Article

Oral Reading Fluency as a Predictor of Silent Reading Fluency at Secondary and Postsecondary Levels

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Abstract

This research investigated oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Several measures were used, including the Gray Oral Reading Test, the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency, the Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency, and the Reading Observation Scale. A total of 223 students participated in the research, 63.2% at the postsecondary and 36.8% at the high school level. Among them, 17.5% had reading disabilities. We sought to identify performance-level differences between the two groups, students with and without reading disabilities; specifically, silent reading fluency test results of students with reading disabilities vs. students without reading disabilities and the oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent reading fluency proficiency levels. An independent-samples t test, correlations, and hierarchical regression analyses were employed. The results indicated that the relationships between oral reading fluency and silent reading fluency were statistically significant.

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... In assessing automaticity, a reader's rate (words read correctly per minute-WCPM) of reading is compared against norms such as those developed by Tindal (2006, 2017). These 2017 norms range from grades 1 through 6, reflecting the notion that fluency is primarily an elementary competency (Lemov et al., 2016;Seok & DaCosta, 2014). Norms for the automaticity component of fluency do not exist beyond eighth grade. ...
... In secondary and higher education settings, reading fluency continues to be integral for reading success (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). Many students at the secondary level struggle in fluency which may, among other factors, lead to difficulties in comprehension and overall reading proficiency (Ortlieb & Young, 2016). ...
Article
Reading fluency has been identified as a critical competency for reading success. Accurate and automatic word recognition, one component of fluency, is normally assessed through reading rate (Oral Reading Fluency—ORF). While norms for ORF exist through grade 8, norms beyond grade 8 are largely unknown. The present study attempted to establish ORF norms associated with successful adult readers (college graduates), thus establishing a ceiling ORF target range for success in fluency. Results indicate that a word recognition accuracy range of 98–100% and an automaticity range of 138–158 words read correctly per minute on high school level reading material are associated with average performance by college graduates. Results are discussed in terms of implications for monitoring students' progress in fluency in the secondary grades and beyond.
... Research on hearing children has shown strong correlations between automatic word identification processes and reading fluency (e.g., Dickinson, McCabe, Anastasopoulos, Peisner-Feinberg, & Poe, 2003;Goff, Pratt, & Ong, 2005;Hudson et al., 2009;National Early Literacy Panel, 2008;National Reading Panel, 2000;Paris & Hamilton, 2009;Roman, Kirby, Parrila, Wade-Woolley, & Deacon, 2009;Seok & DaCosta, 2014;Verhoeven & Van Leeuwe, 2008;Wang, Paul, Falk, Jahromi, & Seougwoo, 2017;Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, 2002. As with hearing children, it is reasonable to assume that cognitive load is reduced when Deaf children memorize sight words, thereby freeing up working memory to focus on comprehension (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). ...
... It is important to note that the effectiveness of the Bedrock sight word intervention, as it was delivered in the present study, was likely dependent upon educators' understanding of pedagogical methods of balanced literacy (Au et al., 2001;Fountas & Pinnell, 1996), gradual release of responsibility (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983), and data-based decision making (Hamilton et al., 2009). The balanced literacy approach is supported by the findings of Seok and DaCosta (2014), whose research highlights the importance of connected texts, in addition to sight word instruction, in supporting reading comprehension. Furthermore, the National Reading Panel (2000) has specifically suggested the following strategies regarding vocabulary instruction: "1. ...
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The effectiveness of a sight word intervention designed for Deaf students was investigated. Thirty students, grades 1-7, in an urban school for the Deaf received an 8-month intervention. A pretest/posttest design using a teacher-designed instrument, the Cumulative Bedrock Literacy Sight Word Assessment, and the Test of Silent Word Reading Fluency (Mather, Hammill, Allen, & Roberts, 2004) assessed increases in the number of sight words students could identify and the rate at which they could identify them. Paired-samples and independent-samples t tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were used to analyze data. Results indicated a significant increase in the number of sight words participants could identify postintervention. Also, younger students increased their sight word vocabularies at a faster rate than older students. No significant differences based on home language or gender were found. The authors make suggestions for further research and program application.
... In summary, research on silent word reading fluency in general education settings has shown strong correlations between reading comprehension scores and silent word reading fluency. One study found that word lists were less related to comprehension than connected text for middle-school students (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). The most significant positive predictor of oral reading fluency was silent word reading fluency. ...
