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The Role of Father Involvement in the Perceived Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult Daughters: A Retrospective Study



Scholars propose a typology for adolescent daughters' well-being in father/daughter relationships that includes engagement, accessibility, and responsibility. The purpose of this study was to examine these three areas within a context of daughters' self-esteem, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. A sample of 99 single females between 18-21 years of age who had lived with their fathers during their adolescence was asked to reflect on the relationship with their fathers. Results indicated that there were statistically significant relationships between engagement and accessibility with the daughters' self-esteem and life satisfaction. Implications of these results were also discussed. As fathering research has progressed, it has become apparent that the associations with desirable child outcomes found in most research is actually with positive forms of paternal involvement, not simply involvement per se (Cabrera, Tamis-LeMonda, Bradley, Hofferth, & Lamb, 2000; Flouri & Buchanan, 2003; Holmes & Huston, 2010; Pleck, 1997). In addition, while most fathering research has historically been taken from the perspective of fathers and mothers, researchers now recognize the potential importance of examining father involvement from the perspective of children themselves (Beckert, Strom, & Strom, 2006; Finley & Schwartz, 2004). In an effort to expand the conceptual understanding of father involvement and further refine the quantitative measurements of father involvement, Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, and Levine (1985) proposed a three-part typology of father involvement that included engagement, accessibility, and responsibility. Engagement includes a father's direct interaction with his child. Accessibility refers to a father's physical or psychological availability to his child. Responsibility involves providing for the care of the child, as distinct from the performance of care. Each of these types of involvement directly relate to a child's well-being.
Author info: Correspondence should be sent to: Scot Allgood, Ph.D., Department
of Family, Consumer, and Human Development, Utah State University 2905 Old
Main Hill, Logan, UT 84322, email:
North American Journal of Psychology, 2012, Vol. 14, No. 1, 95-110.
The Role of Father Involvement in the Perceived
Psychological Well-Being of Young Adult
Daughters: A Retrospective Study
Scot M. Allgood, Troy E. Beckert,
Camille Peterson
Utah State University
Scholars propose a typology for adolescent daughters’ well-being in
father/daughter relationships that includes engagement, accessibility, and
responsibility. The purpose of this study was to examine these three areas
within a context of daughters’ self-esteem, life satisfaction, and
psychological distress. A sample of 99 single females between 18-21
years of age who had lived with their fathers during their adolescence
was asked to reflect on the relationship with their fathers. Results
indicated that there were statistically significant relationships between
engagement and accessibility with the daughters’ self-esteem and life
satisfaction. Implications of these results were also discussed.
As fathering research has progressed, it has become apparent that the
associations with desirable child outcomes found in most research is
actually with positive forms of paternal involvement, not simply
involvement per se (Cabrera, Tamis-LeMonda, Bradley, Hofferth, &
Lamb, 2000; Flouri & Buchanan, 2003; Holmes & Huston, 2010; Pleck,
1997). In addition, while most fathering research has historically been
taken from the perspective of fathers and mothers, researchers now
recognize the potential importance of examining father involvement from
the perspective of children themselves (Beckert, Strom, & Strom, 2006;
Finley & Schwartz, 2004).
In an effort to expand the conceptual understanding of father
involvement and further refine the quantitative measurements of father
involvement, Lamb, Pleck, Charnov, and Levine (1985) proposed a
three-part typology of father involvement that included engagement,
accessibility, and responsibility. Engagement includes a father’s direct
interaction with his child. Accessibility refers to a father’s physical or
psychological availability to his child. Responsibility involves providing
for the care of the child, as distinct from the performance of care. Each of
these types of involvement directly relate to a child’s well-being.
Engagement Sometimes referred to as interaction, Lamb et al. (1985)
originally defined engagement as “a father’s direct contact with his child,
through caretaking and shared activities” (p. 884). Overall, positive
paternal engagement, regardless of the way in which it has been
measured, has been found to be significantly related to a cluster of
adolescent outcomes, including alcohol use and abuse (Goncy & van
Dulmen, 2010) and self-control, self-esteem, life skills, and social
competence (Maine, 2004).
Accessibility Accessibility refers to a father’s potential availability
for interaction, by virtue of being both physically and psychologically
present and accessible to the child with or without direct interaction
(Cabrera et al., 2000; Lamb et al., 1985; McBride, 1990; Pleck, 1997).
Examples of accessibility may include such things as cooking in the
kitchen while the child lingers nearby, being physically absent but easily
accessible by phone or other electronic devices, or watching television
together, but not directly interacting (Lamb, 2000). Averaging across
several studies, Pleck found that fathers’ proportional accessibility is
about two-thirds of mothers’, which is about 50% higher than the
corresponding averages in the 1970s and 1980s. Researchers that have
used the accessibility construct to measure involvement report that
fathers spend more time being accessible to their children than they do
engaging or being responsible (McBride & Mills, 1993; Pleck, 1997).
Responsibility Responsibility is the hardest type of involvement to
operationally define, but may be the most important type of involvement
as it reflects the extent to which a father takes ultimate responsibility for
the care and welfare of his child (Cabrera et al., 2000; Lamb, 2000). It
also involves implementing strategies to meet certain needs, such as,
selecting a pediatrician and making appointments, selecting child care-
settings or arranging for babysitters, and making arrangements for care
and nurturance for a child when they are sick (Cabrera et al., 2000;
Lamb, 2000; Lamb et al., 1985; McBride, 1990).
On average, fathers’ share of responsibility is substantially lower
than mothers’ share (Pleck & Masciadrelli, 2004). In addition,
researchers have yet to identify any child-care task for which fathers
typically have primary responsibility (Pleck & Masciadrelli, 2004).
Bradford, Hawkins, Palkovitz, Christiansen, and Day (2002) reported
that in order to gain a more complete understanding of father
involvement, future studies need to include children’s reports. Gaining
the perspective of the child is likely to yield important and somewhat
different information that more fully captures the concept of father
involvement (Beckert et al., 2006).
In 2004, Finley and Schwartz created two measures of fathering that
employ a child-centered approach emphasizing children’s
Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson FATHER INVOLVEMENT 97
phenomenological retrospective perceptions of father involvement.
According to these scholars, what is important to the children in the long
run and what most heavily affects children’s current and future behavior
is the long term parent ‘residue’ within the children that is encapsulated
within the children’s retrospective perceptions of their parents (p. 145).
