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This represents the second comprehensive assessment of recreational fishing undertaken in Tasmania and builds on the National Recreational Fishing Survey (NRFS) conducted in 2000-01. The same methodology developed for the NRFS was applied in the current survey but with several improvements, particularly in relation to data analysis. However, in the absence of a repeat of the national survey, the current survey was limited to fishing in Tasmania by Tasmanian residents. Although not measured, fishing by interstate visitors in Tasmania was not likely to have been significant given that non-resident fishers accounted for just 3% of the total effort (fisher days) for Tasmania during 2000-01. Information about participation rates and the demographic profile of recreational fishers was derived from a general population telephone survey involving over 3400 Tasmanian households. This was followed by a telephone-diary survey involving over 1000 households (almost 3000 persons) for which fishing activity was monitored over a 12 month period. Response rates across all facets of the study were exceptionally high, giving considerable confidence to the data quality. In the 12 months prior to November 2007 it was estimated that over 118,000 Tasmanian residents aged five years or older fished at least once, representing an overall participation rate of 26%. By region, residents of the Southern statistical division had the highest participation rate at 33%, which compared with 24-27% for the other Tasmanian regions. Recreational fishing was more popular among males, with a state-wide participation rate of 35%, compared with about 18% for females. Participation rates varied with age, 5-14 year olds having the highest rate of participation (38%) although the greatest numbers of fishers were in the 30-44 years age group. Participation rates generally declined with increasing age, but especially in the 45 years and older age groups. As this survey was designed to provide a big-picture perspective of the recreational fishery, it is important to recognise that comparatively rare or highly specialised activities, which within the context of the overall recreational fishery are minor components, may not be well represented. In such instances estimates of catch and effort tend to be imprecise and alternative, targeted surveys would be required to provide a more reliable assessment of such activities. For the above reasons, aggregation of some regions and species has been necessary when reporting findings. Information about recreational fishing catch and effort was monitored between December 2007 and November 2008, inclusive. Almost 128,000 Tasmanian residents were estimated to have actually fished in Tasmania during this period, slightly more than during the previous 12 months. These fishers accounted for about 0.64 million fisher days of effort. The median number of days fished in Tasmania by Tasmanians was five days per fisher, though the distribution of effort was highly skewed, with just 20% of fishers contributing 56% of the total effort. Overall, one in four fishers fished at least once in freshwater while the vast majority (88%) fished at least once in saltwater. About one quarter of the total effort occurred in freshwater, saltwater fishing (including estuaries) accounted for the remainder. Freshwater fishing in lakes and dams accounted for about three times the level of effort in rivers while the majority of the saltwater fishing occurred in inshore coastal waters, with estuarine fishing of secondary importance. Fishing in offshore waters (>5 km off the coast) was a comparatively minor activity. Line fishing was the dominant activity undertaken, pursued on 87% of all days fished: that is almost 0.56 million fisher days, representing 1.8 million hours of effort. This was followed by pot fishing (8%), dive harvesting (5%) and the use of gillnets (3%). A range of other fishing methods were also reported, including the use of spears, seine or bait nets, and hand collection, but these activities were of minor significance by comparison. A wide variety of fish species was caught by recreational fishers during 2007-08, with a total of 1.62 million finfish (excluding small baitfish) retained and 1.24 million finfish released or discarded. Flathead (mainly sand flathead) represented almost two-thirds of the total finfish catch numbers, with an estimated 1.07 million kept and 0.74 million released. Other finfish species or species groups of significance included trout (157,000 kept and 105,000 released), Australian salmon (110,000 kept and 78,000 released), gurnard (13,000 kept and 67,000 released), and black bream (13,000 kept and 35,000 released). Overall, 43% of all finfish captured were released or