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Abstract

Plants have always been a common source of medicament either in the form of traditional preparations or pure active principles. It is well known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices1. Cyprus rotundus is a plentiful species occurring throughout the plains of India, especially South India. It is well documented in ancient literature for the therapeutic uses of skin, urinary, digestive and reproductive diseases. The present review covers the basic botanical information, Physical properties, Therapeutic actions, Phytochemistry, Ethno medicinal uses, Experimental Pharmacology and Classical preparations from AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy) systems of Medicine.
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AN OVERVIEW OF NUT GRASS (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS) WITH
SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AYUSH
Nalini sofia. H1*, Thomas M.Walter2, S. Merish3, M. Tamizhamuthu3
1Lecturer, Department of Maruthuvam, National Institute of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil Nadu,
India.
2Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology, Govt. Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai,
India.
3Final Professional BSMS, Government Siddha Medical College, Palayamkottai, India.
ABSTRACT
Plants have always been a common source of medicament either in the
form of traditional preparations or pure active principles. It is well
known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application
of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today
majority of the world population depends on herbal health care
practices1. Cyprus rotundus is a plentiful species occurring throughout
the plains of India, especially South India. It is well documented in
ancient literature for the therapeutic uses of skin, urinary, digestive and
reproductive diseases. The present review covers the basic botanical
information, Physical properties, Therapeutic actions, Phytochemistry,
Ethno medicinal uses, Experimental Pharmacology and Classical
preparations from AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy) systems of
Medicine.
KEY WORDS: Cyperus rotundus, Traditional herbal medicines, Nut grass, Purple nut
sedge, AYUSH.
INTRODUCTION
Cyperus rotundus (purple nut sedge) is a weed in over 90 countries. The word cyperus
derives from the Greek (kupros) and rotundus is from Latin, meaning round. Cyperus grows
rapidly and fills the soil with its tangle of roots and rhizomes. The Romans used this plant as
emmenogogue in uterine complaits. It is regarded in Traditional Chienese medicine, as the
World Journal of Pharmaceutical
ReseaRch
SJIF Impact Factor 5.045
Volume 3, Issue 6, 1459-1471. Review Article ISSN 2277 – 7105
Article Received on
16 June 2014,
Revised on 11 July 2014,
Accepted on 06 August 2014
*Correspondence for
Author
Dr. Nalini Sofia. H
Lecturer, Department of
Maruthuvam, National Institute
of Siddha, Chennai, Tamil
Nadu, India
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Nalini et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
chief of all herbs the first line of choice for treating Gynecological disorders2. Cyperus
rotundus was held in high esteem by the ancient sage’s of India2. It is widely distributed
throughout India up to 1828m.This super bulb has been used throughout the ages for the
treatment of numerous illnesses. It enjoys an important place among medicinal herbs in India
science ancient times. The plant is mentioned in the ancient Indian Ayurvedic medicine
Charaka Samhita in 100 A.D. In India Cyperus rotundus is one of the Indigenous medicinal
plants of high commercial value in Balaghat District3, 4.
Taxonomic Hierarchy2, 5
Kingdom : Plantae
Sub kingdom : Tracheobionta
Superdivision : Spermatophyta
Division : Magnoliophyta
Class : Liliopsida
Subclass : Commelinidae
Order : Cyperales
Family : Cyperaceae
Genus : Cyperus.L
Species : Cyperus rotundus.L
Synonyms6, 7
Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla
Cyperus olivaris Targioni-Tozzetti
Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler
Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler
Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf.
Cyperus tuberosus Roxb
Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek
Vernacular names2, 3, 6
Tamil : Korai, Muthakasu
Malayalam : Muththann
Kannada : Tangahullu
Gujarati : Motha
Telugu : Tungamuste
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Hindi : Motha, Mutha
Marathi : Nagarmotha,Motha
Sanskrit : Bhadramusta, Mutha
English name : Nut grass, Purple nut sedge.