Thus, if a young adult daughter perceived that her father was highly
involved in her life, then that father’s impact on his daughter is a
consequence of her perception of high involvement– independent of the
accuracy of that perception (Finley & Schwartz, 2004).
Fathers and the Psychological Well-being of Daughters While the
vast majority of the psychological literature focuses on parent-child
relationships early in children’s development (Bowlby, 1985), relatively
little theoretical and empirical work has focused on the nature, activities,
and impact of parent-child relationships in adolescence and early
adulthood (Videon, 2005). One possible reason for this neglect may be
that adolescence is typically viewed as a time when children distance
themselves from their parents, and peers take on increasing importance
(Videon, 2005). As a result, much of the literature examining adolescent
development typically gives enhanced emphasis to the influence of peers
(Harris, Furstenberg, & Marmer 1998).
Although peers and dating relationships become increasingly
influential throughout the teenage years, researchers assert that parent-
child relations remain fundamentally important to adolescents’ well-
being (Van Wel, Linssen, & Abma, 2000). In fact, the influence of
parents on adolescents often bears more weight than that of peers in most
areas of psychological well-being (Blum & Rinehart, 2000; Dornbusch,
Erickson, Laird, & Wong, 2001; Kumpfer & Alvarado, 2003). In
addition, the influence of parent-child relationships in adolescence is not
transitory; the affective quality of parent-child relationships in the
teenage years has been shown to influence the long-term trajectory of
offspring well-being into adulthood (Amato & Gilbreth, 1999; Roberts &
Bengtson, 1993; Van Wel, et al., 2000).
Van Wel and colleagues (2000) reported that the closeness between
fathers and their children relates positively to the psychological well-
being of children, both immediately and over time. Further, their results
indicate that this connection does not become weaker as the
adolescents/emerging adults grow older.
Fathers and Daughters Often the literature on parent-adolescent
relationships downplays the importance of fathers on daughter
development, especially when compared to mother-daughter
relationships (Nielsen, 2001; Pleck & Hofferth, 2008). As Secunda
(1992) observed, fathers can have a profound impact on daughters
development, yet, of all the family ties, the father-daughter relationship is
the least understood and least studied. Several others (Daniels, 1998;
Lamb, 2004; Phares, 1999) have noted similar observations.
Perhaps another contributing factor to the neglect of the father-
daughter relationship is the long-standing notion that fathers play a more
important role in the development of sons than daughters (Morgan,
Wilcoxon, & Satcher, 2003). Although developmental research has
shown that fathers are typically less involved with their daughters than
with their sons, the quality of parenting that children of both genders
receive from their fathers can have long term psychological implications
(Palkovitz, 2002; Van Wel et al., 2000; Wenk, Hardesty, Morgan, &
Blair, 1994).
Self-esteem Commonly reported within the limited father-daughter
research is the positive influence a father can have on the self-esteem of
his daughter (Baruch & Barnett, 1975; Carlson, 2006; Liu, 2008).
Baruch and Barnett (1975) found that females who are better able to
identify with and relate to their fathers had higher levels of self-esteem,
independence, and success. Additionally, greater father participation in
child rearing was associated with less stereotypical views of gender roles.
This is especially significant in that Lamb (1981) stated that negative,
and overly rigid, views of femininity (e.g., dependent, primary caregiver)
hamper a daughter’s positive notions of femininity (e.g., warmth,
expressiveness, and empathy) which greatly facilitates the development
of her self-concept.
This idea is further supported by Wenk et al. (1994), who found that
feeling close to father had a significantly positive effect on both the self-
esteem and life satisfaction of daughters. Likewise, Roberts and
Bengtson (1993) suggested that greater father-daughter affection early in
a daughter’s adult life may contribute to later well-being by bolstering
her self-esteem.
Life satisfaction Ryff (1989) indicated that measures of life
satisfaction, as opposed to previous measures of happiness, are most
appropriate when examining the construct of psychological well-being.
Her argument is based on the supposition that life satisfaction measures
enduring characteristics of psychological well-being rather than short-
term well-being. Current research examining the life satisfaction of
offspring shows parent-child interactions to be the strongest predictors of
life satisfaction in adolescent offspring (Leung & Leung, 1992). Using
different methodology, Amato (1994) found that a daughter’s closeness
and support from her father was significantly associated with her life
Psychological Distress In an examination of adult daughter-parent
relationships and the corresponding associations with daughters’
subjective well-being and psychological distress, Barnett, Kibria, Baruch,
Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson FATHER INVOLVEMENT 99
and Pleck (1991) defined and measured psychological distress in terms of
anxious and depressive symptomatology. Based on their review of the
literature, they hypothesized that daughter-father role quality relates
inversely to psychological distress, with high role quality related to low
levels of anxiety and depression, and low role quality related to high
levels of anxiety and depression.
The literature highlights three constructs that relate to daughters’
well-being, which includes father involvement, as indicated by the
amount or quantity of time that fathers are involved in various domains
of their daughter’s lives, nurturant fathering, or the affective quality of
fathering, and psychological well-being, defined in terms of self-esteem,
life satisfaction, and psychological distress. By examining these
constructs, as a means of understanding how fathers influence their
daughters’ development during the transition from adolescence to
adulthood, we suggest the following hypotheses that guided the current
There will be a positive relationship between self-esteem and
retrospective perceptions of father involvement and nurturant fathering
during adolescence.
There will be a positive relationship between life satisfaction and
retrospective perceptions of father involvement and nurturant fathering
during adolescence.
There will be a negative relationship between psychological distress
and retrospective perceptions of father involvement and nurturant
fathering during adolescence.
The use of retrospective reports, provided by emerging adult
daughters, to assess perceived levels of father involvement and nurturant
fathering, is based on previous research which has demonstrated that
individuals’ perceptions are uniquely associated with the experiences that
individuals report (Harter, Whitesell, & Kowalski, 1992; Khaleque &
Rohner, 2002; Rohner, 1986; Rohner & Veneziano, 2001). In other
words, a father’s impact on his daughter is more accurately reflected in
the daughter’s perception of his involvement, rather than the nature of his
actual involvement (Finley & Schwartz, 2004).