discarded; with low rates of release (<10%) for species such as blue warehou and flounder; intermediate rates (10-30%) for garfish, trumpeters, Atlantic salmon and jack mackerel; moderate rates (31-50%) for flathead, trout, Australian salmon, tuna, mullet, barracouta, silver trevally, jackass morwong, eels, river blackfish and redfin; and high rates (>50%) for black bream, wrasse, gurnard, sharks and rays, whiting, cod, pike and leatherjackets. Reasons for release were varied, with size (under legal size or too small) being an important factor for species such as flathead, Australian salmon, silver trevally, mullet and jackass morwong; poor eating qualities were identified as an important factor for release of barracouta, redfin, cod, wrasse, leatherjackets and gurnard; while catch and release (sport) fishing was an important factor for the release of black bream, trout and tuna. Sharks and rays tended to be released or discarded because of poor eating qualities (e.g. dogfish, draughtboard shark) and/or due to regulation (prohibition on retaining sharks from shark refuge areas). Recreational fishers also caught a variety of shellfish and other invertebrate species. Comparatively high catches of squid, namely Gould’s squid (73,000 kept) and southern calamari (40,000 kept), were taken along with rock lobster (72,000 kept), abalone (64,000 kept) and scallops (397,000 kept). Amongst these taxa, rates of release were low for the squids, scallops and abalone, and moderate for rock lobster. There was a high level of fishery specialisation for species such as tuna, trout, flounder, rock lobster and scallops; these species were taken almost exclusively by targeted effort rather than incidental capture. Other species that tended to be caught primarily as a result of targeted effort included black bream, flathead, garfish and abalone, also implying a level of fishery specialisation for these species. By contrast, jackass morwong, jack mackerel, leatherjackets, wrasse, gurnard, cod and eels were virtually never targeted, which for several of these species is consistent with the fact that they were held in low esteem by fishers. By applying average weights it was possible to approximate harvest weights and compare recreational and commercial fisheries production. The annual recreational harvest of flathead was estimated at 292 tonnes, four times greater than the commercial catch of flathead taken from state fishing waters. By weight, other species of importance included tuna (145 tonnes), Australian salmon (48 tonnes), southern calamari (45 tonnes), Gould’s squid (37 tonnes) and the trumpeters (19 tonnes). As a contributor to total harvest, the share taken by the recreational sector was similar or larger than that taken by the Tasmanian commercial scalefish fishery for flathead, flounder, mullet, cod, barracouta, silver trevally, jackass morwong, and Gould’s squid. Conversely, the recreational harvest represented a minor component (<15%) of the total catch for species such as Australian salmon, whiting, garfish, wrasse and jack mackerel. Catch composition was influenced by many factors, including the water body fished and the fishing method. Trout dominated finfish catches (kept and released numbers) in freshwater (>80%), with redfin, Atlantic salmon and blackfish of secondary importance in the lake and dam fisheries, and redfin and blackfish in the river fisheries. Flathead and Australian salmon dominated estuarine and inshore coastal catches (collectively >75%), with black bream and flounder of secondary importance in the estuarine fishery, and gurnard and wrasse in the inshore coastal fishery. Tuna, flathead and gurnard (mostly ocean perch) were the main species taken in the offshore fishery. The finfish catch taken by line fishing was dominated by flathead (66% of total numbers), followed by trout (10%), Australian salmon (7%), gurnard (3%) and bream (2%). By contrast, trumpeter (mainly bastard trumpeter) (27%), blue warehou (10%), sharks and rays (9%), mullet (9%) and Atlantic salmon (7%) were the main species caught by gillnets, and flounder were mainly taken by spear. Gould’s squid and southern calamari were mostly taken by line methods whereas rock lobster were caught using pots, dive collection and rings, with abalone and scallops more or less exclusively harvested by dive collection. The east and south-east coasts of Tasmania were a particularly significant for flathead, black bream, tuna, Gould’s squid, southern calamari, rock lobster and abalone, with the south east especially important for flounder. By contrast, Australian salmon and mullet catches were concentrated off northern Tasmania. The inland trout fishery was focused largely in the Central Plateau lakes, especially Arthurs Lake and Great Lake, with catches from rivers of secondary