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The Authentic Worker's Well-Being and Performance: The Relationship Between Authenticity at Work, Well-Being, and Work Outcomes

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ABSTRACT Previous research on authenticity has mainly focused on trait conceptualizations of authenticity (e.g., Wood et al., 2008), whereas in specific environments (e.g., at work) state conceptualizations of authenticity (cf. Van den Bosch & Taris, 2013) are at least as relevant. For example, working conditions are subject to change, and this could well have consequences for employees' perceived level of authenticity at work. The current study employs a work-specific, state-like conceptualization of authenticity to investigate the relations between authenticity at work, well-being, and work outcomes. A series of ten separate hierarchical regression analyses using data from 685 participants indicated that after controlling for selected work characteristics and demographic variables, authenticity at work accounted for on average 11% of the variance of various wellbeing and work outcomes. Of the three subscales of authenticity at work (i.e., authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting influence), self-alienation was the strongest predictor of outcomes, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence, respectively. These findings are discussed in the light of their practical and theoretical implications.

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... Being true to one's inner self is connected to positive outcomes and work engagement (Grandey et al., 2012). Authentic employees should fit their job better than inauthentic workers do and present greater performance (Van den Bosch and Taris, 2014b). This relationship is also extrapolated to the field of leadership. ...
... Therefore, a positive relation is supposed to exist between the first dimension and work engagement and a negative relation between the last two dimensions and work engagement. Using a sample of 685 employees, Van den Bosch and Taris (2014b) highlight that authenticity at work accounts for, on average, 11% of the variance of different work outcomes. Selfalienation is the hugest predictor of work engagement, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence. ...
... As the validity of the studies performed by Van den Bosch and Taris (2014bTaris ( , 2018 is limited to just employees working in business and financial services, and those performed by Ariza-Montes et al. (2019) is limited to nuns, this research extrapolates this conclusion to all the workers (religious and secular) of a Catholic non-profit religious organization, due to the importance that this type of institutions currently have. Therefore, this research raises the following hypothesis: ...
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Nowadays religious organizations play a leading role in the third sector, contributing to maintaining the welfare state in a large number of countries in sectors such as health, education or social services, among others. These organizations provide a service to their users, aiming to transmit the predominant values in their mission statement and simultaneously promote both authenticity and work engagement in their employees. Indeed, the purpose of this article is to evaluate the link between human values and work engagement, as well as the mediating role of authenticity in this relationship. To this end, 938 workers of a Catholic religious organization, which constitutes a relatively unexplored context, is employed. To test the research model and hypotheses, this investigation uses PLS (Partial Least Squares). It covers two notable research gaps. First, the results confirm the direct links between human values, authenticity and work engagement within the context of religious organizations. Second, they provide evidence of the mediating role exercised by authenticity in the relationship between human values and work engagement.
... Authenticity, or the degree one acts in agreement with their true self (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014), has gained recent attention from both psychologists and the popular press. Of interest are the effects of employees' authentic expression at work, with evidence suggesting wide-spanning benefits when employees behave authentically within their daily experiences (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). For employees facing identity-based marginalization, authentic expression may be particularly important (Wessel et al., 2020), as identity concealment has been associated with both increased negative and diminished positive affect (Mohr et al., 2019). ...
... Furthermore, organizations may see benefits from employee authenticity via increased retention, as those presenting authentically are more satisfied and express lower turnover intentions (Roberts, 2005). Such benefits can be understood within the context of self-verification theory (Swann, 1987), which puts forth the basic psychological need to be viewed by others in accordance with one's sense of self; accordingly, acting authentically should produce psychological and behavioural benefits via need fulfilment. For those with invisible stigmatized identities, disclosure is one mechanism through which one can self-verify and behave authentically (Ragins, 2008). ...
... All three models included a residual correlation between the same two items to improve model fit. Given results, prior theory (e.g.Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014), and following Fletcher and Everly ...
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Although workplace authenticity has gained interest by researchers and the popular press, the construct's conceptualization as enacting only positive effects as informed by self‐verification theory may not represent the experiences of workers of marginalized identities. Acknowledging that individuals deciding to disclose a stigmatized identity at work face potential prejudice, we investigated whether the benefits of authentic expression on employees' organizational commitment and job involvement depend on psychological safety. Via a time‐lagged survey of sexual‐minority employees, we found evidence for a model explicating the conditional indirect effects of identity disclosure and authenticity on outcomes, as moderated by perceived workgroup psychological safety. Such findings theoretically challenge the literature's present assumption of authenticity's uniform benefits via exploration of important contextual boundary conditions. Practically, this research underscores the need for psychologically safe work environments, encouraging employers to maximize psychological safety where possible to see the full benefit of employees' workplace authenticity.
... The association between AAW and OSA has not yet been investigated. However, according to prior research, AAW was found to be positively related to well-being (Ariza-Monte et al., 2019;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Sutton, 2020;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a;Wessel et al., 2020), job and life satisfaction (Biermeier-Hanson et al., 2020;Fletcher & Everly, 2021;Wayne et al., 2019), meaning in work (Kuntz & Abbott, 2017;Ménard & Brunet, 2011), and self-determined motivation (Ma et al., 2020;. ...
... Following Dunn and McCray (2020), bifactor models should not be seen as opposing latent structures but rather allow researchers to investigate causal models more thoroughly. Thus, looking more closely at the item loadings of the bifactor models of AAW and OSA, it became evident that all subdomains have associated items with meaningful item loadings (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). This demonstrated that, after taking the common variance of the general factors into account, each subdomain remains a unique contributor to the general concept (Chen et al., 2012). ...
... Our results support an association between AAW and OSA. With this, we contribute to a more general understanding of authenticity being closely related to psychological well-being (Ariza-Monte et al., 2019;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Sutton, 2020;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a;Wessel et al., 2020). The positive relations between AAW and OSA in studies 1 and 2 suggest that being authentic at work is closely related to employees' experience of OSA. ...
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Authenticity at work (AAW) is an important work-related state. Little is known about how other work-related resources can promote AAW and the link between AAW and organizational self-actualization (OSA). In three studies, we drew on conservation of resource theory to determine whether AAW serves as a mediator between three distinct work-related resources (i.e., social support at work, job autonomy, authentic leadership) and OSA. Studies 1 and 2 used a cross-sectional design (Ns = 209; 597), and study 3 used a two-wave longitudinal design (N = 143) to evaluate data from employees. While studies 1 and 2 supported a positive, indirect relation between job autonomy, social support at work, and OSA via AAW, study 3 and additional post hoc findings challenged these results. Alternatively, a reciprocal, cross-lagged effect of OSA on AAW is plausible. Lagged effects from work-related resources to AAW or OSA were not supported in study 3. Authentic leadership (AL) was not related to OSA via AAW. Instead, post hoc analysis suggested two serially mediated links between AL and OSA. All three studies confirmed the proposed factor structures of AAW and OSA. The findings extend both our knowledge regarding the concepts of AAW and OSA and the promotion of AAW and its relation to OSA. We discuss the dynamics of work-related resources, AAW, and OSA and conclude with implications for future research, organizations, leaders, and employees.
... Authenticity, the "sense or feeling that one is in alignment with one's true or genuine self" (Sedikides, Slabu, Lenton, & Thomaes, 2017, p. 521), positively relates to many individual criteria including subjective well-being, life satisfaction, job satisfaction, meaning in life, job performance, and moral behaviors (e.g., Gino, Kouchaki, & Galinsky, 2015;Gino, Norton, & Ariely, 2010;Kifer, Heller, Qi, Perunovic, & Galinsky, 2013;Schlegel, Hicks, Arndt, & King, 2009;Sheldon, Ryan, Rawsthorne, & Ilardi, 1997;Thomaes, Sedikides, Van den Bos, Hutteman, & Reijntjes, 2017;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). Given these and other important relationships, understanding when and why employees feel authentic should provide insights into how to improve both life and work-related outcomes. ...
... In this paper we theorize that leaders are an important source of social approval for followers (e.g., Ibarra & Andrews, 1993;Tjosvold, 1989), and therefore, influence follower felt authenticity. Drawing from work that considers the self through an interpersonal lens (e.g., Brewer, 1991;Leary & Baumeister, 2000;Wallace & Tice, 2012), we argue that leaders have the capacity to decrease follower feelings of vulnerability, allowing followers to feel more comfortable in expressing their true selves. ...
... Often leaders have considerable power over their subordinates as they tend to control valued resources (Gagne & Lydon, 2004;Oc & Bashshur, 2013), and therefore, followers care quite deeply about what their leaders think of them and desire to be accepted by them (Morrison, 1994;Tjosvold, 1989;Yukl & Falbe, 1990). This combination of dependence and need for acceptance can lead to feelings of vulnerability on the part of followers (Lemay & Clark, 2008). ...
Article
Integrating existing work that considers the self through an interpersonal lens with theories pertaining to leader humility and authenticity, we develop a moderated mediation model that theorizes how and under what circumstances leader humility relates to follower felt authenticity. We argue that followers feel less vulnerable when their leaders express humility and further that this relation becomes weaker as the authenticity of leader humility decreases. We also theorize that follower vulnerability is the mechanism explaining the interactive effect of leader humility and its authenticity on follower felt authenticity at work. Our theoretical model was supported across four studies employing both correlational and experimental designs. These results contribute to our understanding of the interpersonal antecedents of authenticity at work as well as the growing body of research on the impact that leader humility has on important employee outcomes.
... However, with the rise of positive psychology, increasing attention has been paid to employees' occupational psychological health, and a number of empirical studies have emerged focusing on the benefits of authenticity at the employee level. For example, employee authenticity was found to be positively related to work engagement, job satisfaction ( Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014bVan den Bosch & Taris, 2018), and performance (Leroy, Anseel, Gardner, & Sels, 2015;Metin, Taris, Peeters, van Beek, & Van den Bosch, 2016;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b but negatively related to job burnout (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b; Van den Bosch & Taris, 2018), turnover intention (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b), and employee silence (Knoll & Van Dick, 2013). ...
... However, with the rise of positive psychology, increasing attention has been paid to employees' occupational psychological health, and a number of empirical studies have emerged focusing on the benefits of authenticity at the employee level. For example, employee authenticity was found to be positively related to work engagement, job satisfaction ( Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014bVan den Bosch & Taris, 2018), and performance (Leroy, Anseel, Gardner, & Sels, 2015;Metin, Taris, Peeters, van Beek, & Van den Bosch, 2016;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b but negatively related to job burnout (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b; Van den Bosch & Taris, 2018), turnover intention (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b), and employee silence (Knoll & Van Dick, 2013). ...
... Similarly, if employees work in an environment in line with their core "real" selves, they feel authentic and comfortable because they do not need to please others or conceal themselves at work, which can conserve psychological resources and cause employees to feel more energetic and less emotionally exhausted at work (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b; Van den Bosch & Taris, 2018), thereby leading to higher levels of work well-being. Furthermore, when employees maintain close contact with their core selves and participate in work activities in accordance with their values and beliefs, they have stronger intrinsic motivations and are willing to devote their time and energy to work (Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2018), thus resulting in higher levels of performance (Leroy et al., 2015;Metin et al., 2016;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. In summary, being authentic at work can make employees both positive and productive. ...