... Posttest results showed that the students mastered 78%-100% of the Dolch words and 5%-97% of the bridge phrases. Dimling reported that "on average students gained 23-30For the purposes of this research study, the word-identification task for the Test ofSeok and DaCosta (2014) also used the TOSWRF in their correlation study examining oral reading fluency as a predictor of silent word reading fluency for 223 hearing postsecondary students from four different states from around the United States. ...
Thesis
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This study examined the interrelationships among English language structures (phonological knowledge, morphological knowledge, silent word reading fluency) and reading comprehension in a group of 45 deaf and hard of hearing students in grades 3 to 8, taking into account their demographic characteristics. Simple Pearson correlations, multiple regression analyses, and an independent samples t test were used in this study. Results indicated that morphological knowledge was the significant variable positively associated with reading comprehension over and beyond the other predictors (phonological knowledge and silent word reading fluency) and the demographic covariates (home language, age, and gender).
... Research on hearing children has shown strong correlations between automatic word identification processes and reading fluency (e.g., Dickinson, McCabe, Anastasopoulos, Peisner-Feinberg, & Poe, 2003;Goff, Pratt, & Ong, 2005;Hudson et al., 2009;National Early Literacy Panel, 2008;National Reading Panel, 2000;Paris & Hamilton, 2009;Roman, Kirby, Parrila, Wade-Woolley, & Deacon, 2009;Seok & DaCosta, 2014;Verhoeven & Van Leeuwe, 2008;Wang, Paul, Falk, Jahromi, & Seougwoo, 2017;Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998, 2002. As with hearing children, it is reasonable to assume that cognitive load is reduced when Deaf children memorize sight words, thereby freeing up working memory to focus on comprehension (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). ...
... It is important to note that the effectiveness of the Bedrock sight word intervention, as it was delivered in the present study, was likely dependent upon educators' understanding of pedagogical methods of balanced literacy (Au et al., 2001;Fountas & Pinnell, 1996), gradual release of responsibility (Pearson & Gallagher, 1983), and data-based decision making (Hamilton et al., 2009). The balanced literacy approach is supported by the findings of Seok and DaCosta (2014), whose research highlights the importance of connected texts, in addition to sight word instruction, in supporting reading comprehension. Furthermore, the National Reading Panel (2000) has specifically suggested the following strategies regarding vocabulary instruction: "1. ...
... Thus, a teacher should provide students with oral reading education in basic education second step oriented towards improving speaking skill (Yalçın, 2002: 60). Moreover, researchers have detected a relationship between silent fluent reading, oral fluent reading and understanding what is read (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). Hudson et al. (2008: 14) states that he has found significant evidences to suggest that there is a positive relationship between fluent reading (emphasis on correctness) and pacing and understanding. ...
... Dolayısıyla temel eğitim ikinci basamakta öğretmen artık öğrencisine sesli okuma eğitimini, konuşma becerisini geliştirmeye yönelik olarak yaptırmalıdır (Yalçın, 2002: 60). Bununla birlikte araştırmacılar, sessiz akıcı okuma, sesli akıcı okuma ve okuduğunu anlama becerileri arasında ilişki tespit etmişlerdir (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). Hudson vd. ...
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The study aims to determine the relationship of reading fluency skills of secondary school students and level of using social media sites, reading attitudes and reading self-competence perceptions, and whether fluent reading skills of students vary depending on text genres. In this context, texts of different genres were read to 112 secondary school students. Oral readings of each text by students were recorded. These records were resolved by the researcher. Incorrectly read and skipped words were identified, and it was determined how many words were read without error in three minutes. In addition, each student marked for Reading Attitude Scale, Reading Self-Competence Perception Scale, and Facebook Addiction Scale. As a result of the study, it was determined that all of text genres were read different pacing. Moreover, a significant and positive relationship is observed between text-reading speeds. A positive relationship is observed between perceptions of students relating to their competence as readers and reading speed and attitude. It can be said that individuals with increased Facebook addiction level have decreased self-competence perceptions relating to reading. In other words, it may be said that reading competences of participants are affected negatively as addiction to Facebook social media sites increases.
... Studies focused on reading fluency in college students, however, tend to focus on specific populations, such as non-native speakers of English or students with reading disabilities (Seok & DaCosta, 2014). ...