Geographical Distribution
Purple nut sedge is present in 92 countries. It is located in temperate, subtropical and tropical
regions of the world. Cyperus rotundus is native to Africa, Southern and central Europe and
Southern Asia. In India it is distributed throughout the country and in Ceylon 1800m from the
sea level 3, 8.
Genetics
Haploid9 (441 chromosomes)
Cultivation
Cyperus rotundus is found in cultivated fields, farmlands, neglected areas, wastelands,
grasslands, at the edges of forests, and on roadsides, sandy or gravelly shores, riverbanks and
irrigation canal banks, agricultural areas, coastland, water course. Purple nut sedge grows
well in almost every soil type, over a wide range of soil moisture, pH and elevation. It is
encouraged by frequent cultivation and grows best in moist fertile soils10.
Habitat
A perennial glabrous herb 10-20 cm long, ovoid root tubers of 0.8-2.5 cm diameter, root
fibers clothed with flexuous hairs, stems sub solitary 10-75 cm long triquetrous at the top,
umbel or compound inflorescence, bearing short spikes of 3-10, spikelet of 1.6-3.8 cm with
10-50 flowers , stamens 3, nut 1.6 mm long, ovoid and trigonous, style 1.6mm long, stigma 3.
Propagation by seeds and vegetative means seeds are shown on sunken moist seed beds in
April. Germination takes about 15-20 days11. Root slips from well matured cyperus are
dibbed into the moist bed at 7-10 cm apart the soil is kept moist by frequent watering and is
ready for harvesting in four months.
Physio-chemical Properties12
White starch content : 24.1%
Viscosity at : 20ºC
Adhesive strength &
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line-spread : at 50ºC
Amylose content : 26.73%
Total Ash : 5.9 -6.35%
Acid soluble Ash : 3%
Water soluble Ash : 1.10%
Alcohol soluble extract : 9.068%
Water soluble extract : 16.36%
Phytochemistry
Table.1 Information about the Phyto constituents.
Parts Chemical constituents
Rhizomes
αcyperolone, αrotunol, β-cyperone, β-pinene, β-rotunol, β-selinene,
Calcium,Camphene, Copaene, Cyperene, Cyperenone, Cyperol,
Cyperolone, D-copadiene,D-epoxyguaiene, Isocyperol, Isokobusone,
Kobusone, Limonene,Linoleic-acid,Linolenic-acid, Mustakone,
Myristic acid, Oleanolic acid, Oleic acid, P-cymol, Patchoulenone,
Rotundene, Rotundenol, Rotundone, Selinatriene, Sitosterol, Stearic
acid, Sugeonol, Sugetriol, Caryophyllene, Cyperotundone13.
Leaves Luteolin and auresidin
14
.
Arial
Sitosteryl(6-hentriacontanoyl)-β-D-Galactopyranoside, Some
furochromones, khellin,visnagin and ammiol, bezo- α-pyrone
(coumarin), salicylic acid14, caffeic acid, protocatechuric acid, P-
coumaric acid, tricin and isohamnetin
The essential oil from the plant contains atleast 27 components comprising sesquiterpene
hydrocarbons, contains α-copaene (1.97%), Cyperene (15.73%), α-hisaholene (2.14%), α-
gurjunene (1.29%)15, 2-methoxy-8-methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione (4.01%), β-selinene
(17.99%) Oxo- α-ylangene (3.00%), 4, 4 α-5, 6, 7, 8-hexahydro-4 α-5dimethyl-3-(1-methyl
ethylidene)-2(3H)-naphthalenone (8.11%), α-cyperone (26.15%), Logipinocarvone (1.11%).
Overall Presence of Glucose (8.3~9.1%), Fructose (1.0~1.7%), Starch 40-41.1%), Protein
(4.9%), Mg 1285.7µg.