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Taking a resource perspective, we examined the relationships between employee authenticity and work attitudes/behaviors, focusing especially on the mediating role of psychological capital and the moderating role of leader authenticity. Data were collected with a three-wave survey administered to a sample of 588 employees from a biological manufacturing company in eastern China. Our results showed that employee authenticity can promote positive work attitudes/behaviors and inhibit negative ones among employees. The underlying mechanism is that employee authenticity can be converted into psychological capital, which is a positive psychological resource, and can further shape employee work attitudes and behaviors. Additionally, leader authenticity, as a job resource in the work environment, strengthens this conversion. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
... Studies such as those of Van den Bosch and Taris [49,50] conclude that the more authentic employees are in their work, the better they adapt to it and the more energetic they feel, becoming more engaged in the work. Van den Bosch and Taris [50] show that authenticity at work represents on average 11% of the variance of the result variables studied in the research, which include work engagement. ...
... Studies such as those of Van den Bosch and Taris [49,50] conclude that the more authentic employees are in their work, the better they adapt to it and the more energetic they feel, becoming more engaged in the work. Van den Bosch and Taris [50] show that authenticity at work represents on average 11% of the variance of the result variables studied in the research, which include work engagement. Of the three dimensions of authenticity at work, these authors identify self-alienation as the strongest predictor of work engagement, followed by authentic living and accepting external influence. ...
... Third, the results confirm that authenticity plays a mediating role in the relationship between servant leadership and work engagement. These data are in line with studies such as Ramsey [14] that show that servant leadership is positively related to authenticity, as well as that the last one has positive effects on work engagement [1,49,50]. This is possible because servant leaders are both authentic and ethical, increasing the number of followers through the unique characteristics of this leadership [75], which connects emotionally with followers by promoting employee engagement [76,77]. ...
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Religious organizations represent a main part of the third sector and the social economy. Social faith-based institutions have some unique features that, in some respects, differentiate them from other entities, as they are characterized and defined not only by the services they provide, but also by how they provide them. It is part of their mission to convey the values that prevail in their institutional culture while developing their activities, being attractive to those workers who identify with their values. From this point of view, a key element of these entities' success is that their employees feel identified with their work so that they are engaged in the institution and its values. The style of leadership exercised in such organizations is critical to fostering these attitudes and their long-term survival. This paper aims to study the link between perceived servant leadership by followers and work engagement, as well as the mediating role of authenticity and spirituality at work in this relationship. To this end, 270 workers from a Spanish Catholic organization in the social sector were surveyed. These data were processed by PLS (partial least squares). The results show that a servant leadership style by itself does not directly promote work engagement among employees of the target organization. The engagement of these workers comes through two mediating variables: authenticity and spirituality at work. This study covers a gap in the literature because although there are studies arguing that a strategy of servant leadership is critical to these organizations, to our knowledge, they do not finish demonstrating the fundamental roles that attitudes of authenticity and spirituality at work play in the perception of this type of leadership, achieving greater work engagement.
... Unlike individuals who merely speak out what is on top of their heads do authentic individuals elaborate on what constitutes their unique self, what is shared with others, discover strengths and accept weaknesses, and solve incongruences between the different aspects of their self (Kernis & Goldman, 2006;. While authenticity can have a downside (e.g., exposing weaknesses and admitting uncertainty; Ibarra, 2015), the majority of research has shown that being authentic at work is beneficial for an individual's well-being (e.g., Leroy, Verbruggen, Forrier, & Sels, 2015;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). Less clear, however, is if being around those that are authentic is good or bad for employees. ...
... Consequently, there is some controversy regarding whether or not authenticity is beneficial at work (Ibarra, 2015;Pfeffer, 2016;Schrage, 2015). When considering survey research, however, the link between authenticity and well-being holds: A number of studies found the proposed positive relationships between authenticity and engagement, positive affect, and psychological wellbeing, and negative relationships with irritation, burnout, and depressive symptoms (e.g., Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;Kifer, Heller, Perunovic, & Galinsky, 2013;Knoll et al., 2015;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). To justify that different processes are responsible for the effects of coworker authenticity compared to one's own authenticity, we start with replicating major findings of prior research and then show that coworker authenticity has effects above and beyond an individual's own authenticity. ...
... Our study contributes to a contextualization of authenticity research and provides additional support for the role of authenticity as a facet of healthy workplaces. We achieve this contribution by broadening the focus from the effects authenticity has for the authentic employee her-or himself (Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014) and ...
... Authenticity refers to the subjective experience of being in touch and acting in accordance with one's true self (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. It is an essential element of human functioning and a central variable in humanistic and positive psychology (Lenton, Slabu, Sedikides, & Power, 2013). ...
... Evidence indicates that authenticity can promote subjective well-being (Boyraz & Kuhl, 2015), improve psychological functioning (Goldman, 2006), and decrease negative emotions and stress (Wang, 2016). Although the study of employee authenticity at work is still in its early stage, authenticity has been found to be positively related to job satisfaction, work engagement, and job performance (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. Therefore, research suggests that authenticity is conducive to employee productivity and organizational effectiveness. ...
... Second, our knowledge about the antecedents of employee authenticity is insufficient as past research focused more on what results in inauthenticity (e.g., emotional demand, Gardner, Fischer, & Hunt, 2009) than on what contributes to authenticity (Roberts, Cha, Hewlin, & Settles, 2009). Given the positive relationship between authenticity and job performance (Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b, exploring the antecedents of authenticity can advance theories and practices. Finally, past research on authenticity was conducted mainly at the between-person level. ...
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The experience of authenticity is conducive to job performance. However, research has not examined the underlying mechanism. Additionally, knowledge about the antecedents of authenticity is limited, and research findings regarding the relationship between authenticity and work outcomes are exclusively at the between-person level. To advance the research on authenticity at work, the current study investigated the motivation process through which authenticity influences job performance and examined the role of supportive leadership in facilitating authenticity. We tested the hypotheses at both the between-person and within-person levels and found convergent results. Autonomous motivation mediated the positive relationship between authenticity and task performance/work proactivity, and supportive leadership was found to positively predict authenticity. Theoretical implications and managerial suggestions are discussed.
... Cultural values and SWB are closely related to each other (Diener et al., 2003). Employees' SWB can be boosted if they can act in accordance with their cultural values and beliefs (Bosch and Taris, 2014). Many interns engaged in the hospitality and tourism industry are young students in educational institutions such as universities and vocational schools, most of whom fall into the demographic category of Generation Z, or Gen Z for short. ...
... Although a wide range of research studies have been dedicated to full-time employees' attitudinal and behavioral working performance (Bosch and Taris, 2014;Chiu and Kosinski, 1999), generation Z's potential role as an emerging young workforce calls for more academic attention (Goh and Okumus, 2020). This issue of scientific inquiry is critical for many countries, including China, which are increasingly aging societies with youngsters filling job vacancies and shaping the future labor market. ...
Purpose To address Generation Z’s role in the emerging workforce, this paper aims to examine Chinese Generation Z’s subjective well-being (SWB) during their internship in the hospitality and tourism industry through the lens of Chinese cultural values. It explores the extent to which Gen Zs identify with Chinese cultural values and the influences of Chinese cultural values on intern students’ SWB which, in turn, predicts their future job intentions in this industry. Design/methodology/approach This paper proposes a normative model to contextualize the multi-dimensional interactions between Chinese cultural values, intern students’ SWB, and their future job intentions in the hospitality and tourism industry. A survey as the main data collection method was used with 400 respondents in Macau, China in testing hypotheses and analyzing the direct and indirect effects of these interactions. Findings The paper provides empirical insights into the way that Generation Z’s SWB is influenced by Chinese cultural values. Findings show that Chinese intern students’ average SWB in the workplace was above average. It also suggests that two cultural dimensions can be identified as playing a significant and salient role in shaping their SWB in the workplace as well as their future job intentions, namely, attitudes toward work and job-related face values. However, no significant relationships with the other three dimensions of CCVs were found to influence their SWB or future job intentions, namely, attitudes toward people, moral discipline and status and relationship. Research limitations/implications This research results may lack generalizability because the respondents chosen in Macau cannot be fully representative of Chinese Generation Z. Therefore, researchers are encouraged to widen the respondent base. Furthermore, cultural influences are tempered by many macro-contextual factors. Although this study focuses on unpacking Generation Z’s mental status from the level of national culture, other factors such as organizational considerations warrant future academic attention. Originality/value This paper addresses a research gap by identifying the influences of cultural values on the SWB of intern students which, in turn, affects their future job intentions in the hospitality and tourism industry.
... Chambers and McIntosh (2008) and Coz and Mowatt (2013) argue for destinations to be authentically linked to issues associated with the competitive environment and the goal of authenticity should be to achieve a competitive advantage. Consequently, the authentic reputation of the destination brand image should be promoted through a unique competitive advantage which, in essence, would contribute towards superior brand performance (Baker, 2012;Bosch and Taris, 2014;Riad, 2016). To this end, Herstein and Berger (2013) caution destinations against setting unrealistic expectations of the destinations' brand and instead suggest focussing on a brand image and identity that fits its tangible assets (such as buildings, climate, sea, reefs, roads, transportation system and facilities) as well as its intangible assets (such as history, people, and culture and spirit). ...
... Chambers and McIntosh (2008) and Coz and Mowatt (2013) argue for destinations to be authentically linked to issues associated with the competitive environment and the goal of authenticity should be to achieve a competitive advantage. Consequently, the authentic reputation of the destination brand image should be promoted through a unique competitive advantage which, in essence, would contribute towards superior brand performance (Baker, 2012;Bosch and Taris, 2014;Riad, 2016). To this end, Herstein and Berger (2013) caution destinations against setting unrealistic expectations of the destinations' brand and instead suggest focussing on a brand image and identity that fits its tangible assets (such as buildings, climate, sea, reefs, roads, transportation system and facilities) as well as its intangible assets (such as history, people, and culture and spirit). ...
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The purpose of this paper was to identify stakeholder and visitor perceptions of brand images of the South African destination brand in order to examine how sport is utilised as a catalytic agent for achieving brand positioning. Following a mixed method approach, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 24 sport, tourism, and government stakeholders. Survey questionnaires were administered with 403 sport event visitors at major events across South Africa. The results show congruence between stakeholder and sport event visitor perceptions on the multi-layered brand images of South Africa. Uniquely defined city brand images raise challenges and opportunities for establishing a coherent national brand positioning. The utilisation of sport for brand positioning is greatly dependent on brand distinctive ness and dedicated stakeholder vision and policy. The study provides a framework of recommendations that practically guide key industry stakeholders on value propositions that underpin brand positioning strategies. This study also makes a contribution to existing brand positioning t heories and practice by exploring the value proposition construct to a unique sport environment while employing real-life destination brand scenarios.