importance. Trout catches from the other inland regions were similar in magnitude. Seasonally, catches of flathead, trout, Australian salmon, black bream, Gould’s squid, southern calamari, rock lobster and abalone peaked during summer and autumn. Tuna were restricted to summer-autumn, with a strong peak in February-March. Flounder catches were highest in late autumn. Catches of each of the major species tended to be low during winter and early spring, reflecting the generally lower levels of fishing activity during that period. The saltwater fisheries off western and northern Tasmania involved a significant shore-based component whereas shore-based fishing was less important compared with boat-based fishing off eastern and south-eastern Tasmania. Comparison with 2000-01 To facilitate valid comparisons between 2000-01 and 2007-08, NRFS data were re-analysed using the analytical approach developed for the current study. In terms of participation, the number of recreational fishers in Tasmania has remained relatively constant since 2000. However, when population growth is taken into account, the actual participation rate experienced a significant decline, from just over 29% in 2000 to 26% in 2007. This decline was experienced in all regions of the state and was more pronounced amongst males than females. Participation rates were also lower across all age groups, with the exception of the 60 years-plus age group. When broader demographic trends are taken into account, specifically dominance of the ‘baby-boomer’ generation (mostly 45-59 year olds in 2007) and the sharp decline in participation rates amongst the 45 years-plus age groups, our results suggest that overall participation in recreational fishing will continue to decline unless there is growth, or at least maintenance, of involvement in fishing amongst the younger age groups. Overall effort (fisher days) was 14% lower in 2007-08 compared with 2000-01. This decline was exclusively linked to a reduction in shore-based fishing effort during 2007-08. The most marked declines were experienced in the Eastern inland, West North coast and Derwent regions, mainly due to lower levels of shore-based fishing activity in 2007-08. Reflecting the decline in effort there was also a reduction in overall catch (kept and released) numbers for finfish in 2007-08, to about 81% of the equivalent estimate for 2000-01. While the catch composition and relative importance of the key species was generally consistent between surveys, there was variability in catch levels for many species; linked in part to differences in effort, changes in fishing practices and species availability. Flathead catches were very stable (within 5%) between the two surveys while there was a moderate increase (17%) in the estimated number of trout caught in 2007-08. By contrast, the 2007-08 catch of Australian salmon was less than half that estimated for 2000-01. Catch increases were experienced for tuna and Gould’s squid, both linked to greater availability during 2007-08. Minor increases were also evident for southern calamari and whiting, the former apparently linked to increased popularity of the species amongst recreational fishers. Release rates were generally higher in 2007-08, which for species such as trout, black bream and tuna was consistent with a trend towards increased catch and release (sport rather than consumptive) fishing. For other species, this change may reflect improved adherence to size limits and/or the impact of decreased bag limits that have been implemented since 2001, as well as response to education programs aimed at encouraging fishers to take only what they need for a feed. In summary, this study has highlighted the complex and dynamic nature of the recreational fishery and emphasises the need for managers, stakeholders and fisheries scientists to consider management, research and planning issues at appropriate regional and temporal scales. This survey represents a significant step towards achieving this goal, providing an important baseline against which future developments and trends in the fishery can be evaluated.
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... Gender and age had an impact on the proportion of self-reported gatherers, with female and senior (65 years and older) respondents less likely to report gathering shellfish. Many studies in New Zealand and oversea have previously identified that recreational gathering (including fish and shellfish) is more popular among males and declines with age (Carolina et al., 2016;Henry and Lyle, 2003;Kallqvist, 2009;Lyle et al., 2019;McCarthy et al., 2013;Purcell et al., 2020;Turra et al., 2016). An interesting finding of the survey is that ethnicity does not influence the proportion of shellfish gatherers within shellfish consumers. ...