Substitutes or Adulterants16
Similar species – Cyperus esculentus
Cyperus is a substitute for Aconitum heterophyllum (Ativisha)
Actions3, 11, 17
Analgesic, Anti- inflammatory, Anthelmentic, Alterative, Anti-dyspeptic,Anti-perspirant,
Anti-spasmodic, Anti-tussive, Aphrodisiac, Aromatic, Carminative, Diaphoretic, Diuretic,
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Emmenogogue,Galactogogue, Hypotensive, Lithotriptic, Liver tonic, Nervine tonic,
Stomachic, Stimulant.
Traditional Uses3, 11, 18
Internal Uses
1. Chest pain: Boil to decoction 4 to 9 gms of dried drug preparation together with 4 gms of
Citrus and drink.
2. Irregular menstruation, Painful menstruation: It is also one of the most effective
menstrual regulators. It helps to promote and regulate the menstruation. 2 to 6 gms of
dried material in a standard cup of water, boil to concentration and drink19.
3. Dysentry: 1. Tubers powdered and mixed with ginger and honey is used. 2. Grind nut
grass tuber and ginger with honey into pill form taken orally in the dosage of solanum
torvum size.
4. Diarrhoea: 1. Tubers boiled in milk with three folds of water cures diarrhea. 2. Tubers
are useful in infusion or as soup in fever, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, vomiting,
cholera, etc20. 3. About 5g of tubercles are crushed and boiled in about 300ml of water
obtained from rice wash (chaulani) and the decoction is given with 2 teaspoon full of
honey thrice a day for 3 or more days to relieve diarrohea.
5. Asthma : 25 gms of powdered tuber of Cyperus rotundus,21 numbers of piper nigrum, 10
gms of ginger, 5 gms of clove and 5 gms of cumin seeds were boiled with ghee for few
minutes, then cool it to become a paste. Take 10 ml of this paste thrice a day for 5 days
with a little honey.
6. Worm infection: 1.Grind together the leaves of Cyperus rotundus (7no.) with the entire
plant of Cyperus rotundus (3no.) in to a paste. Make tablets with this paste. Take one
tablet orally thrice a day for one or two days. 2. The rhizome is made into a paste and 10-
20g of it is eaten 3 times a day for 2-3 days for its reputed anthelmintic action. In case of
children, the dose is usually halved.
7. Rheumatoid arthritis: Cyperus rotundus root powder and Withania somnifera root powder
each 1 gm is given orall twice a day for Rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-rheumatic activity was
found to be eight times that of Hydrocortisone34.
8. Dental diarrhea in Children: Mustaka is highly praised as the best panacea for dental
diarrhea in children. It works well in combination with karkadaga singi (Rhus
succedanea) and Ativisa (Aconitum heterophyllum) in such condition.
9. Mental debility and Epilepsy: It is given along with cow’s milk.
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10. Burning micturition: It can be used with Satavari (Asparagus racemosus) in proportions
of 1:4 in burning micturition,urinary calculi, haematuria etc., mustaka renders excellent
results, as it is diuretic in property.
11. Polydipsia in diabetes: Tuber is sliced and dried in sun and powdered, to the 5 gm of
powder add 2 black pepper and is prescribed for polydipsia in diabetes21.
12. Lactation: The decoction of its roots is the best remedy for purifying the breast milk in
lactating mothers.
13. Malaria: The whole plant extract is given in malaria.
14. Obesity: Oral administration of 1 gm of nut grass root powder twice a day shows
significant reduction of body weight and also decreases blood pressure in hypertensive
obese patients.
15. Bronchitis: A decoction prepared from 10g of the crushed tubercles in 100ml of water
with a little salt is given twice a day for 2-5 days to treat bronchitis. Its prolonged use is
also said to relieve bronchial asthma.
External uses20, 21
1. Wounds, bruises, carbuncles: Arabs of the Levant traditionally us roasted tubers, while
they are still hot, or hot ashes from burned tubers, to treat wounds, bruises, carbuncles.
2. Galactagogue: Fresh tubers are applied to the breast in the form of paste or warm plaster
as a galactogogue.