... Empirical psychology has recently demonstrated a link between authenticity and a variety of positive outcomes (e.g., Harter, 2002;Heppner et al., 2008;Sheldon, Ryan, Rawsthorne, & Ilardi, 1997). In organizational settings, for example, authenticity has been studied in terms of functional leadership styles (e.g., Gardner, Avolio, & Walumbwa, 2005;Luthans & Avolio, 2003;Walumbwa, Avolio, Gardner, Wernsing, & Peterson, 2008), or as a state of subjective experience that occurs within work-specific contexts (Gagné & Deci, 2005;Lopez & Ramos, 2016;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Metin, Taris, Peeters, van Beek, & van den Bosch, 2016;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. In both cases, authenticity remains a robust predictor of positive outcomes in workplace, including psychological well-being of oneself or coworkers (Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014), work engagement (Metin, et al., 2016;6;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017), and job performance (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b). ...
... The current studies could contribute to the research on subjective experiences of authenticity. Feeling authentic at work bears important implications for work engagement, job satisfaction and a variety of other positive work-related outcomes (e.g., van den Bosch & Taris, 2014b;Ménard & Brunet, 2011;Yagil & Medler-Liraz, 2014). Previous research mostly viewed workplace authenticity is as engendered by the degree to which one "fits" into his or her environment (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a;Schmader & Sedikides, 2017). ...
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Authentic experiences are deeply tied to human existential concerns and have implications for psychological well-being and optimal functioning. Importantly, previous studies suggest a mutually reinforcing relationship between authenticity and moral behaviors. The current research aims to extend this line of research to work-specific contexts. We found, among two U.S. samples that (a) perceiving oneself as having behaved morally prompted feelings of authenticity at work (Study 1), (b) people who tried to be authentic (vs. be realistic or rational) were less willing to engage in immoral behaviors at workplace (Study 2), and among a Chinese sample that (c) daily fluctuations in morality and authenticity covaried with each other, both contributing positively to job satisfaction and meaning in work (Study 3). Together, the findings demonstrate a bidirectional relationship between moral behaviors and authenticity in the workplace.
... Although these arguments emphasize the possibility that authenticity might weaken the team or cause additional demands, empirical studies support the idea of a positive relationship between authenticity and well-being. A number of studies confirmed the proposed positive relationships between authenticity and engagement, positive affect and psychological well-being, and negative relationships with irritation, burnout, and depressive symptoms (e.g., Emmerich & Rigotti, 2017;Grandey et al., 2012;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). ...
... Examining moderation effects using context and person factors could enrich our knowledge on relational and context effects of authenticity. Context factors that could facilitate the external effects of authenticity are autonomy and social support (Deci & Ryan, 2000;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014), safety climate (Edmondson, 1999), person-environment fit (Chen, Langner, & Mendoza-Denton, 2009;Kim et al., 2017), and authentic leadership (Hannah, Walumbwa, & Fry, 2011). Even more interesting are individual difference factors as moderators. ...
Article
Although prior research has linked being authentic to individual well-being, little is known about authenticity’s external effects, that is, whether being around those who are authentic is good or bad for us. Integrating authenticity research and social penetration theory, we propose that others’ authenticity facilitates a number of positive intra- and interpersonal processes. Using a sample of 715 employees nested in 109 teams working for a nonprofit organization, we found that teammate authenticity relates positively to focal employees’ work engagement and negatively to their emotional exhaustion. While teammate authenticity explained incremental validity in both outcomes beyond the focal employee’s self-authenticity, it did not moderate the link from self-authenticity to well-being. Thus, instead of further facilitating beneficial intra-individual processes, being around authentic teammates seems to trigger distinct beneficial (social) processes that are neglected when focusing merely on the authenticity of the individual employee.
... Although the relationships between authenticity, wellbeing and work engagement are well established in different environments, to the best of our knowledge there is no empirical research that analyzes (1) the mediating role of work engagement in the authenticity-wellbeing relationship, and (2) less still in such a particular and slightly investigated group as is the one that occupies the attention of this study-consecrated members of a religious order. One point of high interest is the role of authenticity at work on work engagement [8][9][10][11][12][13]. In addition, authenticity at work and healthy psychological functioning display a reciprocal relationship, reinforcing mutuality as a virtuosity circle [14]. ...
... Their conditions as "owners" of the institution must make this way of living easier [52]. This evidence, that confirms the approach of our first research hypothesis, is consistent with the results discovered by other researchers, such as [4,11,12], among others. ...
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Research in work and organizational psychology has paid little attention to religious workers, something certainly surprising as faith-based organizations play a key role in the welfare state of many countries. This research shows that religious workers in a Catholic order present a high degree of subjective wellbeing, both in terms of flourishing and satisfaction with life in general, and a positive balance of positive and negative feelings. More specifically, this study examines the relationship between authenticity and wellbeing amongst religious workers. Survey responses from 142 religious workers in Spain were analyzed using partial least squares path modelling. The results reveal that subjective wellbeing at work is positively related to authenticity. In addition, this relationship is mediated by their level of work engagement.
... However, the other two groups emphasized that authenticity in the workplace was extremely important for wellbeing and work performance. The finding that concealment was associated with feeling dishonest, resulting in a weight on one's shoulders causing stress and exhaustion has also been found in previous studies [4,[13][14][15][16][17][18]. Individuals can experience their health problem as a part of their identity, for which reason they want to disclose [19]. ...
... Individuals can experience their health problem as a part of their identity, for which reason they want to disclose [19]. Whereas several studies have shown workplace authenticity to be positively related to wellbeing, job performance, job satisfaction and work engagement [17,18], this theme was not addressed during the focus groups of employers or HR managers. This suggest that these groups do not fully realize that inclusive workplaces where workers can be authentic can be beneficial to them as well. ...
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Purpose Whether or not to disclose mental illness or mental health issues in the work environment is a highly sensitive dilemma. It can facilitate keeping or finding paid employment, but can also lead to losing employment or to not being hired, because of discrimination and stigma. Research questions were: (1) what do stakeholders see as advantages and disadvantages of disclosing mental illness or mental health issues in the work environment?; (2) what factors are of influence on a positive outcome of disclosure? Methods A focus group study was conducted with five different stakeholder groups: people with mental illness, Human Resources professionals, employers, work reintegration professionals, and mental health advocates. Sessions were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was performed by two researchers using AtlasTi-7.5. Results were visually represented in a diagram to form a theoretical model. Results Concerning (dis-)advantages of disclosure, six themes emerged as advantages (improved relationships, authenticity, work environment support, friendly culture) and two as disadvantages (discrimination and stigma). Of influence on the disclosure outcome were: Aspects of the disclosure process, workplace factors, financial factors, and employee factors. Stakeholders generally agreed, although distinct differences were also found and discussed in the paper. Conclusion As shown from the theoretical model, the (non-)disclosure process is complex, and the outcome is influenced by many factors, most of which cannot be influenced by the individual with mental illness. However, the theme ‘Aspects of the disclosure process’, including subthemes: who to disclose to, timing, preparation, message content and communication style is promising for improving work participation of people with mental illness or mental health issues, because disclosers can positively influence these aspects themselves.
... Individuals with a low sense of well-being, on the other hand, will lack job focus, resulting in poor work performance. It has been demonstrated that there is a favourable correlation between employee well-being and organisational performance (Taris and Schreurs, 2009;Van den Bosch and Taris, 2014). Van den Bosch and Taris (2014) suggested that a higher degree of wellbeing among employees results in an increase in individual performance, which in turn results in improved organisational performance. ...
... It has been demonstrated that there is a favourable correlation between employee well-being and organisational performance (Taris and Schreurs, 2009;Van den Bosch and Taris, 2014). Van den Bosch and Taris (2014) suggested that a higher degree of wellbeing among employees results in an increase in individual performance, which in turn results in improved organisational performance. Poor employee well-being can reveal negative attitudes and behaviours, such as decreased work performance, non-appearance, extended sick leave, and disloyalty to the organisation (Lin et al., 2014). ...
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The study examines the effect of human resource practices (HRPs), including ability, motivation, and opportunity practices, on employee well-being (EWB) in the Malaysian environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research surveyed 154 service sector employees at Klang Valley, Malaysia. The data were analysed using structural equation modelling. Based on the ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) theory, the results indicate that motivation and opportunity practices have a significant positive effect on EWB, whereas ability enhancing practices have an insignificant effect. Human resource policies and practices must foster a conducive yet contented work environment, and leaders must provide opportunities and motivation for employees to participate actively in the workplace. By doing so, the organisation’s value of human resources can be significantly increased, and the organisation’s goals can be achieved while employees’ overall well-being is enhanced, resulting in a win-win situation. This study uncovers the important roles of AMO practices that can effectively increase EWB.
... Research supports this assertion as emotional dissonance, and surface acting (which prolongs emotional dissonance), are consistently linked to adverse well-being outcomes such as burnout (Hülsheger & Schewe, 2011;Kammeyer-Mueller et al., 2013;Mesmer-Magnus et al., 2012). Further evidence for this mechanism comes from research supporting relationships between personal and organizational authenticity with positive well-being and the amelioration of negative well-being outcomes (Grandey et al., 2012;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014. This research strongly suggests that emotional labor leads to burnout through a psychological state of inauthentic emotional expression. ...
... The data presented in this study were primarily derived from responses to the question "what do you think are the consequences of having to experience, show, and deal with different emotions in your work?" Participant responses to this question were assumed to reflect the consequences of emotional labor because the question specifically pertained to the processing of emotion. Based on previous research, the authentic expression of emotion seems to be associated with reduced burnout (Grandey et al., 2012;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014, and congruence between felt and displayed emotion tends not to be associated with burnout (Grandey & Gabriel, 2015). Furthermore, Grandey and Gabriel (2015) suggested that the traditional deep acting/surface acting dichotomy may not categorize all forms of regulation in the emotional labor process. ...
Article
Existing literature examining burnout in psychotherapists has not adequately considered the contributing role of emotional labor. Similarly, emotional labor research has not sufficiently explored how this construct operates in the context of psychologists who provide individual psychotherapy. To address these existing gaps in the literature, thematic analysis was conducted on interviews with 24 psychologists who provide individual psychotherapy to determine the perceived consequences of emotional labor identified by the participants. Participants discussed personal growth, feeling depleted and exhausted, and craving space free from people and work-related emotion as consequences of emotion management in the context of providing individual psychotherapy. The findings suggest that emotional labor can exert positive, negative, and neutral effects on psychologists providing psychotherapy and is worthy of attention as a variable in efforts to promote positive well-being. In the occupational group of psychologists providing individual psychotherapy, performing emotional labor can lead to personal growth, emotional exhaustion, and a need to distance oneself from work-related emotion.
... I liken myself to Meyerson's (2003) tempered radicals, I want to succeed in academia while simultaneously living according to my own values and grounded within my own identities, despite their incongruence within the dominant academic culture. Being inauthentic at work can have significant personal and professional costs (van den Bosch & Taris, 2014). Instinctively, I knew that I would need to bring my most controversial self and research to the interview process to ensure my academic home would be welcoming of who I am and the work I do. ...