Female participants in this study were recruited from university
general education classes at a public university in the western United
States. Female college students were chosen for three reasons. First,
females are of primary interest because as Secunda (1992) observed, of
all the family ties, the father-daughter relationship is the least understood
and least studied. Second, Arnett (2000) stated that emerging adulthood
might be an appropriate time to gather retrospective reports of parenting
because emerging adults often reflect back and look forward as they
prepare to face the challenges of adulthood. Thus, an inclusion criterion
for age was 18-21 years, which scholars defined as the unattached young
adult stage of life (Carter & McGoldrick, 2005; Fulmer, 2005). Third,
students who enroll in general education classes tend to be in their first or
second year of college and are typically younger than students who are
taking classes for a declared major. The response rate for this study was
100%. All participants were single females between the ages of 18 and
21 years of age, with a mean age of 19.73 (SD= .87). The mean years of
education completed for participants was 14.15 (SD=1.07). Almost all of
the participants were Caucasian (97%).
According to the data provided by the emerging adult daughters in
our sample, the mean age for participants’ fathers was 50.9 (SD= 5.63),
and the mean years of education completed was 16.4 (SD= 2.48) years.
Like daughters, the large majority of fathers were reported to be
Caucasian (98%).
The Father Involvement Scale (FIS) is a 20-item measure designed to
assess adolescent and adult children’s retrospective perceptions of their
fathers’ involvement (see Finley & Schwartz, 2004). Each question was
asked in two forms, the first focusing on how involved their fathers were,
as perceived in retrospect, and the second on how involved the daughters
wished their fathers had been. Questions referring to both perceived and
desired involvement were answered using a 5-point Likert scale. Total
scores for reported and desired involvement were created by summing
the respective domain ratings with possible scores ranging from 20 to
Internal consistency tests for all three subscale scores (expressive
involvement, instrumental involvement, and mentoring/advising
involvement) and total reported FIS score revealed high Cronbach’s
alpha coefficients ranging from .90-.97 (Finley & Schwartz, 2004).
The Nurturant Fathering Scale (Finley, 1998; Williams & Finley,
1997) is a 9-item measure designed to assess the affective quality of
fathering. Each question was rated on a 5-point Likert-type scale that
participants use to characterize their relationship with their father or
father figure. Total scores were created by adding all 9 items, with
possible scores ranging from 9 to 45. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for
scores on the Nurturant Fathering Scale and the subscales have been
performed in a number of studies with a range of .88-.95 (Finley, 1998;
Finley & Schwartz, 2004; Williams & Finley, 1997).
Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson FATHER INVOLVEMENT 101
The Outcome Questionnaire 10.2 (OQ-10.2) (Lambert, Finch,
Okiishi, Bulingame, McKelvey, & Reisinger, 1998) is a 10-item, Likert-
type scale that has a primary function of tracking patient progress during
treatment for psychological disorders (Lambert et al., 1998). The OQ
10.2 has two identifiable subscales: 5 items for wellness (degree to which
people are satisfied with their quality of life) and 5 items for distress
(symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress-related disorders). The 10
items that make up the OQ 10.2 were statistically selected from the 45
items that make up the OQ – 45.2.
The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) is a 10-item, four-point
Likert-type, unidimensional measure of global self-esteem (see
Rosenberg, 1965). The RSE generally has high reliability of scores
within college student populations with a test-retest correlation of .85
over a 2 week period (Robinson & Shaver, 1973), and Cronbach’s alpha
coefficients for scores of various samples that are consistent and
generally quite favorable.
Researchers invited all unmarried female students in multiple general
education classes between the ages of 18 and 21 who had an identified
father figure in their life during their adolescent years, to participate in
the study. Interested students completed the 10 minute questionnaire
during class time.
Using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, the reliability of all measures
was tested for the present sample. The Nurturant Fathering Scale (NFS)
(.92), Father Involvement Scale (FIS; .94) and each of the subscales
(Expressive Involvement = .89, Instrumental Involvement = .86, and
Mentoring/Advising Involvement = .85) all had high coefficients.
Coefficients for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (.87), OQ 10.2 life-
satisfaction (.85) and OQ 10.2 psychological distress (.79) were also
appropriate (Henson, 2001).
Consistent with Finley and Schwartz (2004), correlations among the
Nurturant Fathering Scale (NFS) and the Father Involvement Scale (FIS)
measures were large (Cohen, Cohen, West, & Aiken, 2003), with
correlation coefficients in this study ranging from .68 to .84, accounting
for 46% to 71% of the shared variance between scales. Also consistent
with the findings of Finley and Schwartz (2004), correlations among the
FIS subscales (expressive involvement, instrumental, involvement, and
mentoring/advising involvement) were large, with correlation
coefficients ranging from .75 to .93, and 56% to 86% of the variance
shared between subscales (see Table 1).
TABLE 1 Correlations Among the Nurturant Fathering Scale and
Father Involvement for female respondents (n = 99).
Subscale 1 2 3 4 5
1. Total Father Invol. - .93*** .93*** .92*** .82***
2. Expressive Invol. - .75*** .80*** .84***
3. Instrumental Invol. - .83*** .68***
4. Mentoring/Advising Invol. - .73***
5. Nurturant Fathering Scale -
Note. Invol. = Involvement; ***p<.001
Using a one-tailed Pearson’s r, bivariate correlations were conducted
to determine the positive relationship of reported father involvement and
nurturant fathering to the reported self-esteem of emerging adult
daughters. Correlations were computed separately for self-esteem and the
following independent variables: total father involvement, expressive
involvement, instrumental involvement, mentoring/advising involve-
ment, and nurturant fathering (see Table 2).
TABLE 2 Correlations Among Fathering Scales and Psychological
Well-being Variables
Variables Self-
1. Total Father Invol. .37*** .35*** -.21
2. Expressive Invol. .39*** .43*** -.20
3. Instrumental Invol. .30** .24* -.18
4. Mentoring/Advising Invol. .33** .25* -.20
5. Nurturant Fathering Scale .39*** .55*** -.18
Note: Invol. = Involvement; Female Students (n = 99); *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001
For total levels of involvement, a correlation coefficient was obtained
for total father involvement scale scores and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem
Scale (RSE) total scale scores. As predicted, a significantly positive
relationship was found between self-esteem and overall perceived levels
of father involvement that accounted for 14% of the variance.