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Although proficiency in vocabulary has long been recognized as basic to reading proficiency, there has been a paucity of research on vocabulary teaching and learning over the last two decades. Recognizing this, the U.S. Department of Education recently sponsored a Focus on Vocabulary conference that attracted the best-known and most active researchers in the vocabulary field. This book is the outgrowth of that conference. It presents scientific evidence from leading research programs that address persistent issues regarding the role of vocabulary in text comprehension. Part I examines how vocabulary is learned; Part II presents instructional interventions that enhance vocabulary; and Part III looks at which words to choose for vocabulary instruction. Other key features of this timely new book include: *Broad Coverage. The book addresses the full range of students populating current classrooms--young children, English Language Learners, and young adolescents. *Issues Focus. By focusing on persistent issues from the perspective of critical school populations, this volume provides a rich, scientific foundation for effective vocabulary instruction and policy. *Author Expertise. Few volumes can boast of a more luminous cast of contributing authors (see table of contents). This book is suitable for anyone (graduate students, in-service reading specialists and curriculum directors, college faculty, and researchers) who deals with vocabulary learning and instruction as a vital component of reading proficiency.
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The study was designed to investigate the effect of two repeated reading procedures on second-grade transitional readers' (Chall, 1983) oral reading performance with practiced and unpracticed passages. Seventeen transitional readers were selected on the basis of average or better decoding ability but below-average reading rate and were assigned to one of two types of repeated reading training, using either a read-along procedure or independent practice. Results showed that transitional readers' rate, accuracy, comprehension, and prosodic reading (reading in meaningful phrases) were significantly improved by repeated reading practice regardless of the training procedure employed. Gains in repeated reading of practiced passages transferred to unpracticed, similar passages; however, practice on a single passage was not as effective as practice on a series of passages. Prosodic reading was most facilitated by the read-along procedure. /// [French] Cette recherche veut étudier l'effet produit par deux procédés de lecture répétée sur les performances d'élèves de deuxième année ayant atteint un niveau de lecture dit transitionnel (lequel se réfère à la capacité de découpage des syllabes) lorsqu'ils doivent lire à haute voix certains passages déjà lus et certains inconnus. On a sélectionné 17 de ces lecteurs démontrant une habileté au décodage moyenne ou supérieure, mais une vitesse de lecture sous la moyenne. Ils ont été soumis à l'un des deux types d'apprentissage de la lecture répétée, soit un procédé de lire avec le voix d'un lecteur met en bande, soit la pratique individuelle. La vitesse de lecture, l'exactitude, la compréhension et l'intonation (à la lecture de phrases significatives) ont été grandement améliorées grâce à l'exercice de lecture répétée, peu importe le procédé utilisé. On a observé le transfert du progrès réalisé par la lecture répétée lors de passages connus sur des passages semblables mais inconnus. Toutefois, l'exercice avec un seul passage ne s'est pas révélé aussi efficace que l'exercice avec une série de passages. Le procédé de lecture en groupe permettait de lire avec une meilleure intonation. /// [Spanish] El estudio fue diseñado para investigar el efecto que dos procedimientos de lectura repetida tienen en la abilidad de lectura con pasajes practicados y no practicados en lectores transicionales de segundo año. Se seleccionaron 17 estudiantes transicionales en base de su habilidad superior o promedio para decodificar material combinada esta con una velocidad de lectura por debajo del promedio, y fueron asignados a uno de dos tipos de entrenamiento de lectura repetida, utilizando un procedimiento de lectura simultánea con la voz de un lector registrada en cinta, o práctica independiente. La velocidad de lectura, la exactitud, comprensión, y lectura prosódica (lectura en frases con significado) de los lectores transicionales mejoraron significativamente debido a la práctica de la lectura repetida independientemente del procedimiento de entrenamiento empleado. Las mejoras en la lectura repetida de pasajes practicados fue transferida a pasajes similares no practicados; con todo, la práctica de un solo pasaje no fue tan efectiva como la práctica de un serie de pasajes. La lectura simultánea con otro lector fue el procedimiento que más facilitó la lectura prosódica. /// [German] Diese studie wurde entworfen, um den Einfluß von zwei Wiederholungslesen-Vorgängen bei mündlichem Vorlesen von geübten und ungeübten Abschnitten bei Uebergangslesern im zweiten Schuljahr zu erforschen. Siebzehn Uebergangsleser wurden ausgewählt aufgrund von Durchschnitts- oder besserer Entzifferungsfähigkeit, jedoch aufgrund weniger als durchschnittlicher Lesefähigkeit, und diese wurden einer von den beiden Typen von Wiederholungslesen-Klassen zugeteilt, wobei entweder eine Zusammen-Lesen-Prozedur oder aber unabhängiges Lesen durchgeführt wurden. Die Leseschnelle, die Genauigkeit, das Verständnis und Silbenlesen (Lesen in logischen Sätzen) von Uebergangslesern wurde wesentlich verbessert durch wiederholtes Lesen, gleich welche Uebungsmethode benutzt wurde. Fortschritte in wiederholtem Lesen von geübten Abschnitten wurden auf ungeübte Abschnitte übertragen; allerdings war das Ueben eines einzelnen Abschnittes nicht so wirkungsvoll wie das Ueben einer Serie von Abschnitten. Silbenlesen wurde am meisten gefördert durch das Miteinander-Lesen.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of teaching eight secondary students with disabilities, including seven with learning disabilities, a strategy for answering a variety of inferential questions. A multiple-baseline across-subjects design was employed. Outcome measures included scores on researcher-devised comprehension quizzes, a standardized test of reading comprehension, a strategy use test, a strategy knowledge test, and a reading satisfaction measure. Fidelity of implementation, instructional time, and maintenance of skills were also measured. Results suggest that students with disabilities can learn to use a strategy to answer a variety of inferential questions, and mastery of its use can result in improved scores on criterion-based and standardized measures of reading comprehension. In addition, students' satisfaction with their reading improved.