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The path from undergraduate to the professoriate ranks is a running faucet for Black women in the academy. Of the nearly 800,000 full-time faculty at degree granting institutions, Black women represent only 0.8% of assistant, 0.5% of associate, and less than 0.3% of full professors. Racism, sexism, classism, and elitist beliefs about what constitutes a scholarly pedigree and appropriate research, populations of interest, and publication outlets permeate their academic homes. I reflect on my experiences as a mid-career, tenured, Black woman at a research-intensive, Big 10 university and discuss successes, missteps, and transformational moments.
... Further, these findings align with extant literature outside the field of autism research, demonstrating that felt authenticity is positively associated with positive emotions (particularly contentment and relaxation; Lenton, et al., 2013) and more satisfying, higher quality, social relationships (Brunell et al., 2010;Le & Impett, 2013;Peets & Hodges, 2017). Authenticity is also negatively associated with mental exhaustion (Huppertz et al., 2020;Van den Bosch & Taris, 2014. Thus, enabling autistic people to engage in ways that feel authentic to them may, in turn, lead to improved social experiences and psychological wellbeing. ...
Thesis
Some autistic individuals modify their innate autistic social behaviour in order to adapt to, cope within, and/or influence the predominately non-autistic social environment; a phenomenon often termed ‘camouflaging’ (Attwood, 2007; Dean et al., 2017; Hull et al., 2017; Lai et al., 2017; Schuck et al., 2019). Camouflaging is one social coping strategy used by autistic people attempting to overcome social challenges within cross-neurotype social interactions and secure employment, develop friendships and romantic relationships, and avoid stigmatisation (Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Hull et al., 2017). Yet the act of camouflaging is thought to be cognitively effortful and taxing; prone to breakdown under increased social demands and complexity and/or psychological distress; and associated with increased mental health difficulties, misdiagnosis, and identity confusion (e.g., Beck et al., 2020; Cage & Troxell-Whitman, 2019; Cassidy et al., 2018; Hull et al., 2021; Lai et al., 2017; Livingston, Colvert, et al., 2019). Camouflaging research is in infancy; conceptualisations, definitions and measures of camouflaging are still emerging, and much is unknown about relationships between camouflaging and various constructs such as mental health, wellbeing, and the achievement of important social and employment outcomes. This thesis presents a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods to further current understanding of social coping in autistic people by furthering the current conceptualisation of camouflaging including camouflaging behaviours and processes; examining the relationships between camouflaging and social, employment, and mental health outcomes; and exploring social experiences that contrast with camouflaging. The first chapter provides a general introduction to, and overview of, the relevant background research and provides a rationale for the work presented in the thesis. Chapter 2 involves a discussion of methodological considerations involved in the design and analysis of research presented in the thesis. Chapter 3, a systematic review, provides a comprehensive and critical evaluation of the current quantitative camouflaging research base; identifying consistencies in the current evidence as well as issues that require further research. Chapters 4 and 5 describe an interpersonal recall study, using thematic analysis to detail the development, process, and consequences of camouflaging (Chapter 4) and content analysis to describe the behaviours exhibited, altered, or avoided by autistic adults when camouflaging (Chapter 5). Chapter 6, a quantitative cross-sectional study, details associations between camouflaging and social and employment outcomes and indicators of mental health difficulties/psychological distress. Chapter 7 involves a qualitative survey and uses thematic analysis to explore an alternative to camouflaging, specifically autistic adults’ experiences of socialising in ways that feel authentic to them. The final chapter (Chapter 8) provides an overarching discussion of the findings and implications of the thesis with consideration to strengths and limitations.
... Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is widely described as corporate policies and activities that are beyond the economic interest of the organization and aim to have a positive impact on stakeholders (Turker, 2009). CSR has increasingly been integrated into the business strategies of organizations to maintain competitive advantages and improve the psychological commitment of employees (Aguinis & Glavas, 2012). ...
Article
Despite the clear importance of perceived corporate social responsibility for employee's innovative work behavior, how and when perceived corporate social responsibility fosters said behavior is not very well understood. Research at the individual level of corporate social responsibility has been growing rapidly. This study proposes that perceived corporate social responsibility has a substantial influence on employee's innovative work behavior and this relationship is mediated by authenticity and volunteerism. A questionnaire survey consisting of 317 valid responses from employees and 175 valid responses from their respective supervisors in the hotel industry in Pakistan validated the proposed model. The current study found that perceived corporate social responsibility is positively related with an employee's innovative work behavior. Moreover, authenticity and employee volunteerism mediated the link between perceived corporate social responsibility and innovative work behavior. The practical implications to enhance individual innovative work behavior are discussed.
... The theoretical evaluation of this research finds that dynamic capabilities and authenticity both contribute to competitive advantage (Bosch and Taris, 2014;Carson and Harwood, 2007;Eggers et al., 2013;Zeng et al., 2012). Additionally, dynamic capabilities stimulate stakeholders' distinct/exceptional states of perceptions (the extent of authenticity) of organisational activities (Huy, 2005). ...
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The combined effect of strategic ambidextrous management (dynamic capabilities and contextual ambidexterity), marketing and brand communication management has been implicitly and explicitly identified as bearing critical implications for competitive advantage. However, the mutual influence of these knowledge streams on competitive advantage as well as its key component of contextual ambidexterity are much under-researched. This article follows an inductive con-structivist method to develop a theoretically founded conceptualisation of the means through which the various stake-holder contextual ambidextrous dynamic capabilities can leverage the organisational authenticity learning process in cross-functional management to explore and exploit new competitive advantage scopes. Specifically, this research proposes a theoretically synchronised conceptual framework that focuses on identified key attributes of the knowledge streams, interlinking their individual and combined influences on brand positioning and corporate reputation for the creation of competitive advantage. Scholarly and empirical implications are also presented along with future research avenues.
... The trait-activation theory (Tett & Burnett, 2003) suggests that trait-relevant behaviors will not be manifested if they are not aligned with situational cues. While humility is characterized as high self-awareness and interpersonal transparency (Owens & Hekman, 2012), humble individuals may be hesitant to express their humility toward others unless there is a strong situational signal that prioritizes integrity and transparency. ...
Article
Recent research shows that humility plays a key role in improving lives in a work-setting. In this symposium, we invite a group of active humility researchers to share their latest thoughts and findings. Two studies address how humble leaders affect their subordinates. Wang and colleagues propose and find that humble leaders reduce subordinates’ counter-productive work behaviors towards the leader by increasing subordinates’ trust in the leader and perceptions of interpersonal justice. Their study represents one of the few attempts to study the implications of humility to the leaders themselves. Relatedly, Oc and colleagues show that humble leaders increase subordinate performance by increasing their authenticity while leader-member-exchange quality further strengthens such processes. Chiu and Marrone examine how humble teams affect team behaviors. They look into teams’ humility composition and find that team-collective humility increases team helping behaviors by reducing team incivility norms, and that such a process is more prominent when leader morality is high and when team humility is homogeneous. Lastly, Lehmann & Kluger find that increasing listening quality induces humility in both the listener and the speaker, showing a novel effort that carries important implication for humility training. Collectively, these studies expand the nomological network of humility by studying new antecedents, outcomes, processes, and boundary conditions of humility, and thus are highly informative of future humility research directions.
... Consistent with the view that being authentic contributes to work engagement, a growing number of studies have found experienced authenticity to be positively related to work engagement (Cable et al., 2013;Leroy et al., 2013;Metin et al., 2016;Reis et al., 2016;van den Bosch & Taris, 2014a, 2014b. For example, Cable et al.'s (2013) laboratory experiment found that when initial socialization focused on personal identity-by helping new employees to recognize and apply their authentic best selves in their work roles-rather than organizational identity or a control condition, individuals working temporarily as part of a team were more engaged with their work. ...
Article
In tandem with a surge of public interest in authenticity, there is a growing number of empirical studies on individual authenticity in work settings. However, these studies have been generated within separate literatures on topics such as authentic leadership, emotional labor, and identity management, among many others, making it difficult for scholars to integrate and build on the authenticity research to date. To facilitate and advance future investigations, this article reviews the extant empirical work across 10 different authenticity constructs. Following our research review, we use a power lens to help synthesize our major findings and insights. We conclude by identifying six directions for future research, including the need for scholars to embrace a multifaceted view of authenticity in organizations. Overall, our review both reinforces and tempers the enthusiasm in contemporary discussions of authenticity in the popular and business press.
... Feeling authentic at work is strongly influenced by the degree to which employees evaluate their work environment as being similar to their own values [45]. The opportunity to be authentic at work is an important factor contributing to work related health outcomes [46]. ...
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Background Being gifted with a very high IQ (> 98 percentile) can provide an advantage in the occupational context but can also come with its` own specific challenges. Where some studies found higher than average levels of wellbeing at work and successful careers amongst the gifted, other studies report boredom and less job satisfaction. This poses the question what gifted people value in work, and which factors are associated with the achievement of valued work related outcomes, wellbeing and sustainable employability. In this study these questions were explored using the value driven capability approach as a theoretical framework. Method A qualitative approach was chosen and 16 in-depth semi-structured interviews with gifted workers (IQ > 130) were conducted. The transcripts were analysed using a reflexive thematic analysis aimed at identifying the work related outcomes participants aspired to achieve and the contextual and personal factors that affected the actualisation of these outcomes. Results Participants placed great value on the opportunity to learn, to use their knowledge and skills, and tended to have high ethical standards. If realized, these values contributed to wellbeing whereas if not fulfilled, this often resulted in frustration and sadness. The most important personal factors associated with wellbeing at work and sustainable employability were the level of organizational awareness, self-knowledge, a willingness to compromise, and fear of stigmatisation. Contextually a facilitating leadership style of managers was important, allowing the worker autonomy and decision latitude. Socially, participants enjoyed others as sparring partners but often had an aversion to small talk which could lead to social avoidance and loneliness. Conclusions If gifted workers managed (to get) what they valued in work, this was associated with wellbeing and sustainable employment Coaching aimed at improving organizational awareness, specific social skills (e.g. small talk, adaptability) and understanding their own cognitive processes could be valuable. The application of an autonomy supporting facilitative leadership style by supervisors would be beneficial. Further research should try to confirm the findings using quantitative methods and needs to examine more closely the impact of stigmatisation and leadership styles.
... First, TRs must feel that they are unable to showcase their authentic selves at work because organizational norms prevent such authenticity. Employees tend to seek and be authentic at work, and as such, inhibitions to acting authentic are detrimental to employees' fit, well-being, and job performance (e.g., van den Bosch & Taris, 2014;van den Bosch et al., 2019). Suppression of their true selves develops out of the risk of being stigmatized and acts as an identity threat (Steele, 2010). ...
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Organizations that are adaptive, diverse, and socially responsible are often built by Tempered Radicals (TRs) who implement positive change. These TRs are insider activists who serve as the catalysts for incremental constructive changes within their organization. Little is known about what motivates such individuals. To better understand their motives, we conduct two studies encompassing four samples (N = 1009) from the U.S. In Study 1a-c, we develop and validate a measure of TR motives. The findings support its multidimensionality as a measure as well as its nomological validity. In Study 2, based on the literature on TRs and the proactive motivation model, we hypothesize a model in which the relationships among proactive personality, leader-member exchange, TR motives, and three relevant work outcomes are examined. Using a two-wave survey study design, we find support for the proposed hypotheses. These findings carry implications for practice and future research.