3. Spreading ulcer: Dry powder of tuber is used as dusting in Spreading ulcer22.
4. Skin diseases and itching in vagina: Grind 25 g of Cyperus rotundus into paste. Apply
this paste on itching area, vagina once daily for 3 to 4 days. Wash the diseased portion
with the hot decoction.
5. Head ache: Grind the tuber of Cyperus rotundus into paste. Apply this paste on fore head
only once to relief from headache.
6. Sores on head: Grind the tubers of Cyperus rotundus (25 g), leaves and the tender leaves
of Terminalia bellerica into paste. Apply this paste on head before taking bath once daily
for 3 days.
7. Scabies, eczema: The external application of its paste reduces the foul odour due to
excessive sweating, and is salutary in skin diseases like scabies, eczema etc.
8. Obesity: The massage with its dry powder (Udvartana) is extremely beneficial for
reducing the subcutaneous fat deposition.
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9. Sprains, bruises, furuncle infections: Use pounded fresh material as poultice or cook the
pulverized drug material in vinegar and apply as hit poultice.
10. Conjunctivitis: The root extract oil instilled into eyes in conjunctivitis reduces the pain,
redness and ocular discharges.
Classical Preparations in AYUSH
Table.2 The List of the drugs, in which C. rotundus as a main ingredient:
Formulations Internal medicines External medicines
Siddha
Formulations2,18 Sivathai chooranam
Dhratchathi chooranam
Nilavembu kudineer
Kattuvanga thylam
Veppu ennai
Chukku thylam
Naasiroga naasa thylam
Ayurvedic
Formulations11,18 Mustakadi Kwath
Mustak arishta
Balasanjivani churna
Gangadhar churna
Shandgapaniya
Mustadi leha
Mustadi churna
Triphaladi Thailam
Maharajaprasarini Thailam
Manjishtadi Thailam
Musta taila
Unani
Formulations18
Jawarish jalinush
Majun murrawal-ul-
anwah Anoshdaru lului
Experimental Pharmacology
Anti oxidant property
Parast et al reported that the hydroalcoholic extract of C. rotundus (CRE) exhibited high
reduction capability and powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH and
superoxide anions. CRE also showed inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate
induced by Fe2+/ascorbate and prevented deoxyribose degradation in both non–site-specific
and site-specific assays showing the hydroxyl radical scavenging and metal chelating activity
of the hydroalcoholic extract. Cyperus rotundus root extract has a potent superoxide radical
scavenging effects24.
Wound healing activity
Puratchikody et al reported that, Ethanolic extract of powdered tubers (500gm), extract
ointments showed considerable difference in response in all wound models on male Wistar
rats (the excision, incision and dead space wound model) comparable to those of a standard
drug nitro furazone ointment (0.2%w/w NEZ). Due to the presence of active terpenes,
flavonol glycosides and β-sitosterol in tuber part of Cyperus rotundus this may be effective in
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reducing tissue swelling and oozing of tissue fluid accompanying inflammation revealed a
positive healing profile25.
Antimicrobial Activity
Sharma et al reported that, Cyperus rotundus Linn. Rhizome extracts were evaluated against
six important pathogenic microbes viz. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The
ethanolic extract was found to exhibit highest activity against tested bacteria26. However all
extracts were ineffective against fungal strains. The inhibitory effect is very similar and
comparable with that of standard drug.
Anti diabetic activity
Raut et al ,Evaluated the antidiabetic activity of fractions of hydro-ethanol extract of C.
rotundus. Dried powdered material of C. rotundus is taken and induced by intra-peritoneal
administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg) on days 1 and 12 and blood glucose
levels were estimated on 15th day. Various oral doses were tried and significant antidiabetic
activity (p<0.001) was found at a dose of 300 mg/kg in acetone fraction and residue left after
successive fractionation comparable to metformin (450 mg/kg, per oral)27. The results
suggested that, fractions possess antidiabetic activity attributed to the presence of
polyphenols.
