Conference PaperPDF Available

Cost Analysis of 5th Generation Technology

Authors:

Abstract

In the global telecommunication manufacturing, the wireless telecommunication advertises is recognized as the wildest and the most dynamic growing sections over the past years. However, due to the science's improvement, the modern world started to shrink. Also, the human's technical requirements are enhancing over the time. Meanwhile, the new generations seem to be a merging of the existing technologies into a particular platform. However, as the internet generations started to be adapted and growth over the world and it can be used wherever the people go; so, Mobile access broadband is reality. 5G systems are the hottest topic to many researchers, although 4G systems are being deployed. Now a day, 5G is not being officially used yet by any company or calibration bodies as WiMAX Forum, ITU-R or 3GPP. Our main focus in this paper is to analyze the cost of both 4G and 5G and how the people can feel the progress with 5G but less price than 4G.
Cost Analysis of 5th Generation Technology
Wafa Elmannai and Khaled Elleithy
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
University of Bridgeport
Bridgeport, CT 06604
welmanna@my.bridgeport.edu , elleithy@bridgeport.edu
Abstract
In the global telecommunication manufacturing, the
wireless telecommunication advertises is recognized as the
wildest and the most dynamic growing sections over the
past years. However, due to the science’s improvement, the
modern world started to shrink. Also, the human’s
technical requirements are enhancing over the time.
Meanwhile, the new generations seem to be a merging of
the existing technologies into a particular platform.
However, as the internet generations started to be adapted
and growth over the world and it can be used wherever the
people go; so, Mobile access broadband is reality. 5G
systems are the hottest topic to many researchers, although
4G systems are being deployed. Now a day, 5G is not
being officially used yet by any company or calibration
bodies as WiMAX Forum, ITU-R or 3GPP. Our main
focus in this paper is to analyze the cost of both 4G and 5G
and how the people can feel the progress with 5G but less
price than 4G.
Keywords- 5G, 4G, Wireless, Mobile communication,
Networks, Cost, Marketing.
I. Introduction
When Marconi verified the capability of radio to provide
constant contacts in 1897 in English Channel; that
significantly affected the ability of wireless communication
between the people [1, 2]. Since that time, people have
taken up and developed various wireless communication
methods over the world. The industry of wireless
communication has been remarkably grown over the last
two decades [1]. In addition, the main contributory factors
in this consideration become the miniaturization techniques
such as new large scale incorporation, digital switching
methods, ...etc.
However, as the life changed; we started to not be able to
live without science which makes it much easier and
comfortable as the life requirements are increased.
However, the modern life started to be dense due to the
development of the technologies; as well as the industry of
telecommunications has been changed for the same reason.
Hence, Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 wireless networks), WiMAX
(IEE E 802.16 wireless and mobile networks), 3G mobile
networks (UMTS, cdma2000), LTE (Long Term
Evolution), 4th generation technology and sensor networks
are the most mass deployed mobile and wireless
communication now a day [3]. However, circuit switching
is going to be extinct over the time although some mobile
workstations include diversity of interfaces such as GSM.
Switching systems, radio access, bandwidth, data rates can
differentiate these technologies [4]. The difference can be
noticeable in these techniques {1G, 2G, 2.5G and 3G...
etc}.
5th Generation Mobile Technology (5G technology) is a
packet switched wireless system. It has been created to
cover wide area and high throughput results for on move
communication [3, 4]. Moreover, cell phones that use this
technology can be working within an extreme high
bandwidth. Beam Division Multiple Access (BDMA) and
Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) are used for 5G
technology [5]. In order to provide higher than 1Gbps at
low mobility and greater than 100Mbps at high mobility,
5G technology uses millimeter wireless.
5G technology is considered as the most influential
technology due to its advanced features [3]. However,
these huge set of features in one small device may not
considered as an incredible thing; more features and high
efficiency are provided to the users by 5G technology.
Mobile phone's users can obtain broadband internet
connection of their 5G technology just by hooking their
devices with tables or laptops. In addition, it provides
higher data rates, the optimal Quality of Service (QoS) and
bidirectional enormous bandwidth [6]. All-IP standard is
being used for all mobile and wireless networks, where via
internet protocol all the data is going to be transmitted on
the network layer [7]. To renovate the 100+ years of
inheritance network transportation into a homogeneous and
simplified network with a single general communication
for all services, the All -IP Network (AIPN) is used in 5G
technology [8]. Hence, in order to apply AIPN for
implementing 5G technology, Master Core system is
required. 5 G-IU technologies, All IP Platform, Parallel
Multimode (PMM), Cloud Computing and
Nanotechnology are united by 5G Master Cores. Each one
of these technologies has its own effect on current wireless
and mobile networks which compose them hooked on 5G.
