPT). Linear and polynomial regression models were applied to the data. The reliability and validity criteria were defined a priori as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) or Pearson correlation coefficient (r). 0.70, coefficient of variation (CV) 410%, and effect size (ES) < 0.60. Bland-Altman analysis and heteroscedasticity of errors (r 2) were also assessed. The main findings indicated MPV, MV and PV were reliable across 20%-90% 1-RM (CV < 8.8%). The secondary findings inferred all prediction models had acceptable reliability (CV < 8.0%). While the MPV linear and MV linear models demonstrated the best estimation of 1-RM (CV < 5.9%), all prediction models displayed unacceptable validity and a tendency to overestimate or underestimate 1-RM. Mean systematic bias (27.29 to 2.83 kg) was detected for all prediction models, along with little to no heteroscedasticity of errors for linear (r 2 < 0.04) and polynomial models (r 2 < 0.08). Furthermore, all 1-RM estimations were significantly different from each other (p < 0.03). Concludingly, MPV, MV and PV can provide reliable LVPs and repeatable 1-RM predictions. However, prediction methods may not be sensitive enough to replace direct assessment of 1-RM. Polynomial regression is not suitable for 1-RM prediction.
... Further, employing the "two-point method" , the load-velocity relationship enables an athlete's 1RM prediction without applying maximum loads. Compared to traditional 1RM-based strength training with large within subject day-to-day variability (Kiely, 2012;Jovanović and Flanagan, 2014), this relationship has been reported to be load-and exercise-specific (Beck et al., 2020), but robust over long-term training progress (González-Badillo and Sánchez-Medina, 2010). ...
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This network meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of different velocity-based (VBT) and traditional 1RM-based resistance training (TRT) interventions on strength and power indices in healthy participants. The research was conducted until December 2021 using the online electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, PsycNet, and SPORTDiscus for studies with the following inclusion criteria: 1) controlled VBT trials, 2) strength and/or jump and/or sprint parameters as outcomes (c), participants aged between 18 and 40 years, and 4) peer-reviewed and published in English. Standardized mean differences (SMD) using a random effects models were calculated. Fourteen studies with 311 healthy participants were selected and 3 networks (strength, jump, and sprint) were achieved. VBT, TRT, repetitions in reserve (RIR), low velocity loss (lowVL), and high velocity loss (highVL) were ranked for each network. Based on P-score rankings, lowVL (P-score ≥ 0.59; SMD ≥ 0.33) and highVL (P-score ≥ 0.50; SMD ≥ 0.12) revealed favorable effects on strength, jump, and sprint performance compared to VBT (P-score ≤ 0.47; SMD ≤0.01), TRT (P-score ≤0.46; SMD ≤ 0.00), and RIR (P-score ≤ 0.46; SMD ≤ 0.12). In conclusion, lowVL and highVL showed notable effects on strength, jump, and sprint performance. In particular for jump performance, lowVL induced favorable improvements compared to all other resistance training approaches.
... However, athletes' training state or performance is constantly changing due to numerous varying factors, such as diurnal biological variation, training fatigue, nutrient intake, and sleep. The factors can lead to up to 36% fluctuation in 1RM [8,9]. As daily fluctuation is rarely considered in traditional RT planning [10], the pre-designed training loads can be inappropriate and therefore reduce training benefits and even cause degeneration or injuries [11]. ...
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Velocity-based training (VBT) is a rising auto-regulation method that dynamically regulates training loads to promote resistance training. However, the role of VBT in improving various athletic performances is still unclear. Hence, the presented study aimed to examine the role of VBT in improving lower limbs’ maximum strength, strength endurance, jump, and sprint performance among trained individuals. A systematic literature search was performed to identify studies on VBT for lower limb strength training via databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane, CNKI (in Chinese), and Wanfang Database (in Chinese). Controlled trials that deployed VBT only without extra training content were considered. Eventually, nine studies with a total of 253 trained males (at least one year of training experience) were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled results suggest that VBT may effectively enhance lower limbs’ maximum strength (SMD = 0.76; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%), strength endurance (SMD = 1.19; p < 0.001; I2 = 2%), countermovement jump (SMD = 0.53; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%), and sprint ability (SMD of sprint time = −0.40; p < 0.001; I2 = 0%). These findings indicate the positive role of VBT in serving athletic training. Future research is warranted to focus on the effect of velocity loss of VBT on athletic performance.