Anti Inflammatory Activity
Biradar et al, evaluated the effects of oils in anti-inflammatory carrageenan induced
inflammation (paw edema) in Rats. The results showed dose dependent activity, indicated by
reduction in paw edema in anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity34, and significant
reduction (p<0.01) in the MES induced convulsion in comparison to control. From literature
survey as well as experiments performed, it can be said that essential oil posses a good Anti-
inflammatory due to the presence of beta- Sitosterol28 and flavonoids.
Anti convulsant activity
Shivakumar et al evaluated the anticonvulsant effect of Cyperus rotundus Linn rhizomes
against maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced tonic seizers in
albino rats. The ethanol extract (100 mg / kg, p.o.) reduced hind limb extension and duration
of convulsion significantly, (P < 0.001) which was comparable to standard drug phenytoin
(25 mg / kg, i.p.) and diazepam (4 mg /kg, i.p.) respectively. The ethanol extract of Cyperus
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rotundus rhizomes is worthwhile to develop the potent phytoconstituent for treatment of
epilepsy and the flavonoids present in ethanol extract could be attributed for anticonvulsant
activity29.
Hepato protective activity
Kumar et al reported that, Ethyl acetate extract and two crude fractions, solvent ether and
ethyl acetate, of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for
hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetrachloride. The ethyl
acetate extract at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by
lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase,
alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin30. These biochemical observations were
supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as
positive control. Result shows Significant.
Anti-obesity activity
Athesh et al, evaluated the anti-obesity potential of the aqueous tuber extract of Cyperus
rotundus L. (ATECR) in high fat cafeteria diet (HFCD) fed obese rats. Wistar strain of albino
rats were divided into six groups comprising of six rats each. Group I served as normal
control fed with normal pellet chow, group II served as disease control fed with high fat
cafeteria diet, group III, IV and V animals, received ATECR at a dose level of 100, 200 and
300mg/kg bw along with HFCD for 40 days, while, group VI served as standard drug control,
which received Orlistat at a dosage of 50mg/kg bw along with HFCD31. The result shows the
significant weight reduction activity.
Anti-Platelet Activity
Seoa et al investigated the antiplatelet effects of Cyperus rotundus EtOH extract (CRE) and
its constituent compounds. The antiplatelet activities of CRE and its eight constituent
compounds were evaluated by examining their effects on rat platelet aggregations in vitro and
ex vivo, and on mice tail bleeding times. During the in vitro platelet aggregation study, CRE
showed significant and concentrationdependent inhibitory effects on collagen-, thrombin-,
and/or AA-induced platelet aggregation. Of its eight components, (+)-nootkatone was found
to have the most potent inhibitory effect on collagen-, thrombin-, and AA-induced platelet
aggregation. In addition, CRE- and (+)-nootkatone-treated mice exhibited significantly
prolonged bleeding times. Furthermore, (+)-nootkatone had a significant inhibitory effect on
rat platelet aggregation ex vivo. This study demonstrates the antiplatelet effects and might be
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of therapeutic benefit for the prevention of platelet-associated cardiovascular diseases32.
Antimalarial activity C. rotundus Linn. has already been investigated by many groups and
several mono- and sesquiterpenes have been isolated. Some terpenes isolated from this plant
have also been tested for antimalarial activity, with moderate in vitro activities being
recorded. In our screening through the usual procedure , it was noted that the crude hexane
extract of the air-dried tubers of C. rotundus Linn. Showed high potency in the in vitro test
against Plasmodium falciparum (ECso = 0.66 pg ml- 1); the result shows the significant anti-
malarial activity33.
CONCLUSION
The concept of Single herbs as potent therapeutic agents is being experimentally and
clinically documented now-a-days. Even major Pharmaceuticals preparing poly herbal
formulations are now concentrating in this concept. This development is because of the
multi-faceted therapeutic properties which the single herbs possess. In that way, Nut grass
(Cyperus rotundus) has experimentally proven Anti-oxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Anti-
malarial, Hepato-protective, Anti-obesity and Anti-convulsant properties. It is the right time
to do more work on this herb to further explore the wonderful therapeutic properties for the
benefit of the mankind.