For Expressive Involvement, a subscale of the FIS, a correlation
coefficient was obtained for subscale items (a) caregiving, (b)
companionship, (c) sharing activities, (d) emotional development, (e)
spiritual development, (f) physical development, (g) social development,
and (h) leisure and RSE (self-esteem) total scale scores. As predicted, a
significantly positive relationship between perceived levels of expressive
involvement and the self-esteem of emerging adult daughters was also
found, accounting for 15% of the total variance.
Instrumental Involvement, also a subscale of the FIS, which includes
subscale items (a) discipline, (b) providing income, (c) protecting, (d)
Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson FATHER INVOLVEMENT 103
school or homework, (e) developing responsibility, (f) developing
independence, (g) moral development, and (h) career development was
correlated with RSE total scores. Although the association between self-
esteem and instrumental involvement seems to be weaker than its
relationship with total involvement and expressive involvement, results
suggest there is a relationship between a father’s level of instrumental
involvement and the self-esteem of that daughter, as perceived by his
daughter. As hypothesized, this relationship was in a positive direction,
and accounted for 9% of the total variance.
Mentoring/Advising Involvement, the final subscale of the FIS,
which includes the subscale items (a) mentoring, (b) giving advice, (c)
intellectual development, and (d) developing competence was also
correlated with self-esteem total scores. Again, as predicted, a positive
association between variables accounted for 11% of the total variance.
Lastly, perceived levels of nurturant fathering, measured by the NFS,
were correlated with self-esteem total scores. As expected, results
suggested that there is a positive relationship between daughters’
perceived levels of nurturant fathering and current levels of self-esteem,
which accounted for 15% of total variance.
To more fully capture the relationship between perceptions of
fathering and daughter well-being, the second hypothesis predicted a
positive relationship between life satisfaction and retrospective
perceptions of father involvement and nurturant fathering. A second set
of correlation coefficients was obtained using life satisfaction and the
same fathering scales and subscales used in the previous hypothesis.
Overall, there was a positive relationship between perceived levels of
father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the life satisfaction of
emerging adult daughters that accounted for variance ranging from 6% to
The third component of psychological well-being addressed in this
study was psychological distress. A negative relationship between
psychological distress and retrospective perceptions of father
involvement and nurturant fathering was hypothesized. A third set of
correlation coefficients showed a weak negative relationship between
perceptions of father involvement, nurturant fathering, and the
psychological distress of emerging adult daughters. However, contrary to
what was expected none of the correlation coefficients were statistically
The present study took a unique approach toward addressing father
influence on daughters’ psychosocial development by assessing the
perspective of the daughter; whereas most studies on parent-child
relationships assess relationship variables from the perspective of the
parent (Shek, 1993). This study also provides support for the use of
retrospective reports of father involvement and nurturant fathering,
adding a distinctive focus of retrospective perceptions during
adolescence specifically. Several studies have successfully used this
phenomenological approach to study a variety of constructs (Harter et al.,
1992; Khaleque & Rhoner, 2002; Rohner, 1986; Rohner & Veneziano,
2001); however, very few have used this approach when examining
perceptions of father involvement. In fact, to date, other than the work of
Finley and Schwartz (see Finley & Schwartz, 2004; Schwartz & Finley,
2006), no other published research has considered father involvement
and nurturant fathering from this perspective.
Self Esteem
Overall, results supported the prediction that retrospective
perceptions of father involvement and nurturant fathering have a
moderately strong positive relationship with the self-esteem of emerging
adult daughters. These findings indicate that when emerging adult
daughters’ retrospective perceptions of overall father involvement and
nurturant fathering during adolescence are higher, the current self-esteem
of daughters is also higher. More specifically, these findings suggests
that perceptions of nurturant fathering, and expressive types of father
involvement, including such things as companionship, father-daughter
activities, and emotional involvement are important to the self-esteem of
emerging adult daughters. These results show general consistency with
previously cited literature (Carlson, 2006; Liu, 2008; Roberts &
Bengtson, 1993; Shek, 1993; Wenk et al., 1994).
Life Satisfaction
When a life satisfaction measure was correlated with total FIS scores,
a moderately positive relationship was found. The interesting aspect of
this finding comes, however, when considering the amount of variation
among correlation coefficients for FIS subscales and life satisfaction
measures. For the Instrumental and Mentoring/Advising Involvement,
weak, positive relationships were found. However, for the Expressive
Involvement, a moderate to strong positive relationship was found.
These findings suggest that when considering the life satisfaction of
emerging adult daughters, perceptions of expressive fathering behaviors
may be of great importance. Findings of the present study also revealed
that perceptions of nurturant fathering were strongly related to the life
satisfaction of emerging adult daughters. This suggests that the
perception of having close, loving, and nurturant relationships with
fathers during adolescence strongly relates to the life satisfaction of
Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson FATHER INVOLVEMENT 105
emerging adult daughters. Again, these finding are generally consistent
with the larger body of fathering literature (Amato, 1994; Shek, 1993;
Wenk et al., 1994).
Psychological Distress
When psychological distress measures were correlated with total FIS
scores and FIS subscale scores, weak, non-significant, negative
relationship were found. The relationship between psychological distress
and NFS scores was also non-significant.
In general, the results for this particular hypothesis did not reflect the
overall trend in the larger body of fathering literature. Several researchers
suggest that father involvement is significantly and inversely related to
the psychological distress of child, adolescent, emerging adult, and adult
daughters (Amato, 1994; Barnett et al., 1991; Harris, Furstenberg, &
Marmer, 1998; Liu, 2008; Shek, 1993; Van Wel et al., 2000; Videon,
2005). Inconsistencies between the present study and prior studies may,
however, be related to the present study’s methodology. While all the
reviewed studies measured current father-daughter relationship variables
and current levels of psychological distress, the present study measured
retrospective perceptions of fathering variables to current levels of
psychological distress.
Lamb’s Model of Father Involvement
Research specific to Lamb’s (1986) three-part model of father
involvement has shown all three aspects of involvement, namely
engagement, accessibility, and responsibility, to be related to a wide
array of positive developmental outcomes in children and adolescents
(Lamb, 1987; Radin, 1994). The measures used in the present study
captured several aspects of each of these dimensions of fathering and
were able to demonstrate that the quantity of father involvement, in all of
Lamb’s fathering dimensions, during adolescence, relates significantly
with current levels of functioning in emerging adult daughters. However,
the overall findings of this study provide some evidence that what might
be most important, in any dimension of involvement, is the quality of the
relationship and the degree to which it conveys a feeling of support, love,
and nurturance to daughters.
Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research
Because reports of father involvement and nurturant fathering were
only collected from daughters, the data solely represent correlations
between daughters’ perceptions of fathering and their own psychological
well-being. Based on the work of Finley and Schwartz (2004) and
Carlson (2006), the present study was conducted under the assumption
that regardless of a father’s actual behavior, it is the perception his
daughter has of his behavior that affects her development most. In order
to determine the validity of the study’s assumptions, it is important for
future studies to include multigenerational reports.
This was an exploratory study with correlational rather than causal
implications. Therefore, we caution against attributing cause and effect
and generalizing to any group outside the participating females in this
study. More importantly, because almost all of the participants in this
study were Caucasian, it is unwise to assume the results generalize to
other ethnic groups. Future studies could focus on replicating these
results on diverse ethnic populations. Another limitation of this study
related to the lack of demographic information collected from the
participants. Beyond reporting to live with the father during adolescence,
no information was provided about the type of home environment,
including the number of intact, divorced, sole custody, or stepfamily
participants. Further research should include an examination of these
limitations. Finally, retrospective views of relationships provide a good
first step into an understanding of the nature of the relationship between
fathers and daughters. A logical next step would include a developmental
perspective of the dynamic nature of the relationship by longitudinally
following the dyads across the daughters’ adolescent years into emerging
In conclusion, the findings of the present study provide correlational
support for Secunda’s (1992) observation that fathers can have a
significant influence on the development of their daughters. Results also
suggest that there is a significant positive relationship between
retrospective perceptions of both father involvement and nurturant
fathering during adolescence, and the self-esteem and life satisfaction for
these emerging adult daughters. More specifically, these findings suggest
further that retrospective perceptions of nurturant fathering and
expressive types of father involvement during adolescence might have
the strongest relationships with self-esteem and life satisfaction of
daughters in their young adult years.
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... Closeness in father-child relationships features prominently in contemporary fatherhood ideas within western contexts (Allgood et al., 2012;Palkovitz & Hull, 2018), and there is also some evidence of this trend in other contexts such as China (e.g. Xu & O'Brien, 2014). ...
... Conceptualizing and finding studies on closeness within parent-child relationships are challenging because various terms are utilized when referring to closeness, such as 'emotional connectedness' (McCollum, 1991); 'emotional involvement' (Zillmann, 1995) and 'emotional availability' (Bögels & Phares, 2008;Peyper et al., 2015). However, the various terms evident in North American research often have the following key indicators for closeness in common: (i) a subjective feeling of closeness (Allgood et al., 2012;Aron et al., 1992;Sichko et al., 2016); (ii) a subjective sense of interconnectedness of self (Aron et al., 1992;Sichko et al., 2016); (iii) perceived openness and self-disclosure (Claes, 1998;Sichko et al., 2016); and (iv) high levels of emotional warmth; support and affection (Sichko et al., 2016). According to Aron et al. (1992), these characteristics can be separated into two factors: Firstly, 'feeling close', relating to subjective feelings of closeness, such as feelings of care, affection and trust. ...
... Daughters who report good quality relationships with fathers are also more secure in romantic relationships, whilst a lower quality relationship with a father can put a daughter at risk for romantic relational problems and high-risk sexual behaviour (Nielsen, 2014;Sentino et al., 2018). Paternal emotional absence or lack of father-daughter closeness have been shown to be associated with the onset and development of mental illness and emotional problems in adolescent daughters (Allgood et al., 2012;Coley, 2003;Demidenko et al., 2015). ...
... Conceptual Framework Acknowledging that men and fathers value and promote sport and physical activity among male offspring, a shift in attention directed towards girls and women may positively impact women's physical activity behaviors and health. The social and mental benefits that fathers have on female development have been established (Allgood et al., 2012). An understanding of how and the degree to which fathers influence daughters' physical activity could aid in the development of culturally appropriate interventions and programs to increase physical activity engagement among Black women. ...
... Fathers have shown to positively impact daughters' physical activity levels (Blackshear, 2019;Dagkas & Quarmby, 2012;Morgan et al., 2017), but the degree of long-term impact is unknown. Furthermore, father involvement benefits children's well-being over the lifespan (Allgood et al., 2012), and considerations for cross-gendered approaches are recommended. Additionally, the strong significant correlation between low physical activity and high BMI highlights the urgency in finding factors and solutions that encourage and promote healthier lifestyles for Black women. ...
The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of father involvement on physical activity behaviors among Black women in college. Data were collected at a large, predominantly White university. Forty-two (Mage= 19.79, SD=1.52) Black women wore Fitbit ZipTM activity trackers, completed father involvement scales, and demographic questionnaires. Height and weight status were taken to compute BMI. Seventy-one percent of participants reported high levels of father involvement, and most (86%) were moderately active, despite 62% having > 25 BMI. Fifty-seven percent did not meet minimal weekly step count recommendations for good health (>52,500); however, only 17% were sedentary (<35,000). Although all father involvement and physical activity relationships were weak, sixty-four percent of participants reported that fathers were directly involved in their physical activities, with 43% reporting that fathers were actively engaged. Fathers are involved in Black daughters’ lives, but their impact on physical activity needs further exploration. Findings can aid in the development of culturally appropriate physical education pedagogy, and encourage the inclusion of fathers/men in public health promotion, as they are excluded in the schooling of Black female and health and physical activity research.
... Given the cisgender heterosexual sample of the current study, our review focuses on gender differences among these groups, while acknowledging the limited nature of the literature reviewed in this section. The bias toward the study of the mother-child relationship is not wholly unwarranted given that, on average, mothers are responsible for more duties involving childcare and report being more involved and spending more time with adolescent children than fathers (Williams and Kelly, 2005;Allgood et al., 2012). Furthermore, mothers and fathers often exhibit similarities in their parenting behavior. ...
... The father-daughter relationship is comparatively the most understudied of the parent-child dyads, as conventional reasoning assigns greater importance to the father-son relationship (Allgood et al., 2012). However, research shows that both sons' and daughters' psychological outcomes are associated with the parenting they receive from their fathers (Wenk et al., 1994;Van Wel et al., 2000;Palkovitz, 2002). ...