... While enjoyment is a major motivator, the provision of free food is also of great importance. Similar trends have been observed in other studies investigating seafood recreational gathering (Cooke and Cowx, 2006;Hall, 2013;Henry and Lyle, 2003;Lyle et al., 2019). Respondents identifying as Māori reported that culture was their primary motivation, followed by enjoyment, differing in this way from respondents identifying with other ethnicities, who reported enjoyment to be the primary motivator. ...
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Shellfish are a popular food with high cultural, economic and nutritional importance in New Zealand but may also be a significant pathway of human exposure to contaminants. Currently, limited data on shellfish consumption rates in New Zealand poses challenges for risk assessment. This study investigated the rate of shellfish consumption and recreational gathering practices in Northland using a self-completed parallel mixed methodology survey. Seventy six percent (n=229) of total survey respondents (n=302) reported consuming shellfish, with an average daily consumption of 4.8⁻¹. Consumption of cooked shellfish was preferred over raw shellfish. Seventy-two percent of shellfish consumers (n=166) reported eating recreationally gathered shellfish, with on average 48% of shellfish consumed gathered recreationally. While the key motivation for gathering was enjoyment, providing food was also of great importance. When selecting gathering places respondents prioritised proximity and shellfish quantity over shellfish quality, reporting limited and geographically close gathering sites. In general, the quality of shellfish was perceived to be high, and unchanged, although a minority of respondents reported a perceived decline in the quality due to over gathering. Ethnicity was the main parameter influencing shellfish consumption whereas age and gender influenced shellfish gathering.
... As expected, in both water types, males participated much more than females. Traditionally, angling is biased to males, which is also found in other studies (Aas, 1996;Arlinghaus, 2006;Brownscombe et al., 2014;Fedler and Ditton, 2001;Floyd and Lee, 2002;Floyd et al., 2006;Freire et al., 2012;Henry and Lyle, 2003;Kuehn et al., 2013;Lyle et al., 2009;Murdock et al., 1996;Walsh et al., 1989). Higher participation in the North for both marine and fresh water can be explained by the abundant availability of marine and fresh water fishing grounds in this area and relatively small amounts of urban areas. ...
... The trends in participation also differed: The participation rate in fresh water steadily decreased between 2009 and 2017, whereas in marine angling there is a drop between 2009 and 2013, but a slow increase after 2013. Declines in participation rate were also observed in the US, Canada, England Australia and New Zealand (Aprahamian et al., 2010;Brownscombe et al., 2014;Dedual and Pickford, 2018;Gray et al., 2003;Lyle et al., 2009;Parkinson et al., 2018;Sutton et al., 2009;USFWS, 2006;West et al., 2015). The decline in participation is often explained by the youth showing less interest in fishing activity (Brownscombe et al., 2014;West et al., 2012). ...
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Since 2009 the Netherlands has conducted extensive online screening surveys to establish the number, trends and demographic profile of recreational anglers, resulting in a large dataset of almost 500.000 data records between 2009 and 2017. Participation in both marine and fresh water recreational angling were analysed using general linear models (GLM). Results showed a steady decline in the participation rate in fresh water angling. The participation rate in marine angling was smaller, and declined from 2009 to 2011, but remained similar afterwards. Analysis of demographics (age, gender, education and region) showed that males were overall much more likely to participate in recreational angling than females. Additionally, the age distribution differed for marine and fresh water. In marine water young adult males (age group (25,45]) had the highest participation rate, whereas in fresh water the youngest age group, (5,15], had the highest participation rate, closely followed by young adult males (age group (25,45]). Additionally, lower educated persons were more likely to participate in recreational angling than higher educated persons. This study provides more insight in the culture of Dutch recreational angling. Furthermore, the participation model can be used to predict future angling participation.
... Data on the recreational fishery catch of octopus in Tasmania is sparse. Detailed analyses of the Tasmanian recreational fishery are based on the 2000/01 National Survey (Lyle 2005) and the 2007/08 and 2012/13 state-wide fishing surveys (Lyle et al., 2009; Lyle et al., 2014). An updated conversion rate has been used since the 2013/14 assessment to provide a more precise measure of octopus whole weight. ...