Article
This study was designed to test the efficacy of the fluency development lesson (FDL) as a supplement to the regular reading curriculum in urban second-grade classrooms. The 10-15 min FDL, which was implemented daily for 6 months, resulted in fluency gains for students. In addition, teacher response to the FDL was singularly positive.
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Fluency has traditionally been viewed as a goal of reading taught and mastered in the elementary grades. This article challenges that notion by exploring reading fluency as a contributor to reading proficiency (and difficulty) among ninth-grade students. The authors assessed reading fluency development among a large number of ninth graders and found a moderately strong correlation between fluency and overall reading proficiency as measured by a standardized achievement test. Moreover, a significant number of students were substantially below norms for fluency. The findings suggest that reading fluency is a significant variable in secondary students' reading and overall academic development. More research is called for into the role of reading fluency among older students, especially those experiencing difficulty in achieving high levels of literacy.
Article
Over a three-month period, eight less able, nonfluent intermediate-grade students in a large midwestern city chose five separate stories to practice repeatedly, following procedures outlined by Dahl (1974) and Samuels (1979). Changes in rate of reading, number of speech pauses, and word recognition accuracy were analyzed for the initial and final reading of the first practiced passage and for the initial and final reading of the last practiced passage. Comprehension was estimated indirectly by combining quality miscues with the total number of words read correctly. Results indicate that rate and scores that reflected comprehension increased significantly and the total number of miscues decreased significantly not only within practiced passages but also between passages. The number of speech pauses remained fairly constant from passage to passage. Automaticity, fluency, and classroom applications are discussed in light of these results. /// [French] Au cours d'une période de trois mois dans une grande ville du centre-ouest des Etats-Unis, huit élèves de cours intermédiaires dont la parole n'était pas courante et à capacites moindres ont choisi cinq histoires différentes à pratiquer de façon répétitive, en suivant les procédés soulignés par Dahl (1974) et Samuels (1979). On analysé les changements en taux de lecture, le nombre de pauses du discours et la précision de reconnaissance des mots pour la lecture initiale et finale du premier passage pratiqué et pour la lecture initiale et finale du dernier passage pratiqué. On a étudié la compréhension indirectement en combinant les erreurs d'interprétation de qualité avec le nombre total des mots lus correctement. Les résultats indiquent que le taux et les notes qui reflètaient la compréhension ont augmenté considérablement et que le nombre total d'erreurs d'interprétation a diminué considérablement non seulement dans les passages pratiqués mais aussi entre passages. Le nombre de pauses du discours est resté assez constant d'un passage à l'autre. L'automatisme, la facilité de paroles et les applications en salle de classe sont en cours de discussion à la suite de ces résultats. /// [Spanish] Durante un periodo de tres meses, ocho estudiantes de habilidad baja, sin fluidez, de escuela intermedia en una ciudad grande del medio-oeste escogieron cinco historias diferentes para practicar repetidamente, siguiendo los procedimientos esbozados por Dahl (1974) y Samuels (1979). Se examinaron los cambios en ritmo de lectura, número de pausas orales, y precisión en reconomiento de palabras en las lecturas inicial y final del primer pasaje practicado y en las lecturas inicial y final del último pasaje practicado. La comprensión se estimó indirectamente combinando la calidad de los errores con el número total de palabras leidas correctamente. Los resultados indicaron que el ritmo y los puntajes que reflejaron comprensión aumentaron significativamente y que el número total de errores disminuyó significativamente no solo dentro de los pasajes practicados sino también entre pasajes. El número de pausas orales se mantuvo más o menos constante de un pasaje al otro. A la luz de estos resultados se discuten automaticidad, fluidez, y aplicaciones para el salón de clases.