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Introduction: Despite the well-accepted view on the importance of parental warmth and parental hostility for adolescent development, few studies have examined the joint interactive effects of these two key aspects of parenting. Furthermore, research comparing maternal and paternal parenting is limited, with the father-daughter relationship during adolescence remaining one of the more understudied familial contexts. Given that family processes are key for the intergenerational transmission of inequality, these parent-child relationships may be especially important for youth at risk for exposure to violence. Objectives: Using a sample of juvenile female offenders, this study examined the associations between the perceived warmth and hostility in the father-daughter and mother-daughter relationships on daughters' depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, romantic partner warmth, romantic partner hostility, and the daughter's sense of agency. We hypothesized that high perceived parental warmth would moderate the effects of parental hostility by protecting daughters from the negative effects of parental hostility, with stronger effects for the father-daughter than the mother-daughter relationship. Results: In contrast, our paternal relationship findings across four of the five outcomes suggest a moderation in the opposite direction - that is, high perceived father warmth exacerbates the deleterious effects of father hostility on daughters' depressive symptoms, anxiety, romantic partner warmth, and romantic partner hostility. Maternal warmth, and not hostility, had a direct association with these four outcomes, with stronger explanatory power shown for the father-daughter than the mother-daughter model. Higher agency was associated with maternal hostility only. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that daughters might be modeling and internalizing the relationship with their fathers (for better or worse) when they perceive it as warm and supportive. Consequently, adolescent girls whose fathers exhibit hostile behavior may benefit from emotional distancing from their fathers.
... The emotional behavior problems could be from the economic, social, and emotionalbehavioral consequences due to the absence of fathers to complete families (Trivedi & Bose, 2020;Helman, 2015). Moreover, the absence of fathers particularly affects the daughter due to emotional distress (Allgood et al., 2012). Furthermore, changes in the behavior of children corresponded to Mohsenpour et al. (2018), who stated that the emotional-behavioral characteristics of children of single mothers are in contrast with ordinary children or other groups of children. ...
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Corresponding to the current pandemic issue, Covid-19 has driven unprecedented economic loss and instability to many, particularly among low-income families, especially in Asia. In context, families involved single mothers who are markedly affected by job loss; thus, low-income households had markedly affected the well-being and development of children. In addition to family environment, sociodemographic variables, such as socioeconomic status, educational level of parents, and parental conflict, had also been associated with problematic or competent behaviors during childhood. This scoping review aimed to determine current knowledge regarding the impact of single motherhood on the emotional well-being of a child. This review was reported in accordance with the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR). Three databases, namely Scopus, Web of Science, and Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), were used for data scoping. A total of 341 studies were identified, but only 15 studies conducted in the Asian continent were eligible for selection. Results showed five significant findings concerning parent–child dysfunctional interaction, time spent, family socioeconomic status, parenting skills, and parental styles that impacted the emotional well-being of children, causing child development delay and delinquency.
... The experience of parental infidelity, specifically by the father, also affects the children's own adult relationships. For example, experience of their father's infidelity is negatively associated with women's self-esteem, experiences of intimacy in romantic relationships, and overall life satisfaction (Allgood et al., 2012). Such children also experience a reduced sense of trust and loyalty as adults toward their own partners (Schmidt et al., 2016). ...
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This study investigated the effects of a father’s infidelity on his adult daughter’s experience of family and romantic relationships. The participants of this study were 13 women aged between 22–37 years. Their experiences were elicited through semi-structured interviews. MAXQDA−20 was used to assist in analyzing the data. The analysis revealed three main themes and associated sub-themes: family of origin, the effects of the father’s infidelity, and romantic relationships. The daughters tended to replicate the same patterns in their romantic relationships as those in their family of origin. Having experienced parental infidelity during their childhood, the daughters model their mothers and form relationships with partners similar to their fathers. That is, their fathers’ affairs lead to intergenerational trauma transmission for these women.
... Mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, and even suicide, are more likely to be experienced by fatherless children. Not only affecting mental health, fatherless children are reported to be more at risk of experiencing health problems, such as acute and chronic pain, asthma, headaches, and stomachaches (Kurniasari, Widodo, Susantyo, & Wismayanti dan Irmayani, 2017) (Girirajan, Campbell, & Eichler, 2011) (Allgood, Beckett, & Peterson, 2012) A father figure as a role model for children is required, particularly when children are in the golden period, that is the ages of 7-14 years and 8-15 years. It is not discussing about cases where the absence of a father figure for the child is caused by uncontrollable factors, such as passing away when the child is still small. ...
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The amount of violence against girls in recent years has always been the third highest. In the realm of domestic violence/personal relations, it presents that being a girl in the house is no longer a safe thing. They experience sexual violence. Percentage of Women Victims of Violence in NTT Province comprise of: persecution is 44.03%, humiliation is 65.01%, harassment is 7.12%, neglect is 12.71%, and others 13.02%. As much as 68.85% of perpetrators are parents and victims of violence against girls 1.91% in rural areas and 2.23 in urban areas. Research Objective: Identifying the Causes of Violence against Women and Children based on 7 (seven) Root Causes of Violence according to Kauffman, 1999 & Nur Iman Subono 2018. Research Method: The type of research is mixed method: qualitative and quantitative studies with descriptive research types. Informants are parents of married men and women aged <65 years with the sample criteria still being wife/husband, not widow/widower divorcing alive/dead, living together for more than 1 year. Girls and boys aged 18-25 years and unmarried, living with their parents. Conclusion: Most of the respondents stated that the reason why men commit violence is because of the dominant patriarch culture, masculinity, past experiences of violence and erreneous understanding of customs and religion & law enforcement which is not firm or unfair.
... Можно выделить ряд актуальных исследований, посвященных новым нормам отцовства, в которых описываются значительные привилегии детей вовлеченных отцов по сравнению с детьми, воспитываемыми в рамках традиционной семейной модели. В частности, речь идет о развитии когнитивных навыков [3], языковых способностей [4], лучших показателях здоровья [5], психической устойчивости [6]. Также появились исследования, посвященные получению отцами удовольствия от воспитательного процесса и самоэффективности мужчины-отца [7; 8], развитию депрессии у мужчин, принимающих на себя роль отца-домохозяина [9]. ...