II. Wireless and Mobile Technologies
Progression
In this section, bandwidth, radio access, switching schemes
and data rates are considered for evaluating wireless and
mobile systems from 1G to 4G advanced.
A. First-Generation Technology (1G)
In early of 1980's for voice service, 1G technology was
found. Meanwhile, frequency modulation technique for
radio transmission was used at that time since the most
systems were analog. The capacity of channel was 30 KHz
within frequency division multiple access technique
(FDMA) with 824-894 MHz bandwidth [9]. Advance
Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) was the main provider for
that.
B. Second Generation Technology (2G)
Later in the 1990's, the 2nd generation technique was
emerged. By that time, the transportable communication
systems started to be digital systems; where it is still being
used over parts of the sphere. 2G technology offers two
services which are e-mail and SMS beside the
improvement of voice communication. Code division
multiple access (CDMA) and time division multiple access
(TDMA) are the two digital modulation methods that were
used in this generation [10]; with 850 to 1900 MHz
bandwidth. In addition, eight channels were used per
carrier in GSM technology in this generation. The rate of
gross data is 22.8 kbps where the net rate is 13 kbps during
4.6ms frame and a full rate channel. The tree of this
generation is 2G, 2.5G and 2.75G [11].
C. Third Generation Technology (3G)
High rapidity mobile accesses with Internet Protocol (IP)-
based services were united by services of 3G technology
[3]. Email, wireless web base access, video and multimedia
services were the offered features in 3G technology. In
order to allow all the wireless devices such computer, cell
phones ... etc sharing the same connection within the same
network, the 3G W-CDMA air border set has been
intended wide world [3, 12]. Up to 2Mbps data rate was
offered in this generation within 5MHz channel per carrier,
however, mobility/velocity or efficiency of the spectrum
can decide. Although a high data rate has been offered in
this generation, the averment can have an influence on that
rate.
However, the bandwidth is 1.8 to 2.5 GHz [13]. Data rate
in urban outside is 384 Kbps, 144 kbps in urban outside
and dependency and 2Mbps in interior and low variety
outdoor [14].
D. Fourth Generation Technology (4G)
4G technology is considered the deployment of 3G and 2G
technologies; although the standardizing LTE Advanced is
3GPP which is deemed the 4G's future. The secure and
comprehensive IP based is the accessible feature by 4G
which is able to improve any existing network. The voice,
data and streamed multimedia is offered to users anytime/
anywhere under this solution with higher data rate. QoS is
common requirement by the provided services in 4G
technology. Most the applications were urbanized to be
used in 4G such as video chat, HDTV substance, wireless
broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS)
and Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB).
E. LTE advanced Technology
LTE advanced (LTE release 10) is considered to be the
accurate 4G technology. The previous releases are
integrated as incorporated components of LTE release 10
that offer a more simple backwards compatibility and
sustain of inheritance terminals [15]; where permitted the
major obligation specification for LTE advanced which
are: wider than 70 MHz in DL and 40 MHz in UL for
broadcast bandwidth, data rate of Peak Uplink is 500
Mbps, efficiency downlink of Peak spectrum is 30 bps/Hz
and Uplink is 15 bps/Hz, data rate of Peak Downlink is 1
Gbs, the standard of the throughput is three times superior
than in LTE where at cell edge; it is two times higher, no
difference in mobility, Spectrum efficiency is three times
higher, and exposure is supposed to be used in restricted
areas/micro cell surroundings with up to 1 km Inter Site
Distance.
III. FIFTH GENERATION TECHNOLOGY
(5G) AND THE SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE
5G Technology is a name which was announced to indicate
the significant upcoming step in mobile and wireless
communication after the previous serial 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G,
LTE advanced. However, 5G technology is not deployed
yet and whereas it faces some challenges. According to
many researches, there will be no standard's
implementation for 5G technology before 2020 [16].
5G promises to increase the aptitude to 1,000 fold and
slightest 100 billion devices connected. It provides a low
latency which allows the ability of individual experience to
reach a 10 GB/s. The deployed existing technologies and a
new Radio Access Technology (RAT) have a big influence
on 5G radio access's structure.
The improvement of wireless network (Breakthroughs)
which will be needed in 5G technology, will affect the
growth of the social and economic in varies ways [17].
Zero distance connectivity will be provided by 5G
technologies between connected devices as well as the
people.
2G, 3G, 4G LTE as well as radio interface technologies
(RITs) will be included in the multi-layered 5G
architecture as showing in Figure 1. Digital video
broadcasting (DVB), wireless local access network
(WLAN), mobile satellite system, and wireless personal
access network (WPAN) may be covered with 5G
structure. Small cells such as femto, macro and pico can
cover multi tiers. It would be simple and easy to deploy
and operate such network in order to reduce OPEX and
CAPEX.