... The test was finished when subjects performed a repetition at a mean velocity lower than 0.50 m/s and 0.30 m/s for BS and BP, respectively, resulting in 5.1 ± 0.7 and 4.4 ± 0.9 repetitions for the aforementioned exercises. Data were exported to an excel spreadsheet, and linear regressions were used to determine the 1-RM from the L-V relationship (Jovanović & Flanagan, 2014). Velocities of 0.17 m/s and 0.33 m/s for BP (Janicijevic et al., 2021) and BS exercises (Sánchez-Medina et al., 2017) were used, respectively, to estimate 1-RM for pre-and post-test. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the effect of the intra-session exercise sequence of a concurrent training programme on the components of health-related physical fitness. Twenty-four healthy young adults were allocated into two different groups differing only in the exercise order to conduct an 8-week intra-session concurrent training programme consisting of three sessions of 60–90 minutes (180–270 min/week), with all-out running sprint intervals, back squat, and bench press endurance and resistance exercises (i.e., ET+RT and RT+ET). The 8-week intra-session concurrent training programme overall improved all the components of physical fitness regardless of the exercise sequence. However, ET + RT and RT + ET groups reported moderate and small improvements for squat jump (ET + RT: 3.82 cm [1.11 to 6.53 cm]; RT + ET: 0.31 cm [−1.72 to 2.33 cm]), countermovement jump (ET + RT: 3.76 cm [1.43 to 6.08 cm]; RT + ET: 2.07 cm [−0.03 to 4.17 cm]) and maximum oxygen uptake (ET + RT: 4.75 ml/kg/min [1.14 to 8.35 ml/kg/min]; RT + ET: 1.66 ml/kg/min [−0.89 to 4.21 ml/kg/min]), respectively. Therefore, greater lower-body power and cardiorespiratory fitness gains might be induced following the ET + RT sequence.
... When performing the drop-jump, athletes were instructed to "walk out" from the drop height to prevent increased drop height. Ground contact time and jump height were ascertained using a dual force plate (Ergotest Technology AS Performance in the strength tests was measured using relative strength (1-RM/body mass), which was estimated by the load-velocity relationship in Jovanović and Flanagan [32], using the best fit line of regression with three different data points for each individual athlete. The data points correspond to loads at different velocities (≈1, 0.8 and 0.5 m/s). ...
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The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of six weeks of strength vs. plyometric training upon change of direction (COD) performance. A total of 21 young female handball players were randomly assigned to either a strength group: (n = 11, age: 17.5 ± 2.3 years, height: 1.69 ± 0.05 m, weight: 65.8 ± 5.9 kg) training bilateral, unilateral and later squats; or a plyometric training group (n = 10, age: 17.1 ± 2.4 years, height: 1.73 ± 0.07 m, weight: 67.1 ± 9.3 kg) training drop jumps, unilateral countermovement jumps and skate-jumps. Groups were assigned after being pair-matched based upon baseline COD performance. The training modalities were matched in training impulse. A force- (180°) and velocity-oriented (45°) COD of 20 m was used to measure changes in COD performance (10 m + COD + 10 m). Total time (s) to complete the COD test was defined as the performance variable. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. The two-way ANOVA showed no group effect upon COD performance. A significant effect was only observed for the strength training group in the last 10 m and total 20 m of the force-oriented COD (F ≥ 5.51; p ≤ 0.04; η2 ≥ 0.36). Both groups improved performance in other strength- and power-related tests. It was concluded that only the strength training program was effective in developing force-oriented COD performance in the studied population, while the plyometric training program was not sufficient. Both training modalities are useful for improving performance in different strength and power tests in young female handball players.
... The load-velocity profile and, in particular, the minimal velocity threshold (MVT), that is, the MPV at 1RM, are exercise specific. For example, in the SQ, the MVT is about 0.30 m·s −1 , in the Smith machine BP it is 0.15 m·s −1 , and in the free-weight BP it is 0.18 m·s −1 [22,23], while in the Prone Bench Pull it is 0.50 m·s −1 [24,25]. For this reason, in our opinion, the use of a single PV scale for the SQ and BP could mislead subjects by increasing the error in the velocity estimation. ...
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The perception of bar velocity (PV) is a subjective parameter useful in estimating velocity during resistance training. The aim of this study was to investigate if the PV can be improved through specific training sessions, if it differs between the back squat (SQ) and bench press (BP), and if there are differences in perception accuracy in the different intensity zones. Resistance-trained participants were randomly divided in an experimental (EG, n = 16) or a control group (CG, n = 14). After a familiarization trial, both groups were tested before and after 5 weeks of training. The PV was assessed with five blinded loads covering different intensity domains. During the training period, only the EG group received velocity feedback for each repetition. Prior to training, both groups showed a greater PV accuracy in the SQ than in the BP. Post training, the EG showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the delta score (the difference between the real and perceived velocity) for both exercises, while no significant differences were observed in the CG. Prior to training, the perceived velocity was more accurate at higher loads for both exercises, while no difference between loads was observed after training (EG). The results of this study demonstrate that the PV improves with specific training and that differences in the accuracy between loads and exercise modes seen prior to training are leveled off after training.