Involved Fatherhood is in the focus of researchers' attention because of the background of a general changes in the structure of gender roles in the modern Russian family, however, a number of blind spots remain in the study of this problem. Thus, it is relevant to analyze the mutual influence of involved fatherhood and mothers' practices, including how the father's activity changes the mother's trajectories and well-being. The presented study aims to analyze the involved fatherhood as a factor that positively affects the social opportunities of a woman in the first years of motherhood. The research methodology is based on the theory of the social construction of gender, the social topology of P. Bourdieu, the concept of non-maternal practices of mothers (sustainable social practices of a woman that are determined by the complex situation of caring for young children, but are not directly related to caring for them). Based on the analysis of 720 accounts of young mothers in social networks, 230 statements of mothers on thematic forums, and 10 in-depth interviews (5 married couples, men in which are actively involved in the childe care process), it was found that fatherhood is an important factor in the implementation of non-maternity practices, including that have an economic effect and a transitive potential for a woman. This and the orientation of a woman to preserving her subjectivity through the implementation of non-maternal practices creates some conditions (financial, timing, functional) for greater inclusion of fathers in the processes of care and upbringing. The main motive for the involvement of men is the orientation towards the interests of the child and the subjective experiences of the fatherhood. However, the effect of support is highly appreciated by mothers as a factor determining the expansion of women's social opportunities, their material and psychological well-being.
... These findings are consistent with studies that show fathers invest more in sons than daughters (Carlson & Magnuson, 2011). Findings such as these are concerning because researchers have found that daughters are no less in need of fathers' attention and support than sons (Allgood et al., 2012). Programs and policy makers would be well advised to educate low-income fathers about the benefits of father involvement with daughters as well as sons. ...
Low-income Black fathers have been portrayed in the media and in research as uninvolved and disengaged from their children. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study ( N = 2578) to examine adolescents’ reports of relationships and interaction with their biological fathers. The results showed there were no significant differences among Black, Hispanic, non-Hispanic White, and Other fathers for adolescents’ perceptions of closeness or interaction with fathers. After accounting for statistical controls, the association between race/ethnicity and father involvement was not significantly moderated by mother-father residential status. The results substantiate what other researchers have concluded: low-income, nonresident, and coresident Black fathers are no less involved with their children than fathers in other racial/ethnic groups.
... Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi keterlibatan ayah maka semakin tinggi pula self-esteem pria emerging adulthood. Hasil uji korelasi ini sejalan dengan penelitianpenelitian yang ada sebelumnya, yaitu keterlibatan ayah memiliki hubungan yang positif dengan variabel self-esteem seseorang (Diori & Handayani, 2018;Su, Kubricht, & Miller, 2017;Allgood, Beckert, & Peterson, 2012;Dick & Bronson, 2005 Berdasarkan hasil uji regresi kepada masing-masing dimensi, terlihat bahwa dari ketiga dimensi, jika dipisahkan hanya dimensi engagement yang memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap self-esteem yaitu (R 2 =.064, b= .105, p= .010; ...
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Tahap perkembangan emerging adulthood merupakan masa seorang bertransisi dari remaja ke dewasa. Pada tahap perkembangan ini, eksplorasi identitas kembali dilakukan dalam tiga aspek spesifik yaitu cinta, pekerjaan, dan pandangan akan hidup. Ekplorasi identitas ini perlu dilakukan dengan menjaga rasa optimisme dan harapan para emerging adults bagi masa depan karena eksplorasi yang menyimpang seperti perilaku-perilaku beresiko dapat terjadi juga. Rasa optimisme dan harapan sendiri berkorelasi secara positif dengan self-esteem. Sebaliknya, perilaku-perilaku beresiko berkorelasi secara negatif dengan self-esteem. Salah satu faktor self-esteem sendiri menurut literatur adalah dukungan dan keterlibatan orang tua. Menurut salah satu penelitian, seorang emerging adult pria akan lebih melihat dirinya dari bagaimana hubungannya dengan ayahnya. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat bagaimana pengaruh keterlibatan ayah terhadap self-esteem pada pria di tahap perkembangan emerging adulthood. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 104 partisipan berkarakteristik pria berusia 18-25 tahun yang masih memiliki ayah kandung. Desain penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dengan alat ukur Skala Keterlibatan Ayah (SKA) dan Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Uji hipotesis dilakukan dengan melakukan uji regresi linear sederhana terhadap kedua variabel. Hasil uji hipotesis menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh signifikan di antara kedua variabel (R 2 =.049, b= .051, p= .02; p<.05). Maka, dapat disimpulkan bahwa keterlibatan ayah memiliki pengaruh terhadap self-esteem pria di tahap perkembangan emerging adulthood. Abstract Emerging adulthood is a stage where an individual is transitioning from adolescence to adulthood. On this stage of development, the exploration if identity is again carried out in three specific aspects that are love, work, and worldview. The identity explorations need to be done by maintaining a sense of optimism and hope of emerging adult's future because, deviant exploration such as risk behaviors can also occur. Sense of optimism and hope correlates positively with self-esteem, on the contrary, risk behaviors correlate negatively with self-esteem. One of the factors of self-esteem itself, according to the literature is the support and the involvement of parents. According to one study, an emerging adult male will see himself more on how he relates with his father. Therefore, this study aims to look at how father involvement can influence self-esteem on men in emerging adulthood stage. This research was conducted to 104 participants characterized by men aged 18-25, who still have biological father. The design of this research is quantitative with Skala Keterlibatan Ayah (SKA) and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) as the survey instruments. Hypothesis testing is done by performing a simple linear regression test on the two variables. The results of the hypothesis test showed that there was a significant effect between the two variables (R2=.049, b= .051, p= .02; p<.05). Thus, it can be concluded that father involvement has an influence on male self-esteem in the developmental stage of emerging adulthood.
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Each marriage must have a problem, no exception to the newly married couple. Individuals who have intimacy in their marriage will be easier to deal with the conflicts that occur with their partner. One of the things that allegedly caused women's difficulties to bring intimacy to her husband was the woman's relationship with past experiences that were closely related to parental care, especially dad. The purpose of this research is to know the relationship of father involvement in parenting with intimacy to husbands. The research design used is quantitative correlational. The Instrument for measuring both variables in the study uses the father's involvement scale in parenting and the intimacy scale. The research location is in a sub-district in Malang Regency with the number of subjects 99 wife and sampling techniques using purposive sampling. The research subject criteria are: aged between 18- 25 years old, taken care of by father until 18 years old, not going through long distance relationship with her husband, minimum 1 year marriage and minimum number of children is one person. Data analysis using product moment. The results showed that there was a significant positive relationship between the involvement of the father in the care of intimacy against the husband with the value of coefficiencies R = 0.397, with significance p = 0.000 < 0.05.