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Nalini et al. World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research
34. Nalini Sofia H, Vetha Merlin Kumari H, Thomas M.Walter,Senthil Kumar SG, Acute and
sub acute toxicity study of an anti Diabetic Siddha Polyherbal Preparation,
Atthippattaiyathi Kasayam, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 2014; 8(7): pp. 915-919.
... During our screening of a focused library of plant compounds for antifungal activity [15] against C. krusei and other Candida species, we identified a fraction (#84) from Cyperus rotundus plant rhizome extract as a potential antifungal agent. C. rotundus (also known as nut grass or purple nut sedge in English) is found as a native species across Asia, Africa, and Europe [16]. C. rotundus is well known as a herbal remedy for various ailments in Roman, Chinese, and Indian traditional medicine [16]. ...
... C. rotundus (also known as nut grass or purple nut sedge in English) is found as a native species across Asia, Africa, and Europe [16]. C. rotundus is well known as a herbal remedy for various ailments in Roman, Chinese, and Indian traditional medicine [16]. Some of the many therapeutic characteristics attributed to essential oils (EO) extracted from C. rotundus are its uses as an astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, and antimicrobial [16,17]. ...
... C. rotundus is well known as a herbal remedy for various ailments in Roman, Chinese, and Indian traditional medicine [16]. Some of the many therapeutic characteristics attributed to essential oils (EO) extracted from C. rotundus are its uses as an astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, analgesic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, stimulant, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, and antimicrobial [16,17]. The EO extracted from C. rotundus rhizome contains various phytochemicals and α-Cyperone is the major component in it [16]. ...
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Fungal infections affect 300 million people and cause 1.5 million deaths globally per year. With the number of immunosuppressed patients increasing steadily, there is an increasing number of patients infected with opportunistic fungal infections such as infections caused by the species of Candida and Cryptococcus. In fact, the drug-resistant Can. krusei and the emerging pan-antifungal resistant Can. auris pose a serious threat to human health as the existing limited antifungals are futile. To further complicate therapy, fungi produce capsules and spores that are resistant to most antifungal drugs/host defenses. Novel antifungal drugs are urgently needed to fill unmet medical needs. From screening a collection of medicinal plant sources for antifungal activity, we have identified an active fraction from the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus, the nut grass plant. The fraction contained α-Cyperone, an essential oil that showed fungicidal activity against different species of Candida. Interestingly, the minimal inhibitory concentration of α-Cyperone was reduced 8-fold when combined with a clinical antifungal drug, fluconazole, indicating its antifungal synergistic potential and could be useful for combination therapy. Furthermore, α-Cyperone affected the synthesis of the capsule in Cryp. neoformans, a causative agent of fungal meningitis in humans. Further work on mechanistic understanding of α-Cyperone against fungal virulence could help develop a novel antifungal agent for drug-resistant fungal pathogens.
... Moreover, Morimoto and Komai (2005) claimed that two sesquiterpene ketones namely; cyperotundone (0.26%) and α-cyperone (0.1%) were isolated from dried tubers of Japanese C. rotundus as major constituents [20]. In addition, Xiao-shan et al. (2006) and Sofia et al. (2014) reported that the main components of C. rotundus essential oil are α-cyperone(26.15%), β-selinene (17.99%), cyperene (15.73%) [21,22]. ...
... In addition, Xiao-shan et al. (2006) and Sofia et al. (2014) reported that the main components of C. rotundus essential oil are α-cyperone(26.15%), β-selinene (17.99%), cyperene (15.73%) [21,22]. ...