... Catch and effort information are not routinely available for the recreational fishery. Surveys of the recreational fishery conducted in 2000/01, 2007/08 and 2012/13 provide the only comprehensive snapshots of the Tasmanian recreational fishery (Lyle, 2005; Lyle et al., 2009; Lyle et al., 2014). The recreational fishery surveys did not differentiate between cephalopod species with the exception of southern calamari and Gould's squid. ...
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Biomass in the Octopus pallidus fishery is indicated by trends in catch per unit effort (CPUE), which decreased from 2005/06 to 2011/12. Since 2011/12, CPUE has fluctuated around 60% of the reference year. Catch is used as a proxy for fishing mortality and in 2015/16 decreased to its lowest level since 2011/12, with similar declines in fishing effort. Historical high levels of fishing effort are likely associated with declines in fishery-wide CPUE but the magnitude of this effect is masked by shifts in spatial fishing effort and the biology of the species. In 2015/16, fishing mortality reduced to within historically sustainable levels where future depletion of the biomass appears unlikely. On this basis Octopus pallidus in Tasmania is classified as a sustainable stock.
... Offsite methods, those that survey the recreational fishing population through offsite sampling frames, are considered the most feasible and cost-effective for fisheries that while New Zealand opted for a meshblock door-knocking approach (Wynne-Jones et al., 2014). Other countries, including Denmark ( Sparrevohn and Storr-Paulsen, 2012), France (Herfaut et al., 2013;Rocklin et al., 2014), the United States (NOAA Fisheries, 2015a), and Australia (Henry and Lyle, 2003;Lyle et al., 2005;Jones, 2009;Lyle et al., 2009;Taylor et al., 2012;West et al., 2012;Lyle et al., 2014;Webley et al., 2015), have used telephone directories as the sampling frame in recreational fishing surveys. ...
... Offsite methods are being increasingly used to monitor large and disparate recreational fisheries ( Hartill et al., 2012), and a number of recent surveys have utilised public telephone directories to sample fishers in the population, including in Denmark ( Sparrevohn and Storr-Paulsen, 2012), France (Herfaut et al., 2013;Rocklin et al., 2014), the United States (NOAA Fisheries, 2015a), and Australia (Henry and Lyle, 2003;Lyle et al., 2005;Jones, 2009;Lyle et al., 2009;Taylor et al., 2012;Lyle et al., 2014;Webley et al., 2015). However, the growing proportion of mobile-only households in most countries has raised valid concerns about the coverage bias associated with this approach (Blumberg and Luke, 2009;Georgeson et al., 2015). ...
Several recent offsite recreational fishing surveys have used public landline telephone directories as a sampling frame. Sampling biases inherent in this method are recognised, but are assumed to be corrected through demographic data expansion. However, the rising prevalence of mobile-only households has potentially increased these biases by skewing raw samples towards households that maintain relatively high levels of coverage in telephone directories. For biases to be corrected through demographic expansion, both the fishing participation rate and fishing activity must be similar among listed and unlisted fishers within each demographic group. In this study, we tested for a difference in the fishing activity of listed and unlisted fishers within demographic groups by comparing their avidity (number of fishing trips per year), as well as the platform used (boat or shore) and species targeted on their most recent fishing trip. 3062 recreational fishers were interviewed at 34 tackle stores across 12 residential regions of Queensland, Australia. For each fisher, data collected included their fishing avidity, the platform used and species targeted on their most recent trip, their gender, age, residential region, and whether their household had a listed telephone number. Although the most avid fishers were younger and less likely to have a listed phone number, cumulative link models revealed that avidity was not affected by an interaction of phone listing status, age group and residential region (p > 0.05). Likewise, binomial generalized linear models revealed that there was no interaction between phone listing, age group and avidity acting on platform (p > 0.05), and platform was not affected by an interaction of phone listing status, age group, and residential region (p > 0.05). Ordination of target species using Bray-Curtis dissimilarity indices found a significant but irrelevant difference (i.e. small effect size) between listed and unlisted fishers (ANOSIM R < 0.05, p < 0.05). These results suggest that, at this time, the fishing activity of listed and unlisted fishers in Queensland is similar within demographic groups. Future research seeking to validate the assumptions of recreational fishing telephone surveys should investigate fishing participation rates of listed and unlisted fishers within demographic groups.