Article
Despite what we have learned about effective vocabulary instruction, and despite the fact that many teachers know vocabulary is important, teachers do not always incorporate best practices with their own instruction. These authors argue that part of the reason may be that the general instructional recommendations of vocabulary research don't always help teachers, particularly content teachers, bridge theory and practice. The issues in teaching vocabulary are often specific to the content, the students, and the instructional purposes. To help teachers address questions of which words to teach, which strategies to use, and how long to spend on teaching them, the authors propose a “four-level” instructional framework tailored to content area vocabulary. Using this framework, the authors show content teachers how to choose words and methods that match their students and their purposes.
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Three key elements of reading fluency are accuracy in word decoding, automaticity in recognizing words, and appropriate use of prosody or meaningful oral expression while reading. These three components are a gateway to comprehension. Readers must be able to decode words correctly and effortlessly (automaticity) and then put them together into meaningful phrases with the appropriate expression to make sense of what they read.
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In Study 1 we evaluated whether each of three kinds of reading fluency (oral, silent-sentences, silent-passages) contributed uniquely to reading comprehension when children were in second grade (when oral reading is emphasized) and again when they were in fourth grade (when silent reading is emphasized). In Study 2 we evaluated the relationship of comprehension and other reading (automatic real word and pseudoword reading) and oral language (vocabulary) skills to each of the three kinds of fluency (oral passage, silent passage rate, and silent timed sentence comprehension) at the same grade levels. Results of both studies showed that contributions vary with the three kinds of fluency, as predictors or outcomes, and grade level, consistent with the view that fluency is a multidimensional construct that has bidirectional relationships with other language skills. Implications of multidimensional fluency for assessment and instruction are discussed.
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This research investigates the relative importance of vocabulary and oral reading fluency as measurement dimensions of reading comprehension as the student passes from elementary to high school. Invariance of this model over grades 4 through 8 is tested using two independent student samples reading grade-level appropriate passages. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that the model is not invariant across grade levels. Vocabulary knowledge is a significant and constant predictor of overall reading comprehension irrespective of grade level. While significant, fluency effects diminish over grades, especially in the later grades. Lack of grade level invariance was obtained with both samples. Results are discussed in light of vertically linked reading assessments, adequate yearly progress, and instruction.
Article
One hundred seventy-three fourth graders were administered curriculum-based oral reading fluency measures in September, January, and May. A growth curve analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between students' slope in oral reading fluency and the Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL) reading assessment, which was administered in May. Slope in oral reading fluency across the school year and the oral reading fluency probes administered in September, January, and May reliably predicted May WASL reading performance. Follow-up analyses showed statistically reliable cut-scores based on students' oral reading fluency performance in September, January, and May. Based on these cut-scores, the positive predictive power that September oral reading fluency low scores predicted WASL failure was .41, and the negative predictive power that September oral reading fluency high scores predicted WASL success was .90. These rates are higher than the WASL failure base rate of 20% and the WASL pass base rate of 80% found in this sample. The clinical utility of using these procedures is discussed.
English language learners (ELLs) who experience slow vocabulary development are less able to comprehend text at grade level than their English-only peers. Such students are likely to perform poorly on assessments in these areas and are at risk of being diagnosed as learning disabled. In this article, we review the research on methods to develop the vocabulary knowledge of ELLs and present lessons learned from the research concerning effective instructional practices for ELLs. The review suggests that several strategies are especially valuable for ELLs, including taking advantage of students' first language if the language shares cognates with English; ensuring that ELLs know the meaning of basic words, and providing sufficient review and reinforcement. Finally, we discuss challenges in designing effective vocabulary instruction for ELLs. Important issues are determining which words to teach, taking into account the large deficits in second-language vocabulary of ELLs, and working with the limited time that is typically available for direct instruction in vocabulary.
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Professors explore what gets lost and found in translations of great literary works.