... The psychological literature asserts that people strive for authenticity, to be able to live in ways that feel joined up, consistent, congruent, and where dissonance or incongruence exists, a state of tension arises (Festinger, 1957;Rogers, 1959, Joseph, 2016. Van Den Bosch and Taris (2014) found that authenticity at work was positively related to job satisfaction in 646 participants. This seems relevant when considering issues around teachers' retention. ...
Article
This qualitative study presents an analysis of the experiences of a teacher who had recently left working in an England state funded primary school. Using reflective lifeworld methodology, this study explored the teacher’s struggle to be authentic in the context of state funded education. Three prominent themes were identified as: 1) enhancement of every learner; 2) systemic oppression; and 3) tensions in being a teacher. The study concludes that being authentic as a teacher was experienced as being incompatible with the current educational system.
... In terms of convergent validity, we would also expect there to be associations with personality. Previous research has shown that people who identify themselves as more authentic, demonstrate more positive signs of well-being (Taris, 2014) and that authenticity is one of the strongest personality correlates of well-being (Wood et al., 2008). ...
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Objective Interest in the concept of well-being within clinical and applied psychology settings has increased, highlighting a need to develop appropriate measures. The aim was to adapt and test the validity of the 14-item Scale of General Well-Being (14-SGWB) originally developed by Longo et al. (2018), as a clinical outcome measure. Method Study 1 is a psychometric study with 543 nonclinical participants, the wording of the 14-SGWB was adapted, and tested for reliability and convergent validity. Study 2 investigated the adapted version with 125 clients over 10 therapy sessions, examining sensitivity, and reliable change cut-off. Results The final 14-SGWB-clinical tool has a single component structure, good convergent validity, and can assess reliable and clinically significant change. Conclusion Measures that assess positive psychological change are important for the future development of clinical and applied psychology. The 14-SGWB-ct offers researchers a measure to extend evaluations of interventions to the effects on well-being.
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The ‘good life’ is described by philosophers and psychologists as consisting of authentic expression of self, a sense of well-being, and active engagement in life and work. Well-being and employee engagement are outcomes of value in themselves to work organisations, but also improve performance and reduce turnover. This meta-analysis tests the relationships between authenticity and well-being, and authenticity and engagement, investigating the impact of several moderators: age, gender, sample type, conceptual measure and individualism-collectivism. Systematic searches identified 75 studies (well-being = 65, engagement = 10) with a total N == 36,533. Analysis revealed a positive relationship between authenticity and well-being (r == 0.40) and between authenticity and engagement (r == 0.37). Individualism and type of measure were significant moderators, but age, gender and sample type were not. Specific recommendations are made for researchers choosing measures of authenticity, well-being and engagement. The study also highlights the need for further research on the interaction of culture and authenticity, as the majority of studies rely on Western / individualist conceptualisations and measures. Overall, the meta-analysis demonstrates that authenticity has positive implications for individual well-being and work engagement and could provide an important path to building healthy work organisations.
Article
In a community sample of 301 participants, association analyses between authenticity and psychological and subjective well-being show strong and moderate associations, respectively, with implications for humanistic theory and counselling. The results also show convergence between self-reports and informants’ reports on life satisfaction and authenticity, providing novel scientific contributions.
Chapter
Followers are underrepresented in the organizational change literature despite their considerable influence on change success. Politics, culture, motivation, communication, and readiness have a large impact on change success, and these influences are examined in the change context. Each of these are influenced by leaders and followers. The role of authentic followers in enabling positive change through their organizational engagement is explored in depth. This chapter demonstrates that while the influential role of leaders in change is established, the authentic follower represents a large body of potential change agents with the capacity to positively influence the success of change. Many behaviors of the authentic follower make them an ideal candidate for this role, including moral potency, high levels of engagement in organizational structure, and flexibility. Further research highlighting the value of the authentic follower is warranted.
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Individuals differ in terms of personality traits. In particular, the current pandemic period has affected each individual in a different way and caused positive/negative results. The current study aims at revealing the effect of the self-discipline and psychological resilience levels of employees, who work from home part-time or fulltime, on job performance due to the COVID-19 pandemic period. Within the scope of the study, the sample consists of 328 administrative staff in universities in the Western Mediterranean Region. The data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS programs. The hypotheses of the research were tested by establishing a structural equation modelling. The results of the study indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between the level of self-discipline and psychological resilience of the employees and their job performance. High levels of self-discipline and psychological resilience increase the job performance of employees.
Article
Background: There had been little focus on the well-being of intensive care nurses until a recent programme of research found work well-being to be best described as a collection of elements, a multifaceted construct. Strengtheners of intensive care nurses' work well-being were found to extend across individual, relational, and organizational resources. Actions such as simplifying their lives, giving and receiving team support, and accessing employee assistance programmes were just a few of the intensive care nurses' identified strengtheners. Aims and objectives: To synthesize intensive care nurse perceptions of work well-being characteristics and strengtheners to identify opportunities for job crafting and redesign. Design: This was a qualitative secondary analysis. Methods: Intensive care nurse work well-being characteristics and strengtheners were explored using applied thematic analysis and pre-design, open card-sort technique. Results: Five facets were identified in the analysis: (a) healthy, (b) authentic, (c) meaningful, (d) connected, and (e) innovative. These five facets were described from a theoretical perspective and illustrated as a conceptual model for intensive care nurse job crafting and redesign. Conclusions: The proposed conceptual model contributes new knowledge to be explored in meaningful discussions about intensive care nurse work well-being and empirically investigated in terms of construct validity and theory development. Furthermore, the model provides practical opportunities to explore individual and collaborative ways to enhance intensive care nurse work well-being across a range of levels. Relevance to clinical practice: Opportunities for job crafting and redesign were identified and presented in a conceptual model of intensive care nurse work well-being. This model provides individual nurses, intensive care teams, health care organizations, and workers' well-being programme and policy developers practical opportunities to explore individual and collaborative ways to enhance intensive care nurse work well-being.
Article
Recent studies have shown the positive effect of some human resource practices on employees’ health and performance at work. In this context, it is necessary to determine the relationship between human resource management, employee performance, and wellbeing at work. The aim of this paper is to understand the factors that better describe and influence employee wellbeing, which also contributes to improving their performance at work, considering their multidimensional nature. The article reviews the literature on the relationship between the three concepts and points out the relevant role of wellbeing. As a result, this research shows that there is a gap in the literature, as no previous study has explored the relationship between human resource management, employee performance, and wellbeing at work within a uniform and coherent framework. This research explores wellbeing-oriented human resource management practices and also reviews supports the mediating role of wellbeing between HRM and organisational performance in this relationship.
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Purpose: The present paper examines the extent to which customers’ perceptions of restaurant authenticity facilitate the establishment’s customer-based brand equity—both directly and also indirectly via customer satisfaction. The study also analyzes whether restaurant type moderates the antecedent relationships of customer-based brand equity- formation. Design/methodology/approach: Two restaurants of different types were selected for the study: a mid-scale and a moderate/casual restaurant. Based on a final total sample of 402 customers of both restaurant types, a moderated mediation regression model was implemented. Findings: It was found that the level of authenticity perceived by the restaurant visitor during the gastronomic experience is an antecedent of restaurant brand equity- formation, both directly, and indirectly via customer satisfaction. Furthermore, these antecedent relationships were found to be partially moderated by restaurant type. Research limitations/implications: Only two restaurants are used. The replication of this study could also be conducted by comparing other types of restaurants with differentiated characteristics, to test whether the results obtained for these two types can be extrapolated to the rest. Originality/value: There is no empirical evidence in the literature regarding the possible moderating effect of restaurant type on brand equity-formation, so the particular note is the simultaneous application of CBBE measurement to the analysis of two different types of restaurant and the differences in their brand equity-formation. On the other hand, there are few studies that use moderated mediation regression analysis as a methodological technique in the field of restaurants, so this is an interesting methodological contribution.
Article
A growing area of research is beginning to examine the state‐like nature of authenticity. The current study builds on this research by examining the (dis)continuity in state authenticity across two different social contexts: work and home. We surveyed 154 full‐time employees twice a day for 5 consecutive workdays. Results showed that state authenticity at work and at home shared a relatively strong positive relationship that appeared to be mediated by the spillover of affect from one context to the next. This is consistent with prior work that affect tends to “spillover” from one context to the next and work that suggests a causal impact of affect on authenticity judgments. Implications for the study of state authenticity as well as work‐home interaction are discussed.
Article
We used a multi‐method approach (i.e. multi‐source survey and two experiments) to investigate the mediating mechanisms that link two distinct facets of organizational politics to employee performance and deviance. Study 1 surveyed 132 employees and their direct supervisors working in a call centre. We found that authenticity mediated the effect of general politics on supervisor‐rated performance and that emotional exhaustion mediated the effect of pay and promotion politics on supervisor‐rated deviance. To address causality concerns from Study 1, Study 2 adopted an experimental design to test the impact of high/low general political behaviour on authenticity and task performance. Authenticity mediated the effect of general politics on task performance. In Study 3, we used a similar experimental design to test if high/low perceptions of politics that are related to pay and promotion influence emotional exhaustion and deviance. Subjects in the condition depicting high politics in pay and promotion reported the highest levels of emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the effects of pay and promotion politics on deviance. Overall, our findings suggest that distinctive types of perceived political behaviours at work influence individuals in negative ways, eventually inducing employees to lower their performance and engage in deviant practices.
Article
One of the many problems cancer patients experience is death anxiety. This descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between authenticity and death anxiety in cancer patients. The participants were 172 cancer patients who referred to medical centers in southeast Iran. The data were collected using authenticity inventory, and death and dying anxiety scale. There was a negative correlation between authenticity and death anxiety, i.e. patients who indicated higher authenticity scores showed lower levels of death anxiety. It seems that developing a comprehensive care program for increasing awareness of authenticity in patients, may be effective in reducing patient death anxiety.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between hybrid HR systems in call centers and their effect on workers' performance. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a sample of 337 call center operator-supervisor dyads, the authors analyzed how the joint perceptions of monitoring and high-performance work systems (HPWS) are associated with workers' authenticity to explain performance, rated by supervisors. Findings The authors found that when monitoring is perceived as low, HPWS is not associated with authenticity, suggesting that it requires the joint effect of monitoring and HPWS to communicate HR management priorities in call centers. In addition, the authors found that high ratings of monitoring combined with low perceptions of HPWS were associated with the lowest levels of authenticity, whereas the highest levels of authenticity at work were found when high monitoring was combined with high HPWS. The results supported a conditional indirect effect through authenticity to explain when and how hybrid HR systems are associated with better supervisor-rated performance. Originality/value This is the first study to test the interaction effects between HPWS and monitoring practices to explain authenticity as a key strategic component of performance in call centers.