... All sources of mortality should be considered to ensure sustainable catches but this is challenging with the cross jurisdictional movement of fish and recreational fishers. For many species targeted by recreational fishers in Australia the objective is consumption and for some species catch can exceed the take of the commercial fishery (Zischke et al., 2012;Lyle et al., 2014b;Giri and Hall, 2015). It is interesting to note that both states develop metrics for catch, which combines harvest with released animals, as release mortality can be variable based on fisher skill, gear type, species and depth of capture (Muoneke and Childress, 1994;Cooke and Philipp, 2004;Skomal, 2007;Brownscombe et al., 2014;Brownscombe et al., 2017;Shertzer et al., 2018). ...
... This study targets one of the most heavily recreationally fished regions of Tasmania in southeast Australia, the Derwent estuary (Lyle et al., 2009). The Derwent estuary is an important ecosystem in an area that is heavily urbanised, with approximately 40% of Tasmania's population living around its margins (Whitehead et al., 2010). ...
Determining the movement behaviours of animals is essential for understanding population dynamics. This is fundamental for developing effective spatial management strategies and in assessing the response of species to anthropogenic disturbance. This study uses a Bayesian state-space model applied to acoustic transmitter data to describe the temporal and spatial movement patterns of three estuarine fish species commonly targeted by recreational anglers in southeast Australia: Black Bream (Acanthopagrus butcheri), Sand Flathead (Platycephalus bassensis), and Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Despite morphological differences between the three species, several common traits were observed in their movement and behaviour. Of the 50 individuals across all three species that were tracked, the vast majority remained within the estuary where they were tagged for the duration of the study. While the home ranges of the three species differed in size, all individuals remained resident around the mid-estuary where the majority of fish were tagged were released. Each of the species also displayed seasonal migrations, presumably linked to spawning. The timing of the beginning of these migrations was well synchronised both within and among species, starting in late spring/early summer. This suggests that environmental factors such as water temperature and day length may play an important role in cueing spawning behaviour for each of the species. These migratory behaviours suggest adverse changes to estuarine conditions such as reduced river flows may have potential consequences for spawning success for some species and hence implications for fisheries management.
... All sources of mortality should be considered to ensure sustainable catches but this is challenging with the cross jurisdictional movement of fish and recreational fishers. For many species targeted by recreational fishers in Australia the objective is consumption and for some species catch can exceed the take of the commercial fishery (Zischke et al., 2012;Lyle et al., 2014b;Giri and Hall, 2015). It is interesting to note that both states develop metrics for catch, which combines harvest with released animals, as release mortality can be variable based on fisher skill, gear type, species and depth of capture (Muoneke and Childress, 1994;Cooke and Philipp, 2004;Skomal, 2007;Brownscombe et al., 2014;Brownscombe et al., 2017;Shertzer et al., 2018). ...
... Recreational fishing is a popular activity both globally and especially in Australia (Arlinghaus 2006;Cooke and Cowx 2004a;Henry and Lyle 2003;Lewin et al. 2006) and for many species, the recreational catch exceeds the commercial catch Lyle et al. 2014b;Zischke et al. 2012). One outcome of the last State of the Environment (SOE) report and recent state-wide recreational fishery assessments was the suggestion that components of the Australian recreational fishing sector are moving further offshore in their pursuit of fishing opportunities (Evans et al. 2017). ...