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We evaluated the validity of DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills) ORF (Oral Reading Fluency) for predicting performance on the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT-SSS) and Stanford Achievement Test (SAT-10) reading comprehension measures. The usefulness of previously established ORF risk-level cutoffs [Good, R.H., Simmons, D.C., and Kame'enui, E.J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 257-288.] for third grade students were evaluated on calibration (n(S1)=16,539) and cross-validation (n(S2)=16,908) samples representative of Florida's Reading First population. The strongest correlations were the third (February/March) administration of ORF with both FCAT-SSS and SAT-10 (r(S)=.70-.71), when the three tests were administered concurrently. Recalibrated ORF risk-level cut scores derived from ROC (receiver-operating characteristic) curve analyses produced more accurate identification of true positives than previously established benchmarks. The recalibrated risk-level cut scores predict performance on the FCAT-SSS equally well for students from different socio-economic, language, and race/ethnicity categories.
Article
Tests of a model of the expected relationships between language abilities and reading achievement measures from the beginning of kindergarten through third grade are discussed. At kindergarten, more global language abilities influenced early, wholistic measures of reading achievement, including letter and number naming. At Grade 1, these earlier accomplishments had a direct effect on word recognition, but a second direct effect was also apparent for word and pheneme segmentation measured in kindergarten. Comprehension at Grade 1 was influenced primarily by word recognition abilities at the same time. At Grade 2, comprehension influenced word recognition; at Grade 3, word recognition and comprehension were essentially independent. These findings are considered in the context of Frith's three-phase hypothesis of reading acquisition. A rationale for testing the potential of training in auditory segmentation to modulate the effects of developmental dyslexia is presented.
Article
This research investigated children's use of orthographic rime correspondences in nonword reading in association with word-level reading skills. Experiment 1 demonstrated an increase in the use of orthographic rime correspondences in two independent nonword reading tasks from second to fourth grade. There was no further increase from fourth to sixth grade. In an ambiguous nonword reading task, where grapheme-phoneme and orthographic rime correspondences yielded conflicting pronunciations, the use of orthographic rime correspondences varied with the orthographic onset employed. The use of orthographic rime correspondences in reading ambiguous nonwords was more strongly associated with word-level reading skills than was the use of grapheme-phoneme correspondences. Experiment 2 replicated the main findings of Experiment 1 concerning the association between word-level reading skills and the use of orthographic rime correspondences in nonword reading within second-grade children. These findings suggest that the use of orthographic rime correspondences in the phonological recoding process increases with word-level reading proficiency.
Article
Fluent reading, often defined as speed and accuracy, is an important skill for all readers to develop. Students with learning disabilities (LD) often struggle to read fluently, leading to difficulties in reading comprehension. Despite recent attention to reading fluency and ways to improve fluency, it is not clear which features of interventions that are designed to enhance fluency are beneficial for the most struggling readers. The purpose of this study is to synthesize research on interventions that are designed primarily to build reading fluency for students with LD. The search yielded 24 published and unpublished studies that reported findings on intervention features, including repeated reading with and without a model, sustained reading, number of repetitions, text difficulty, and specific improvement criteria. Our findings suggest that effective interventions for building fluency include an explicit model of fluent reading, multiple opportunities to repeatedly read familiar text independently and with corrective feedback, and established performance criteria for increasing text difficulty.
Article
This article summarizes the findings of research studies designed to improve the comprehension of expository text for students with learning disabilities. Twenty-nine studies were located that met the inclusion criteria. Interventions gleaned from the review were categorized as content enhancement (i.e., advance and graphic organizers, visual displays, mnemonic illustrations, and computer-assisted instruction) or cognitive strategy instruction (i.e., text structure, main idea identification, summarization, questioning, cognitive mapping, reciprocal teaching). Treatment outcomes are discussed in relation to the various instructional approaches, student characteristics (e.g., grade, IQ), instructional features (e.g., materials, treatment length), methodological features, strategy maintenance, and generalization components. Implications for classroom practice and future research directions are provided.
Reading next—A vision for action and research in middle and high school literacy: A report from Carnegie of New York Alliance for Excellence in Education Further evidence that or-thographic rime usage in nonword reading increases with word-level reading proficiency
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Test of Silent Contextual Reading Fluency (TOSCRF)
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Hiebert, E.H., & Kamil, M.L. ( 2005 ). Teaching and learning vocabulary: Bringing research to practice. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
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Wechsler, D. ( 2005 ). Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, 2nd edition (WIAT II). London, UK : The Psychological Corp.
Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third edition (GORT-3)
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