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Cockroaches are among the most adaptive creatures to the environment; they dwell on the earth’s surface for the past millions of years. The presence of cockroaches is posing serious health issues in many countries of the world. Searching for an effective natural repellent agent has become a highly important attempt to control these insects. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of essential oil from Sudanese Cyperus rotundus rhizomes and determine their repellent activity against American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana). The obtained essential oil was radish yellow in color, the oil content was 0.73% and forty-four constituents were identified. The most major components were: Isolongifolol (7.63%), longiverbenone (5.61%), β-cadinene (5.54%), and longifolenaldehyde (5.16%). The oil was characterized by sesquiterpenes abundance 52.45% (oxygenated sesquiterpenes 30.72% and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons 21.73%); whereas, monoterpenes comprised 8.43% (oxygenated monoterpenes 6.81%, and monoterpenes hydrocarbons 1.62%). The experiment showed that the essential oil possesses promising results as a repellent against P. americana. Therefore, conducting more research on isolation, identification of active compounds and extensive tests on other types of cockroaches are priorities in future studies.
Chapter
Plants contain a diverse variety of chemical compounds that play a crucial role in maintaining good health. Different plant parts are used in Ayurvedic or traditional Indian medicine practices to treat different ailments and diseased conditions. A group of food supplements, known as nutraceuticals, are also based on the components present in these plant parts to help provide immunity and help to regulate the metabolism for a healthy living. However, it has come to light that these plant parts used in medicine and as nutrition supplements can lead to severe toxicity in our body, thus triggering severe health problems. Therefore it is essential to understand which plant species should not be used in day-to-day life and what are its toxic constituents. This chapter highlights different groups of plants and their respective parts that should be avoided to use in any form or in meager amounts to restricting the concentration of its toxic constituents to a minimal.
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Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (APK), a polyherbal Siddha formulation intended to use for diabetic patients, has been screened for toxic effects. For acute toxicity studies, Atthippattaiyathi kasayam was administered orally in single dose of 270 mg/kg to the mice. For sub-acute toxicity studies, different doses of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (270, 1350 and 2700 mg/kg) were administered orally to the rats once daily for 28 days. Animals were observed for physiological and behavioral responses, mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes. All the animals were sacrificed on 29th day and changes in organ weights and histology were examined. No mortality was observed up to 270 mg/kg of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam in acute toxicity study. Daily administration of as high as 2700 mg/kg dose of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam did not result in any mortality or changes in gross behavior, body weight, weight and histology of different organs. Therefore such doses may be safe for daily administration without causing any serious side effects.
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Traditional Siddha system of Medicine is widely practiced in Tamilnadu and Tamil speaking areas of the World. With the specialty as one of the World’s ancient Traditional systems of Medicine, its importance is being felt and widely discussed now-a-days. Apart from its tremendous healing properties, it is also alleged of not having remedies for emergencies such as Cardiac conditions, acute respiratory conditions, bleeding disorders etc. On the other hand, such conditions have always been dealt by our forefathers’ even centuries back. In olden days the Siddhars’ (founders of Siddha Medicine) used lots of herbs to treat cardiac and respiratory conditions, heal wounds, treat Snake bites, Scorpion bite, dreaded diseases like Cancer and STD/VD etc and documented them in the form of Palm leaf manuscripts, stone and copper scriptures etc.. With the advancement of Medicine, the treatment options and parameters have changed, but the concepts that our ancestors followed so far remains in the old texts and literatures. Nowadays due to modern civilization, such age old practices are put in the dark and often forgotten. So the Authors of this review paper has chosen this topic and listed out the commonly identifiable, easily available, cost effective herbs having styptic action and wound healing properties as per the Siddha traditional literatures. In addition scientific data in the form of In-vivo studies already done in the selected plants have also been reviewed.
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Ethyl acetate extract and two crude fractions, solvent ether and ethyl acetate, of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity in rats by inducing liver damage by carbon tetrachloride. The ethyl acetate extract at an oral dose of 100 mg/kg exhibited a significant protective effect by lowering serum levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of liver sections. Silymarin was used as positive control.