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This chapter reviews recent research concerning the levels, origins. and consequences of paternal involvement. Its focus is restricted to adult lathers in heterosexual two-parent families, as other chapters in this volume consider other important paternal groups. Investigations conducted in the United States provide most of the data discussed here, but some research from other industrial countries is included. Several themes guide the chapter. Data on fathers' average level of involvement are of great interest to many people, but these assessments vary considerably according to many factors, not least the measures used. Descriptive results on fathers' average levels of involvement are actually far more variable than is generally realized. Nonetheless there is a tendency to think that the question "How involved are U.S. fathers?" should have a simple answer. Further conceptualization is needed of the origins and sources of paternal involvement. Lamb. Pleck, Charnov, and Levine (1985: Pleck, Lamb, & Levine 1986) proposed a four-factor model for its sources: motivation, skills and self-confidence. social supports. and institutional practices. This framework needs to be integrated with other available models for the determinants of fathering, and with more general theoretical perspectives on parental functioning. Because the construct of paternal involvement called attention to an important dimension of fathers' behavior neglected in prior research and theory. it was an important advance. However, the utility, of the construct in its original. content-free sense now needs to be reconsidered. The critical question is: How good is the evidence that fathers' amount of involvement, without taking into account its content and quality, is consequential for children, mothers, or fathers themselves?
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Black and white American fathers (n = 228) and 10-to-14 year-old adolescents (n = 289) were administered the Parent Success Indicator. The performance of fathers was rated for 60 items, included within six subscales, which consider Communication, Use of Time, Teaching, Frustration, Satisfaction, and Information Needs. Both generations in each ethnic group described favorable attributes of fathers and detected realms of learning wherein further growth seemed warranted. Statistically significant main effects for both generations of respondents and ethnicity of respondents were reported in four of the six subscales. Significant main effects for child gender were reported in two subscales. Significant interaction effects of two independent variables were also observed and discussed. Based on the combined perceptions of study participants, topics were identified for a common parenting curriculum that could serve fathers of both ethnic groups. Additional topics, based on ratings within each ethnicity, were recommended to meet the distinctive learning needs of black fathers and white fathers.
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For a variety of sociopolitical, economic, scientific, and clinical reasons, considerable interest in the study of father-child relationships has emerged in the last decade. In the last few years, the focus has narrowed to concern about the effects of increased paternal involvement. Interest in, and concern about, the latter seems to be especially prominent among social service providers and clinicians. For this reason, and also because the voluminous literature on paternal influences has been scrutinized quite extensively, we will focus in this chapter on evidence concerning the effects of increased involvement. Much less will be said, mostly in summary fashion, about paternal influences more generally, although readers will be referred to recent reviews for further discussions of the literature.
The present study, based on a national sample of 471 young adults, finds that closeness to fathers makes a unique contribution to offspring happiness, life satisfaction, and psychological distress. Parental divorce weakens the salience of the father-child relationship for adult children's life satisfaction. Similarly, marriage, parenthood, and full-time employment diminish the salience of both the mother-child and the father-child relationship for offspring well-being. Closeness to stepfathers is also related to some dimensions of offspring well-being. Overall, these findings suggest that fathers are important figures in the lives of young adults.
The relationship between the quality of adult daughters' (N = 350) experiences in their current relationships with their mothers and fathers and the daughters' mental health (i.e., subjective well-being and psychological distress) was examined. The daughters are a subsample drawn from a larger, disproportionate, random, stratified sample of 403 women aged 25 to 55, who were practicing social workers or licensed practical nurses, and who resided within a 25-mile radius of Boston. The sample varies in race, social class, family-role pattern (i.e., partnership and parental status), and number of parents still alive. Quality of experience in the daughter role was assessed separately for the daughter-mother and daughter-father roles. Overall, daughters reported positive experiences with each parent. Having a positive relationship with a parent was associated with daughters' reports of high well-being and low distress. The association between the quality of a daughter's relationship with her mother or her father and her psychological distress was conditioned by the daughter's family-role pattern. For example, having a poor relationship with one's mother was associated with reports of psychological distress (i.e., symptoms of anxiety and depression), particularly among daughters who were single or childless. The relationships between both indices of daughter's mental health and daughter-role quality did not differ by race or social class.
We employed meta-analytic methods to pool information from 63 studies dealing with nonresident fathers and children's well-being. Fathers' payment of child support was positively associated with measures of children's well-being. The frequency of contact with nonresident fathers was not related to child outcomes in general. Two additional dimensions of the father-child relationship—feelings of closeness and authoritative parenting—were positively associated with children's academic success and negatively associated with children's externalizing and internalizing problems.
What are the psychological benefits of close parent-child relations for sons and daughters who have reached adulthood? We apply identity theory to formulate hypotheses concerning potential contributions of parent-child affection to filial self-esteem and well-being in young adulthood. We expect that the immediate psychological benefits of such affection will depend on the psychological salience of the filial identity. Competing "adult" work, marital, and parental role-identities should decrease the salience of filial identity, thereby decreasing contributions of parent-child affection to filial self-esteem in young adulthood. A panel of 293 parent-child dyads provided longitudinal data (spanning 14 years) on quality of relationship and filial well-being as the sons and daughters aged from their late teens to thirties. The major findings are as follows: 1) parent-child affection made a modest contribution to filial self-esteem in late adolescence and early adulthood; 2) negative psychological consequences of low parent-child affection were less for young adults who possessed work and, to a lesser extent, marital and parental identities; and 3) early contributions of affection to filial self-esteem provided modest long-term psychological benefits for sons and daughters in adulthood.
This study addresses the topic of mother and father involvement during childhood and adolescence as it influences the well-being of sons and daughters. Longitudinal data drawn from the National Survey of Children (n = 762) are analyzed using regression techniques. Children's perceptions of maternal and paternal behavioral and emotional involvement are found to be equally important for the well-being of girls and boys. The results suggest that childhood and ongoing relationships with parents are more telling for the well-being of adolescents than is father presence during childhood.