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L'exemple récent d'un cabinet de conseil, mandaté pour réinventer l'organisation du travail d'une Entreprise Solidaire d'Utilité Sociale, témoigne d'une stratégie managériale émergente visant à développer l'authenticité des collaborateurs, pour gagner en efficacité, créer davantage de valeur et pourvoir au bien-être de tous. Leurs pratiques, présentées comme innovantes, partent du principe qu'être soi-même au travail est non seulement possible, mais également désirable. Qu'en est-il exactement ? Dans le présent article, nous procédons à la fois à une revue synthétique des différents courants de recherche en gestion sur la problématique de l'authenticité en situation professionnelle, et à une analyse des attendus du type de management qui en résulte d'un point de vue psychosocial et éthique. Nous éclairons enfin les enjeux et potentialités d'une tendance managériale qui connaît un succès grandissant dans les entreprises.
Article
Is “be yourself” always the best advice? We suggest that interpersonal consequences of behaving authentically depend on the extent to which individuals identify with the social environment where they behave authentically. Bridging the research on authenticity, social identity, and conflict, we propose that for high identifiers, authentic behavior reveals how similar they are to others, thereby reducing dyadic relationship conflict. When social identification is low, behaving authentically increases the salience of how different the individual is from others, increasing relationship conflict. In a multi-source time-lag sample of professional work teams (Study 1), we found that authentic behavior indeed reduced relationship conflict and enhanced task performance for high identifiers, but had an inverse, detrimental effect for low identifiers. In a sample of student teams (Study 2), we only found an attenuating effect of authentic behavior on relationship conflict for high identifiers, and no effect for low identifiers. These results suggest that the advice “to be yourself” applies in educational contexts involving younger adults, but has to be prescribed with care in professional work contexts. Our findings emphasize the importance of social context for the consequences of authentic behavior and call for more research on the contextual effects of authenticity.
Purpose The present study had two objectives, first objective was to examine the impact of authentic leadership on followers' well-being and work engagement. The second objective was to examine the moderating role of authentic leadership and followers' outcomes. Despite an immense amount of research on authentic leadership, how and when authentic leadership is more or less effective in promoting the well-being and work engagement of followers is little known. Drawing from the conservation of resource theory, the authors draw upon the interactionist perspective and suggest psychological capital is a dispositional boundary condition that influences the effectiveness of authentic leadership in promoting well-being and work engagement of followers. Design/methodology/approach Using cross-sectional research design data were collected from 547 team members nested under 118 team leaders from the financial sector in India. The study used structural equation modelling and hierarchical regression analysis to examine the hypothesised relationships. Findings The findings from the study revealed that authentic leadership predicts followers' psychological well-being and work engagement. Also as proposed, the study found psychological capital moderates the relationship between authentic leadership and the well-being of followers. However, the study found psychological capital does not moderate the relationship between authentic leadership and followers' work engagement. Research limitations/implications The study has helped expand the nomological network of authentic leadership by examining the authentic leadership model with followers' psychological well-being and work engagement. Further, the findings suggest that psychological capital being a dispositional boundary condition, it plays a contingent role in explaining the role of authentic leadership in promoting the well-being of followers. Practical implications The results offer strong practical implications that can be considered as the basis for actionable strategies by the human resource management system of the organisation to enhance authentic leadership and psychological capital. Originality/value The study is unique in its scope and contribution, as it tries to develop an understanding of how and when authentic leadership promotes psychological well-being and work engagement by considering an interactionist approach in the Indian context.
Article
Well-being management of employees, which is gaining momentum, is a trend in Russian companies, is not new for the world market. HR–industry, faced with new and unexpected challenges, is in constant search of relevant approaches to attracting, revealing and retaining talents. The tasks of improving HR and business indicators, among which labor productivity, product and service quality, profitability, are especially relevant in times of increasing competition of business models. Automation and digital technologies free people from routine work, directing their potential to solving intellectual problems – on the one hand, they cause stress and deprive human attention – on the other. It is attention to the person, feedback and trust communication that are key factors in increasing engagement. It is proved that a prosperous person is more involved and productive, less tired and sick – the company bears lower costs and gets better results. According to the Gallup version, there are five elements of human well-being-career, social and financial; social inclusion and physical well-being should be closely monitored by company management. Based on benchmarking, the project team presented the results of Well-Being research as a new vector in HR management to understand the features of the concept and formulate programs to improve the well-being of employees in a group of companies (the customer). In the absence of a wide representation of domestic studies and company practices in the field of Well-Being, the authors relied on foreign studies to help employees comprehensively study and shape the best employee experience and organizational support programs for well-being. Over the past decade, the stress associated with work has an increasingly negative impact on the person and his production activities, which led to the article development of the HR-Tech market. The cluster of providers of well-being with a personal position and organizational support is actively developing.
Article
Purpose In the service industry, there is an involvement of the human factor which comprises continuous interpersonal interactions. Sometimes, these interactions create incongruence between displayed and felt emotions which distract the employees from their authentic self and impair their well-being. This paper aims to made an attempt to review different studies to identify an association between authenticity at the workplace and employee well-being with reference to emotional work. Design/methodology/approach The different studies have been reviewed mentioning the association between authenticity at the workplace and employee well-being with reference to emotional work published during the period of 1983–2020. The database which is used to identify and extract the research papers includes APA PycNET, Business Perspectives, Elsevier, Emerald Insight, Inderscience Publishers, SAGE, Taylor and Francis, etc. The keywords used for shortlisting the studies include employee well-being, emotional work, emotional dissonance, job satisfaction, surface acting, authenticity, burnout, authentic living, self-alienation. Findings The study has determined that emotional work influences the authenticity of an employee which further impacts the well-being of employees. Research limitations/implications The present review would aid the researchers in explaining the relevance of authenticity at the workplace for enhancing the employee well-being specifically in emotional work settings. Social implications Promoting well-being at the workplace requires an action-oriented approach from the national level also. Hence, the present study may help in drawing inferences for framing well-being policies for employees at the national level. Originality/value The paper is amongst the few reviews which have analysed the substantial role of authenticity in the context of emotional work to improve employee well-being.
Article
Purpose The objective of the present study is to measure the well-being of employees who are engaged in frontline roles and actively engrossed in frequent regulation and management of emotions while performing interpersonal interactions. The study has conceptualised the comprehensive model to measure employee well-being with three work-related dimensions, namely work engagement, burnout and job satisfaction in emotional work settings. Design/methodology/approach The study has been conducted on employees of the civil aviation industry in North India working on various frontline profiles. Data have been collected from 600 employees through a pretested questionnaire, and structural equation modelling (SEM) has been performed to test the hypothesis. Findings The findings of the study have revealed that all three dimensions, namely work engagement, burnout and job satisfaction are statistically significant measures of employee well-being in emotional work settings. Also, the study has determined that employees are highly satisfied and engaged at work despite having a feeling of burnout. Research limitations/implications The study has enriched the literature by presenting and analysing a comprehensive model of employee well-being in emotional work settings of the civil aviation industry. Practical implications The study will aid the various service industries in the framing of the intervention and training programs, which would help in promoting the well-being of employees who are specifically engaged in emotional work. Social implications The study is very substantial in offering various parameters over which national well-being policies for individuals can be framed. Originality/value Priorly, very few studies have attempted to recognise the role of the aforementioned variables in emotional work settings in a comprehensive manner. Further, the study has emphasised the unrecognised role of job satisfaction and work engagement where burnout is prevailing due to the presence of high emotional job demands.
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Labour productivity is a key concept for understanding the way modern economies use resources and features prominently in ecological economics. Ecological economists have questioned the desirability of labour productivity growth on both environmental and social grounds. In this paper we aim to contribute to ongoing debates by focusing on the link between labour productivity and worker wellbeing. First, we review the evidence for the happy-productive worker thesis, which suggests labour productivity could be improved by increasing worker wellbeing. Second, we review the evidence on ways that productivity growth may undermine worker wellbeing. We find there is experimental evidence demonstrating a causal effect of worker wellbeing on productivity, but that the relationship can also sometimes involve resource-intensive mediators. Taken together with the evidence of a negative impact on worker wellbeing from productivity growth, we conclude that a relentless pursuit of productivity growth is potentially counterproductive, not only in terms of worker wellbeing, but even in terms of long-term productivity.
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Impression management (IM)—the strategies through which employees create, maintain, or alter a desired image towards others—is a ubiquitous part of organizational life. To date, scholars studying this interpersonal phenomenon have largely focused on Jones and Pittman’s (1982) taxonomy of IM strategies, examining consequences associated with the tactics of ingratiation, self-promotion, exemplification, supplication, and intimidation on others’ reactions to, and perceptions of, the actor. Thus, scholarly understanding surrounding the implications of IM for employees’ own well-being is nascent. We integrate ideas from the emotional labor and IM literatures to develop and test theory that explains the impact of IM strategies on the actors themselves. Across three complementary studies spanning 2337 full-time employees, we use latent profile analysis to investigate how the conjoint use of multiple IM tactics— each of which is associated with a distinct, and sometimes conflicting, image—yields unique consequences for employees’ feelings of inauthenticity at work. In addition, we also explore how profiles of IM tactics differentially relate to theoretically relevant work outcomes, namely coworker ratings of employee performance, work withdrawal, absenteeism, and perceived sincerity. Taken together, our work sheds light on the prevalence and impact of employees combining IM tactics during work interactions.
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The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted human activity throughout the world. This disruption is also supported by the advancement of technology, particularly in the field of information and communication. However, significant change may cause negative effect for the well-being of many people, which could lead to the imbalance of work-life. With the concept of well-being that divided into four components, personal resources, organizational management, functioning at work, and experience at work, also the concept of work-life balance from the perspective of conflict theory and enrichment theory, this research will examine the well-being of workers and teachers and how it affected their work-life balance amidst pandemic. The study uses qualitative content analysis, the research findings include: (1) the negativity and positivity caused by the pandemic towards the well-being of workers and teachers, (2) and how to achieve work-life balance amidst pandemic from the conflict theory perspective and enrichment theory perspective.