... 3 "Yüzde temelli antrenman programlaması" olarak da adlandırılan bu yaklaşımda antrenörlerin her bir sporcu için 1TM değerlerini belirlemesi ve her bir egzersiz için ayrı ayrı 1TM ölçümü yapması gerekmektedir. 4 Yüzde temelli antrenman programlanmasının; 1TM'nin doğrudan ölçümünü gerektirmesi, bu ölçümün yanlış uygulandığında acemi sporcularda yaralanma olasılığını artırması, hızlı değişebilen kuvvet seviyelerinden dolayı optimal antrenman yükünü belirlemek için sıklıkla test yapılmasına gerek duyulması, büyük sporcu grupları için oldukça zaman alıcı olması ve pratik olmaması gibi çoklu sınırlılıkları bulunmaktadır. 5 Ayrıca bu yaklaşımda antrenmanlardan kaynaklı kümülatif yorgunluk, hidrasyon düzeyi, psikolojik ve sosyal stresörlerin neden olduğu maksimum kuvvet ve performanstaki günlük dalgalanmalar gibi etkenler göz ardı edilmektedir. ...
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This study aimed at examining the concurrent validity and reliability of the multi-point method and the two-point method’s variations for estimating the one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the deadlift and squat exercises and to determine the accuracy of which optimal two loads can be used for the two-point method protocol. Thirteen resistance-trained men performed six sessions that consisted of two incremental loading tests (multi-point method: 20–40–60–80–90% and two-point method variations: 40–60%, 40–80%, 40–90%,60–80%, 60–90%) followed by 1RM tests. Both the multi-point method and the two-point method load variations showed reliable results for 1RM estimation (CV < 10%) squat and deadlift exercises. Session-session reliability was found to be low in deadlift (ICC: 0.171–0.335) and squat exercises (ICC: 0.235–0.479) of 40–60% and 60–80% in two-point methods. Deadlift (ICC: 0.815–0.996) and squat (ICC: 0.817–0.988) had high session-to-session reliability in all other methods. Regarding the validity of deadlift exercise, the multipoint method (R2 = 0.864) and two variations of the two-point method (R2 = 0.816 for 40–80%, R2 = 0.732 for 60–80%) showed very large correlations, whereas other two variations of the two-point method (R2 = 0.945 for 40–90%, R2 = 0.914 for 60–90%) showed almost perfect correlations with the actual 1RM. Regarding the validity of squat exercise, the multi-point method (R2 = 0.773) and two variations of the two-point method (R2 = 0.0847 for 60–80%, R2 = 0.705 for 40–90%) showed very large correlations, whereas 40–60% variation showed almost perfect correlation (R2 = 0.962) with the actual 1RM. In conclusion, whereas both the multi-point method and the two-point method load variations showed reliable results, the multiple-point method and most of the two-point methods’ load variations examined in this research provided an accurate (from large-moderate to perfect) estimate of the 1RM. Therefore, we recommend using the multi-point method and especially the two-point methods variations including higher relative loads to estimate 1RM.
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Background: Taekwondo is a powerful sport in which the maximal performance relies on anaerobic metabolism and explosive power. Aims: to determine the dedication of different strength and power training programs (off-season, pre-season and in-season) to lower limb performance and physiological modulation during a 20-week training period. Methods: Eight male collegiate taekwondo athletes completed 20-week systemic training programs divided into a linear training mesocycle (general conditioning, muscular recruitment, and hypertrophy) from 1 to 12 weeks, and two microcycle (maximum strength, explosive power, agility, speed) from 13 to 20 weeks in periodized fluctuation. Subjects were evaluated biochemical index, forearm total vascular occlusion test and muscular stiffness test six times during Training program: at the beginning (week 0, date1, T1), in the middle (week 2, Date 13, T2; week 8, Date 55, T3; week 14, Date 97, T4; week 18, Date 125, T5) and at the end (week 21, Date 143, T6) of the training program. Squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and continuous jump bent leg (CJb) were tested before and after the systemic strength training period. Results: There were significantly increasing in the SJ (7.8(2.7)%), CMJ (18.3(4.1)%) and CJb (8.7(4.7)%) after the totally training programs. Training increased creatine kinase levels from T1 to T4 (327.8%) and recovered at T6 (99.4%). Muscle damage and muscular recruitment function recovered at T6 after taper. Conclusion: The conjunction of systemic periodized 20 weeks training programs would increase lower limb performance and strengthen neuromuscular controlling in taekwondo athletes. [Yen Ke-tien. Training Periodization in Lower Limb Performance and Neuromuscular Controlling in taekwondo athletes. Life Sci J 2012;9(3):850-857]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). http://www.lifesciencesite.com. 120