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Full-text available
Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (APK), a polyherbal Siddha formulation intended to use for diabetic patients, has been screened for toxic effects. For acute toxicity studies, Atthippattaiyathi kasayam was administered orally in single dose of 270 mg/kg to the mice. For sub-acute toxicity studies, different doses of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam (270, 1350 and 2700 mg/kg) were administered orally to the rats once daily for 28 days. Animals were observed for physiological and behavioral responses, mortality, food and water intake and body weight changes. All the animals were sacrificed on 29th day and changes in organ weights and histology were examined. No mortality was observed up to 270 mg/kg of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam in acute toxicity study. Daily administration of as high as 2700 mg/kg dose of Atthippattaiyathi kasayam did not result in any mortality or changes in gross behavior, body weight, weight and histology of different organs. Therefore such doses may be safe for daily administration without causing any serious side effects.
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Full-text available
Traditional Siddha system of Medicine is widely practiced in Tamilnadu and Tamil speaking areas of the World. With the specialty as one of the World’s ancient Traditional systems of Medicine, its importance is being felt and widely discussed now-a-days. Apart from its tremendous healing properties, it is also alleged of not having remedies for emergencies such as Cardiac conditions, acute respiratory conditions, bleeding disorders etc. On the other hand, such conditions have always been dealt by our forefathers’ even centuries back. In olden days the Siddhars’ (founders of Siddha Medicine) used lots of herbs to treat cardiac and respiratory conditions, heal wounds, treat Snake bites, Scorpion bite, dreaded diseases like Cancer and STD/VD etc and documented them in the form of Palm leaf manuscripts, stone and copper scriptures etc.. With the advancement of Medicine, the treatment options and parameters have changed, but the concepts that our ancestors followed so far remains in the old texts and literatures. Nowadays due to modern civilization, such age old practices are put in the dark and often forgotten. So the Authors of this review paper has chosen this topic and listed out the commonly identifiable, easily available, cost effective herbs having styptic action and wound healing properties as per the Siddha traditional literatures. In addition scientific data in the form of In-vivo studies already done in the selected plants have also been reviewed.
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Two novel compounds, 1α-methoxy-3β-hydroxy-4α-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalin (1) and 1α,3β-dihydroxy-4α-(3′,4′-dihydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalin (2), were isolated along with six known compounds 3–8 from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. This paper reports the isolation and full spectroscopic characterization of these new compounds by NMR, UV, IR and MS data.
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The aim of present study was to evaluate the Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic and anticonvulsant activity of Cyperus esculentus linn. and Cyperus rotundus Linn. Essential oils. The oils were subjected to phytochemical tests and the flavonoids, triterpenoids, carbohydrate, proteins were found. In India it has been popularly used for the treatment of wound healing, antimicrobial, antidote, anti mutagenic and antidiarrhoeal. In this study we evaluate the effects of oils in anti-inflammatory (carrageenan induced), antiarthritic (formaldehyde induced), analgesic (formalin induced writhing) and anticonvulsant (MES produced convulsion). The results showed dose dependent activity, indicated by reduction in paw edema in antiinflammatory and antiarthritic activity, and significant reduction (p<0.01) in the MES induced convulsion in comparison to control. From literature survey as well as experimental performed, it can be said that essential oil posses a good Anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities.
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Traditional systems of medicine reported the use of Cyperus rotundus in the treatment of diabetes. To substantiate this claim, investigations were carried out using hydro-ethanol extract and the same has been reported (Raut and Gaikwad, 2006). Present study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of fractions of hydro-ethanol extract of C. rotundus. Dried powdered material of C. rotundus was defatted with petroleum ether 60-80 °C, cold macerated with hydro-ethanol for seven days and then fractionated successively in Soxhlet apparatus with chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. These fractions were screened for antidiabetic activity using alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg) on days 1 and 12 and blood glucose levels were estimated on 15th day. Various oral doses were tried and significant antidiabetic activity (p<0.001) was found at a dose of 300 mg/kg in acetone fraction and residue left after successive fractionation. The activities of active extracts were comparable to metformin (450 mg/kg, per oral). The results suggested that, fractions possess antidiabetic activity attributed to the presence of polyphenols and flavonoids.