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It has been almost twenty years since the term "burnout" first appeared in the psychological literature. The phenomenon that was portrayed in those early articles had not been entirely unknown, but had been rarely acknowledged or even openly discussed. In some occupations, it was almost a taboo topic, because it was considered tantamount to admitting that at times professionals can (and do) act "unprofessionally." The reaction of many people was to deny that such a phenomenon existed, or, if it did exist, to attribute it to a very small (but clearly mentally disturbed) minority. This response made it difficult, at first, for any work on burnout to be taken seriously. However, after the initial articles were published, there was a major shift in opinion. Professionals in the human services gave substantial support to both the validity of the phenomenon and its significance as an occupational hazard. Once burnout was acknowledged as a legitimate issue, it began to attract the attention of various researchers. Our knowledge and understanding of burnout have grown dramatically since that shaky beginning. Burnout is now recognized as an important social problem. There has been much discussion and debate about the phenomenon, its causes and consequences. As these ideas about burnout have proliferated, so have the number of empirical research studies to test these ideas. We can now begin to speak of a "body of work" about burnout, much of which is reviewed and cited within the current volume. This work is now viewed as a legitimate and worthy enterprise that has the potential to yield both scholarly gains and practical solutions. What I would like to do in this chapter is give a personal perspective on the concept of burnout. Having been one of the early "pioneers" in this field, I have the advantage of a long-term viewpoint that covers the twenty years from the birth of burnout to its present proliferation. Furthermore, because my research was among the earliest, it has had an impact on the development of the field. In particular, my definition of burnout, and my measure to assess it (Maslach Burnout Inventory; MBI) have been adopted by many researchers and have thus influenced subsequent theorizing and research. My work has also been the point of departure for various critiques. Thus, for better or for worse, my perspective on burnout has played a part in framing the field, and so it seemed appropriate to articulate that viewpoint within this volume. In presenting this perspective, however, I do not intend to simply give a summary statement of ideas that I have discussed elsewhere. Rather, I want to provide a retrospective review and analysis of why those ideas developed in the ways that they did. Looking back on my work, with the hindsight of twenty years, I can see more clearly how my research path was shaped by both choice and chance. The shape of that path has had some impact on what questions have been asked about burnout (and what have not), as well as on the manner in which 2 answers have been sought. A better understanding of the characteristics of that path will, I think, provide some insights into our current state of knowledge and debate about burnout. In some sense, this retrospective review marks a return to my research roots. The reexamination of my initial thinking about burnout, and an analysis of how that has developed and changed over the years, has led me to renew my focus on the core concept of social relationships. I find it appropriately symbolic that this return to my research roots occurred within the context of a return to my ancestral roots. The 1990 burnout conference that inspired this rethinking took place in southern Poland, from which each of my paternal grandparents, Michael Maslach and Anna Pszczolkowska, emigrated to the United States in the early 1900s. Thus, my travel to Krakow had great significance for me, at both personal and professional levels.
Technical Report
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This third version of the MBI was developed across several occupations and countries, in order to assess burnout in all occupations. It was originally published in 1996 by CPP, but is now published and distributed online by Mind Garden (www.mindgarden.com/products/mbi.htm)
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This study reviews quantitative empirical studies of change recipients’ reactions to organizational change. The authors reviewed studies published between 1948 and 2007, out of which 79 met the criteria of being quantitative studies of change recipients’ reactions to an organizational change. Through an inductive review, the authors unravel a model of (a) explicit reactions to change, in which these reactions are conceptualized as tridimensional attitudes; (b) reaction antecedents that comprise prechange antecedents (viz., change recipient characteristics and internal context) and change antecedents (viz., change process, perceived benefit/harm, and change content); and (c) change consequences, including work-related and personal consequences. On the basis of their review the authors conclude by proposing directions for future research and practical managerial implications.
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In order for researchers to understand and predict behavior, they must consider both person and situation factors and how these factors interact. Even though organization researchers have developed interactional models, many have overemphasized either person or situation components, and most have failed to consider the effects that persons have on situations. This paper presents criteria for improving interactional models and a model of person-organization fit, which satisfies these criteria. Using a Q-sort methodology, individual value profiles are compared to organizational value profiles to determine fit and to predict changes in values, norms, and behaviors.
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In 2 studies, college students evidenced differing levels of the "Big-Five" traits in different roles, supporting social-contextualist assumptions regarding trait expression. Supporting organismic theories of personality, within-subject variations in the Big Five were predictable from variations in the degree of psychological authenticity felt in different roles. In addition, two concepts of self-integration or true selfhood were examined: 1 based on high consistency of trait profiles across roles (i.e., low-self-concept differentiation; E. M. Donahue, R. W. Robins, B. W. Roberts, & O. P. John, 1993) and 1 based on high mean levels of authenticity felt across roles. The 2 self-integration measures were found to be independent predictors of psychological and physical well-being indicating that both self-consistency and psychological authenticity are vital for organized functioning and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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With the help of data obtained from open-ended interviews conducted with the various stakeholders in downsizing operations and applied within a clinical framework, individual reaction patterns are explored in the victims, the survivors (those staying with a company after layoffs), and the "executioners" (those responsible for the implementation of downsizing). Special emphasis is given to the reactions of the executives implementing the downsizing operation. Among this group of people, a number of ways of coping can be discerned, described as compulsive/ritualistic, abrasive, dissociative, alexithymic/anhedonic, and depressive. The article ends with a number of practical recommendations about how to facilitate the downsizing process. From the interviews conducted, it appears that downsizing, in the more narrow sense of the word, can be a quite destructive process. Reframing the concept so that downsizing is viewed as a continuous process of corporate transformation and change, a way to plan for the continuity of the organization seems to be a more constructive approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study addressed the methodological quality of longitudinal research examining R. Karasek and T. Theorell's (1990) demand-control-(support) model and reviewed the results of the best of this research. Five criteria for evaluating methodological quality were used: type of design, length of time lags, quality of measures, method of analysis, and nonresponse analysis. These criteria were applied to 45 longitudinal studies, of which 19 (42%) obtained acceptable scores on all criteria. These high-quality studies provided only modest support for the hypothesis that especially the combination of high demands and low control results in high job strain. However, good evidence was found for lagged causal effects of work characteristics, especially for self-reported health or well-being outcomes.
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Previous research has distinguished between two types of working hard: workaholism, a “bad” type of working hard, and work engagement, a “good” type of working hard. However, the motivations underlying workaholism and work engagement have not been examined extensively. Building on Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory, the present study examined the motivational correlates of workaholism, work engagement, and burnout (a possible consequence of working hard), using data from Chinese health care professionals (544 nurses and 216 physicians), and controlling for job demands and resources. As expected, structural equation modeling revealed that high levels of workaholism were associated with high levels of introjected regulation and identified regulation; that high levels of work engagement were mainly associated with high levels of intrinsic regulation; and that high levels of burnout were mainly associated with low levels of intrinsic regulation. Thus, different types of motivational regulation are associated with different types of job-related well-being.
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This study examines the response rates for surveys used in organizational research. We analyzed 1607 studies published in the years 2000 and 2005 in 17 refereed academic journals, and we identified 490 different studies that utilized surveys.We examined the response rates in these studies, which covered more than 100,000 organizations and 400,000 individual respondents. The average response rate for studies that utilized data collected from individuals was 52.7 percent with a standard deviation of 20.4, while the average response rate for studies that utilized data collected from organizations was 35.7 percent with a standard deviation of 18.8. Key insights from further analysis include relative stability in response rates in the past decade and higher response rates for journals published in the USA.The use of incentives was not found to be related to response rates and, for studies of organizations, the use of reminders was associated with lower response rates. Also, electronic data collection efforts (e.g. email, phone,web) resulted in response rates as high as or higher than traditional mail methodology. We discuss a number of implications and recommendations.
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Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.
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In this article, individual reaction patterns to downsizing operations are explored in the victims, the survivors (those staying with a company after layoffs) and the 'executioners' (those responsible for the implementation of downsizing) involved in the process. Data are obtained from open-ended interviews conducted with the various stakeholders and applied within a clinical framework. Special emphasis is given to the reactions of the executives implementing the downsizing operation. The article ends with a number of practical recommendations about how to facilitate the downsizing process.
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Given the emotional nature of health care, patients and their families may express anger and mistreat their health care providers; in addition, those providers are expected to manage their own emotions when providing care--two interpersonal stressors that are linked to job burnout. Integrating conservation of resources (Hobfoll, 2002) and ego depletion (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000) theories, we propose that this creates a resource loss spiral that can be slowed by the presence of a "climate of authenticity" among one's coworkers. We describe this climate and how it differs from other work climates. We then propose that a work unit with a climate of authenticity should provide a self-regulatory break from emotional labor with patients, thus replenishing resources and buffering against strain from emotional labor. We tested this multilevel prediction by surveying 359 health care providers nested within 48 work units at a large, metropolitan hospital. We find that medical workers experiencing more mistreatment by patients are more likely to be managing emotions with patients, and this response further contributes to the employees' job-related burnout. As predicted, managing emotions with patients was unrelated to burnout for workers in a unit with a climate of authenticity.
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The aim of the present paper is to present the development of the second version of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). The development of COPSOQ II took place in five main steps: (1) We considered practical experience from the use of COPSOQ I, in particular feedback from workplace studies where the questionnaire had been used; (2) All scales concerning workplace factors in COPSOQ I were analyzed for differential item functioning (DIF) with regard to gender, age and occupational status; (3) A test version of COPSOQ II including new scales and items was developed and tested in a representative sample of working Danes between 20 and 59 years of age. In all, 3,517 Danish employees participated in the study. The overall response rate was 60.4%; (4) Based on psychometric analyses, the final questionnaire was developed; and (5) Criteria-related validity of the new scales was tested. The development of COPSOQ II resulted in a questionnaire with 41 scales and 127 items. New scales on values at the workplace were introduced including scales on Trust, Justice and Social inclusiveness. Scales on Variation, Work pace, Recognition, Work-family conflicts and items on offensive behaviour were also added. New scales regarding health symptoms included: Burnout, Stress, Sleeping troubles and Depressive symptoms. In general, the new scales showed good criteria validity. All in all, 57% of the items of COPSOQ I were retained in COPSOQ II. The COPSOQ I concept has been further developed and new validated scales have been included.
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'Authentic leadership' has emerged as an important subject in the management science literature. Although several scholars have presented their viewpoints about authenticity and authentic leadership, there is scarcity of empirical evidence on what leaders can really gain from being authentic. The results of the questionnaire-based survey with 32 leaders suggest that authenticity is significantly correlated with psychological well-being and negatively correlated with contingent self-esteem. Regression analysis also shows that authenticity successfully predicts psychological well-being. These findings indicate that authenticity results in healthy psychological functioning of leaders and hence several positive work-related outcomes.
Chapter
Because of the prevalence of both nonnormal and categorical data in empirical research, this chapter focuses on issues surrounding the use of data with these characteristics. Specifically, we review the assumptions underlying NT estimators. We describe nonnormal and categorical data and review robustness studies of the most popular NT estimator, maximum likelihood (ML), in order to understand the consequences of violating these assumptions. Most importantly, we discuss three popular strategies often used to accommodate nonnormal and/or categorical data in SEM: 1. Weighted least squares (WLS) estimation, 2. Satorra-Bentler (S-B) scaled χ² and robust standard errors, and 3. Robust diagonally weighted least squares (DWLS) estimation. For each strategy, we present the following: (a) a description of the strategy, (b) a summary of research concerning the robustness of the χ²-statistic, other fit indices, parameter estimates, and standard errors, and (c) a description of implementation across three software programs.
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In order for researchers to understand and predict behavior, they must consider both person and situation factors and how these factors interact. Even though organization researchers have developed interactional models, many have overemphasized either person or situation components, and most have failed to consider the effects that persons have on situations. This paper presents criteria for improving interactional models and a model of person-organization fit, which satisfies these criteria. Using a Q-sort methodology, individual value profiles are compared to organizational value profiles to determine fit and to predict changes in values, norms, and behaviors.