Figure1: Architecture of 5G Technology [6]
A. 5G Technology's Key Terms:
5 G technology will enjoy several advanced features
including:
1. It is called "real wireless world" because it is almost free
limitations.
2. HD TV quality for TV programs and it offers
multimedia Newspapers feature.
3. Faster data transmission.
4. It considered as World Wide Wireless Web (wwww).
5. Almost no access limitation.
6. Wearable devices.
7. One incorporated universal standard.
8. IPv6 for assigning IPs based on the position and
connected network [16].
9. With 5G technology, the devices will be connected to
every wireless access equipment at same time
(persistent networks) and faultlessly move among
them [18]. These access technologies can be any one
of previous existing technologies.
10. It provides high elevation stratospheric platform rank
systems.
11. Dynamic radio reserve executive which called
(smartradio) allows sharing the same band by varies
radio technologies that are by finding idle band; then,
adapting the broadcast system based on the current
technologies supplies.
In addition, all doable applications will be provided by 5G
technology within one device. Also, current
communication infrastructures are communicating. Fast
internet will be offered for upgradable software in
downloading services. The main focus in 5G technology
will be the user terminal’s improvement in order to
communicate with multiple wireless technologies
simultaneously. Moreover, the eventual choice among
diverse wireless and mobile access network suppliers will
be made by the terminals.
B. Super Core Architecture:
Figure 2 shows the transformation from existing
classification of a wireless communication network to the
super core classification. It displays also the difference
between them in hierarchy; the common core concept
combines all subscriber traffic in one point where the
existing one is shaped in categorized way (BSC/RNC).
After then the components are channeled to gateways using
flat IP design can allow the traffic to be transmitted from
main station to broadcasting posterns with fewer loads on
the shared point. A public ALL IP platform will be
deployed after the change occurs from bequest ones such
as: ATM and TDM to IPs. IP platform is the main key for
5G super core architecture where all the existing operators
can be combined to one super capable core. That produces
a single infrastructure for wireless networks. All the
GPRS/EDG E 3G WLAN LTE
5G Terminal
Control Server
Real-time
Communicat ion Server
Content
Server
Streaming Server
communicating densities and charges which are considered
as main faced problem by network operators will be
excluded in the new concept. Moreover, Super Core
concept can provide less delay by dropping down the
number of terminals.
GSM/ CDMA Operator
Wimax 16d/e Operat or
Wireline Operator s
ISP Operator
TDM/ IP Core/ Billing Su pport
TDM/ IP Core/ Billing Suppor t
TDM/ IP Core/ Billing Suppor t
TDM/ IP Core/ Billing Suppor t
Content
Provider
Super Core
Billing Suport
Content Provider
LTE/ GSM/ CDMA Operator
Wimax 16d/e Ope rator
Wireline Operator s
ISP Operator
Existing Setup
Common Core Concept
Figure 2: Transformation to Super Core Architecture [1]
C. 5G Mobile Phone Scheme:
Screen Extensio n
Screen Exte nsion
Download new OWA
Download new OTP
Download new application
Mobile Office
VOIP
Sensors
TV
Cameras
EntertaimentMobile Managment
GPS
Radio
5G Mobile
Keyboard
Figure3: Design of 5G mobile phone [16]
The upcoming smart applications such as Multimedia
Messaging Service (MMS), wireless broadband access,
HDTV contented, video dialog, Digital Video Propagation
(DVB) and mobile TV, data and voice services etc are
going to be used in 5G mobile phone design in order to
accommodate the set of rate supplies and Quality of
Services [3, 6]. The expected design of 5G mobile phone is
shown in Figure 3; in other words, VoIP, sensors, TV,
radio, mobile office, cameras, entertainment, mobile
management, GPS are going to be available on your
mobile phone by 2020 with faster internet and higher QoS
[16]. In addition, 5G is defined based on the end user’s
demand to provide seamless interconnection of all wireless
heterogeneous networks with more bits/Hz of bandwidth
and suitable Radio Frequency exposure.
D. Future and Challenges of 5G Technology:
In order to have all the platforms available anytime,
anywhere to be used, we need a technology which can
provide omnipresent computing; that what make 5G
technology as one of the hot topics since 5G is all about
that. Hence, this requires creating a standard of all
engineering practices to touch this improvement. Also,
most of the new bright sensors will have a big effect on our
daily life [1]; whereas we will be able to do such things:
1. One bill will include all the services that you used
despite which system or application you accessed.