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The role of recreational fishers forming paths (routes of concentrated passage characterised by short vegetation or ground indentation) as they gain access to wilderness waterbodies has not been well documented in Australia. Recreational use for trout and tournament fly fishing has increased in the Central Plateau of Tasmania; therefore, it is important to determine the human contribution to path formation and its potential consequences for biodiversity conservation in this area of high conservation value. We predicted that paths parallel to waterbodies experienced more human traffic than orthogonal paths. Across 36 sites at different distances from roads, a parallel and orthogonal path to lakeshore were sampled using eight, 1 × 1 m quadrats randomly located along each path within a 10 × 10-m plot. Recorded for each quadrat were the path widths, height difference between centre of paths and adjacent vegetation (path depth), vegetation types on and adjacent to paths, Bennetts Wallaby (Notamacropus rufogriseus) and Wombat (Vombatus ursinus) faecal numbers. General linear models indicated that path width was greater on parallel than orthogonal paths and declined with distance from roads. Path depth, however, was not affected by distance from roads but was shallower than orthogonal paths. Separate models used to test the potential effects of edge vegetation type, or the covariates Wallaby and Wombat scats did not have significant effects on-path variables. Paths encircling or orthogonal to Central Plateau lakes appear different floristically to adjacent vegetation communities, nonetheless. Heath and tussock grassland were largely absent from paths, whereas grassland and herbfield communities were infrequently observed off paths. Herbfield and grassland are rarer communities than heath and tussock grassland, which, in the context of a lack of exposure to erosion, suggests a conservation benefit of paths at present usage levels. The human contribution to parallel path conditions is likely to be high, given the results from the study, so monitoring of change is desirable, especially if predicted increasing human activity eventuates in this area.
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Three case studies spanning tropical, subtropical and temperate environments highlight the minimum potential benefits of investing in repair of coastal seascapes. Fisheries, a market benefit indicator readily understood by a range of stakeholders from policymakers to community advocates, were used as a surrogate for ecosystem services generated through seascape habitat restoration. For each case study, while recognising that biological information will always remain imperfect, the prospects for seascape repair are compelling.
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We sought to understand declining recreational fishing participation in Queensland, Australia, by investigating why lapsed fishers ceased fishing and identifying the constraints that prevented them from resuming their fishing participation. The primary reasons for ceasing fishing were lack of time, loss of interest, and poor fishing quality. Most lapsed fishers were able to compensate for loss of fishing activity by increasing participation in other activities; about one-quarter reported a decrease in their overall leisure activity and leisure satisfaction since ceasing fishing. Half of the lapsed fishers surveyed reported an interest in fishing again; however, only 15% believed it was likely they would go fishing in the next 12 months. Most lapsed fishers interested in returning to fishing cited too many commitments, lack of knowledge about fishing regulations, and lack of fishing partners as reasons preventing them from fishing. Demographic characteristics significantly influenced the reasons for ceasing fishing and the perceptions of constraints preventing resumption of fishing activity. Results should help the recreational fishing sector develop strategies to deal with declining recreational fishing participation.
Household fish consumption and non-commercial fishing activities
ABS (1984). Household fish consumption and non-commercial fishing activities, Tasmania. Australian Bureau of Statistics, Hobart.
Home food production of selected food stuffs, Australia, year ended
ABS (1994) Home food production of selected food stuffs, Australia, year ended April 1992. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Cat. No. 7110.1.
Mail surveys of Tasmanian inland water recreational fisheries: preliminary results and sources of error. Pp120-130
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Davies, P.E. (1995) Mail surveys of Tasmanian inland water recreational fisheries: preliminary results and sources of error. Pp120-130. In Hancock, DA (ed.) Recreational fishing: what's the catch? Australian Society for Fish Biology Workshop Proceedings, Canberra 30-31 August 1994. Australian Society for Fish Biology, Canberra.
Tasmanian tuna charter fishery -update, season 1994. Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries
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Evans, B.S. (1995) Tasmanian tuna charter fishery -update, season 1994. Department of Primary Industry and Fisheries, Tasmania.