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In 2 studies, college students evidenced differing levels of the "Big-Five" traits in different roles, supporting social-contextualist assumptions regarding trait expression. Supporting organismic theories of personality, within-subject variations in the Big Five were predictable from variations in the degree of psychological authenticity felt in different roles. In addition, two concepts of self-integrat ion or true selfhood were examined: 1 based on high consistency of trait profiles across roles (i.e., lowself-concept differentiation; E. M. Donahue, R. W. Robins, B. W. Roberts, & O. P. John, 1993) and 1 based on high mean levels of authenticity felt across roles. The 2 self-integration measures were found to be independent predictors of psychological and physical well-being indicating that both self-consistency and psychological authenticity are vital for organized functioning and health.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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In this study, we describe a psychobiological model of the structure and development of personality that accounts for dimensions of both temperament and character. Previous research has confirmed four dimensions of temperament: novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, and persistence, which are independently heritable, manifest early in life, and involve preconceptual biases in perceptual memory and habit formation. For the first time, we describe three dimensions of character that mature in adulthood and influence personal and social effectiveness by insight learning about self-concepts. Self-concepts vary according to the extent to which a person identifies the self as (1) an autonomous individual, (2) an integral part of humanity, and (3) an integral part of the universe as a whole. Each aspect of self-concept corresponds to one of three character dimensions called self-directedness, cooperativeness, and selftranscendence, respectively. We also describe the conceptual background and development of a self-report measure of these dimensions, the Temperament and Character Inventory. Data on 300 individuals from the general population support the reliability and structure of these seven personality dimensions. We discuss the implications for studies of information processing, inheritance, development, diagnosis, and treatment. (Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993;50:975-990)
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If we take the Person-Centered Approach (PCA) seriously as a client-centered approach, we have to go back to our clients in order to engage them in an individualized, shared process of encounter and reflection. Following Rogers it is argued that the essential conditions of psychotherapy exist in a single configuration, even though they occur uniquely with each client. From a dialogical point of view, therapists and clients are not only seen as being in relationships; as persons they are relationships, which makes them different in each therapeutic contact. Furthermore, the traditional concepts of psychological health and disorder are rejected, seeing symptoms as a specific cry for help that has to be understood in a process of a personal encounter between therapist and client. Following this concept it is appropriate to speak about clients as persons who are suffering from inauthentic or alienated forms of being in the world. The value of concepts and conceptions for helping us understand different types of clients are acknowledged and emphasized. However, the existing concepts for, and descriptions of, our clients still exist only at a primitive, unsystematic stage of development and thus we need the development of a genuinely human science of Person-Centered Therapy.' approach to mental health was humanistic, not medical. Taking the point of view of the social sciences, not the natural sciences, his holistic standpoint on human beings encompassed not only the biological and individual nature but also the relational and social nature of the person. From the very outset, Rogers' psychology was a social psychology (Schmid, 1994, 1996). In trying to understand the human being within his 1. Slightly revised version of a paper first printed in Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapies, 3, (2004) 36–51.
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This study examined the structure of occupational well-being among 1,252 Dutch teachers. Building on Warr (1994) and Ryff (1989), a multidimensional model for occupational well-being (including affective, cognitive, professional, social and psychosomatic dimensions) was proposed and tested. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the distinction between these dimensions. A second-order factor analysis revealed that affect was the most central dimension, supporting earlier conceptualizations of subjective well-being that mainly focused on affect.
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The present study investigated in a sample of 587 telecom managers whether workaholism, burnout, and work engagement - the supposed antipode of burnout - can be distinguished empirically. These three concepts were measured with existing, validated multi-dimensional questionnaires. Structural equation modeling revealed that a slightly modified version of the hypothesised model that assumed three distinct yet correlated constructs - burnout, engagement, and workaholism - fitted the data best. Multiple regression analyses revealed that these three concepts retained unique hypothesised patterns of relationships with variables from five clusters representing (1) long working hours, (2) job characteristics, (3) work outcomes, (4) quality of social relationships, and (5) perceived health, respectively. In sum, our analyses provided converging evidence that workaholism, burnout, and engagement are three different kinds of employee well-being rather than three of a kind.
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This paper is a rough précis of a recent book (GRAY, 1982). It is concerned with the question: what are the brain structures which mediate the psychology as well as the neurology of anxiety? It is clear that, once you start asking questions about the brain, you have to work with animals for reasons that are familiar to everybody. But it is very difficult to start studying emotions in animals, because it is difficult to know what emotions animals experience and whether these are the same as the human emotions. So the first thing one has to look for is a kind of crutch or bridge to get you across from the human domain on one side to the animal domain on the other. Now in the case of anxiety we are quite fortunate in that there are certain drugs which are clinically very effective in controlling anxiety in human subjects. So one can take those drugs and apply them to animals to study their behavioral effects.
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Building on the work by Barrett-Lennard (Carl Rogers’ helping system: Journey & substance. Sage, London 1998) and Wood et al. (J Couns Psychol 55:385–399 2008), this study describes the development and validation of a theory-based measure of state authenticity at work, the Individual Authenticity Measure at Work (IAM Work). Even though this construct is obviously relevant to the work context (e.g., as regards issues of work relations, leadership and well-being), none of the instruments currently available focuses on authenticity in the area of work and organizational psychology. A total sample of 646 participants was divided in two equal sized subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis supported the underlying tripartite construct of authenticity at work, resulting in the subscales authentic living, self-alienation, and accepting external influences. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the tripartite construct and showed good psychometric properties of the state-focused measure of authenticity at work. Finally, correlation analysis showed that each subscale and the total score of authenticity was positively related to commonly used work outcomes such as job satisfaction, in-role performance, and work engagement. This study concludes that the IAM Work is a reliable and valid measure of state authenticity at work. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
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We consider to what extent authenticity is related but distinct from and behavioural inhibition/approach systems and Cloninger’s psychobiological model (Cloninger, Svrakic, & Przybeck, 1993). Five-hundred and fifty-four adults (250 males, 304 females) completed measures of authenticity (Wood, Linley, Maltby, Baliousis, & Joseph, 2008), behavioural inhibition/activation (BIS/BAS, Carver & White, 1994) and Cloninger’s temperament and character inventory (TCI-IPIP, Goldberg et al., 2006). Significant, small to moderate correlations are reported between authenticity and inhibitory and approach dimensions of Gray’s and Cloninger’s models. The directions of these relationships are consistent with , and descriptions of authenticity. However, dimensions of both Gray’s and Cloninger’s domains account for only a small 5.7–18% of the shared variance in authenticity, suggesting that authenticity is related but distinct from Gray’s and Cloninger’s personality dimensions.
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We introduce a personality inventory designed to measure six major dimensions of personality derived from lexical studies of personality structure. The HEXACO Personality Inventory (HEXACO-PI) consists of 24 facet-level personality trait scales that define the six personality factors named Honesty-Humility (H), Emotionality (E), Extraversion (X), Agreeableness (A), Conscientiousness (C), and Openness to Experience (O). In this validation study involving a sample of over 400 respondents, all HEXACO-PI scales showed high internal consistency reliabilities, conformed to the hypothesized six-factor structure, and showed adequate convergent validities with external variables. The HEXACO factor space, and the rotations of factors within that space, are discussed with reference to J. S. Wiggins' work on the circumplex.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the link between authenticity at work and well-being. First, the relationship between authenticity at work and hedonic and eudemonic well-being indexes is assessed. Second, the mediating role of meaning of work in the relationship between authenticity at work and subjective well-being at work is investigated. Design/methodology/approach – In total, 360 managers from public organizations completed self-reported questionnaires. Multiple hierarchical regressions were used to assess the hypotheses. Findings – Cognitive and behavioral components of authenticity at work explained a significant proportion of variance in each hedonic and eudemonic well-being indexes. Authenticity is positively associated with well-being at work. Moreover, meaning of work is a partial mediator of the relationship between authenticity and subjective well-being at work. Practical implications – The results suggest that meaning of work is a mechanism in the relationship between authenticity and subjective well-being at work. The study highlighted a growing need to promote authenticity within organizations since it has been associated with public managers' well-being. Originality/value – To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study showing the positive relationship between authenticity and well-being in the workplace amongst public organizations managers. It sheds a very new light on the importance of authenticity in work settings and on how it could be linked to meaningfulness in managerial roles.
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It has become widely accepted that correlations between variables measured with the same method, usually self-report surveys, are inflated due to the action of common method variance (CMV), despite a number of sources that suggest the problem is overstated. The author argues that the popular position suggesting CMV automatically affects variables measured with the same method is a distortion and oversimplification of the true state of affairs, reaching the status of urban legend. Empirical evidence is discussed casting doubt that the method itself produces systematic variance in observations that inflates correlations to any significant degree. It is suggested that the term common method variance be abandoned in favor of a focus on measurement bias that is the product of the interplay of constructs and methods by which they are assessed. A complex approach to dealing with potential biases involves their identification and control to rule them out as explanations for observed relationships using a variety of design strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). I talk about how I came to write this paper here: https://managementink.wordpress.com/2011/04/05/truth-or-urban-legend/
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draw attention to a number of researchable issues in the neuropsychology of anxiety / [present] an outline of a theory of the neuropsychology of anxiety that has been developed in detail elsewhere a theory of anxiety: the role of the limbic system [the antianxiety drugs, the brain and anxiety, a theory of anxiety] / the issues [the role of GABA [gamma-aminobutyric acid], the opiate connection, anxiety and depression] (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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existential psychotherapy is not a specific technical approach that presents a new set of rules for therapy / it asks deep questions about the nature of anxiety, despair, grief, loneliness, isolation, and anomie / it also deals centrally with the questions of creativity and love overview / basic concepts / the "I-Am" experience / normal and neurotic anxiety / guilt and guilt feelings / the three forms of world / the significance of time / our human capacity to transcend the immediate situation other systems / behaviorism / orthodox Freudianism / the interpersonal school of psychotherapy / Jungian psychology / client-centered approach history / current status / theory of personality / the Freudian model of psychodynamics / the interpersonal (neo-Freudian) model of psychodynamics / existential psychodynamics / death / freedom / isolation / meaninglessness variety of concepts / specialness / the belief in the existence of an ultimate rescuer / theory of psychotherapy / process of psychotherapy / mechanisms of psychotherapy / death and psychotherapy / death as a boundary situation / death as a primary source of anxiety / existential isolation and psychotherapy / meaninglessness and psychotherapy applications / problems / evaluation / treatment / management / case example existential therapy is concerned with the "I Am" (being) experience, the culture (world) in which a patient lives, the significance of time, and the aspect of consciousness called transcendence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the influence of person–organizational fit on employee's task and contextual performance. It was hypothesized that the fit between employees' desired organizational cultures and their actual organizational cultures would predict contextual performance (e.g. helping behaviors toward other employees or the organization. The study was conducted in 2 phases. In phase 1, 221 employees of a manufacturing firm responded to a survey about organizational culture. In phase 2, the immediate supervisor of each Ss was asked to rate their subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior and task-based job performance. It was found that (1) perceptions of the organizational culture and (2) the discrepancy between employees' ideal organizational culture and their perceptions of the actual culture were important in predicting both contextual performance and task performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)