2. Your next doctor appointment will be sent as well as
your medication can be send via MMS.
3. You can secure your house by using such connected
cameras with secured internet in order to view it on your
device.
4. You will receive an SMS from your smart care in case
someone tries to theft it.
It can be more than above points with more effort.
However, this future can be achieved if we can surpass the
following challenges:
1. We need one standard that incorporates all engineering
practices; whereas most of their have their own standard.
However, efficient and time consuming technique will be
required for this incorporation.
2. A common structural design for communicating a
variety of engineering practices is required to build a
universal platform to standardize information sharing and
the interconnectivity concerns.
IV. Cost of 5G versus Cost of 4G
Most customers of mobile companies are complaining
about their high bills of data services, although the carriers
keep cutting the price of provided megabyte of data down
by 50 percent each year. It started to be 1 cent to 3cents per
megabyte of data, where it was 46 cents by the end of 2008
[23]. This reduction could not help reducing the
subscribers’ bills due to the increment of average data
consumption frequently. Moving to 5G technology can
solve the problem which will allow the end users to have
all incredible tools with high data services which can reach
to 50 GB per user within one universal device. Also, 5G
can allow the user to download 3D movie on his/her
mobile in six seconds instead of six minutes as 4G does.
That can make a huge difference for the users and higher
efficiency in the service. Table 1 shows the basic
comparison between 4G and 5G technologies over the
most important principles which can be considered.
Technology
4G Technology
5G Technology
Data
Bandwidth
1Gbps and Higher
Frequency
Band
3-300GHz
[20],[21]
Principles
CDMA and
BDMA
Technology
Incorporated IP
and seamless
amalgamation of
broadband,
LAN/WAN/PAN/
WLAN [22] and
tools for 5G new
deployment
Service
Dynamic
information access,
HD streaming ,
wear-able devices;
any request of
users; upcoming
all technologies;
global roaming
efficiently;
Multiple Access
CDMA & BDMA
Core Network
Flatter IP Network
& 5G Network
Interfacing(5G-NI)
Classification
Digital Broadband,
Packet data All IP,
Very high
throughput
Hand off
Horizontal &
Vertical
Start from
2015 or later [19]
Table1: Basic Comparison of 4G and 5G Technologies [3]
In USA, there are two options for data plans either which is
attached to your Smartphone or which can be connected
with several ones (that is separated from your device
subscription). The big mobile network's contributors in
USA are AT&T, Verizon T-mobile and Sprint whereas
each company offers different plans with different rates. It
is remarkable that four of them provide an inexpensive text
and voice messaging packages but various rates on data
management. According to Tristan Louis in his article [24]
end users would end paying on average "$11.19 per
Gigabyte on AT&T, $10.79 on Verizon, $16.72 on Sprint,
and $13.34 on T-mobile;" for 4G LTE technology. Table2
down shows us the actual data plan prices for each
company based on Louis' analysis. Voice and text
massages prices are excluded.
Bandwidth
(Gb)
Actual Data Plans' Prices
AT&T
Verizon
Sprint
T-mobile
.5
$20
1
2
2.5
$30
3
$34.99
4
$30
$30
4.5
$40
6
$40
$40
$49.99
6.5
$50
8
$50
8.5
$60
10
$60
$60
10.5
$70
12
$70
$79.99
Not
Available
14
$80
Not
Available
15
$90
16
$90
18
$100
20
$110
$110
30
$185
$185
40
$260
$260
50
$335
$335
Over
allotted
bandwidth
Extra
$15
per Gb
Extra
$15 per
Gb
Extra
$51.20
per Gb
Not
available
(Moving
to
EDGE)
Table 2: Analysis of 4G LTE Prices for Data Planes[24]
Our main aim in this paper is to discuss and analyze how
can the customer enjoy the features of 5G technology with
less than or similar price to today. In order to achieve that
point and maintain x1000 traffic detonation, the rate per bit
will need to be reduced. Since the basic communication
services of the Internet can be provided freely worldwide
with IMT, the cost of global roaming can be reduced too.
We will need to reduce the bit rate to (1/1000) of today's
level in order to receive x1000 of data capacity with same
cost as today's.
Based on the above assumption, Table3 shows the
estimated prices for 4G LTE per Gigabyte by the time
when 5G would be launched. Although the prices for 5G
will be similar to what we have today but the features
which will be provided by 5G worth more.
Bandwidth
(Gb)
Estimated Prices per Gigabyte for 4G LTE
Compared to 5G
AT&T
Verizon
Sprint
T-mobile
.5
0.06
0.06
0.06998
0.04
1
0.03
0.03
0.03499
0.03
2
0.015
0.015
0.0175
0.015
2.5
0.012
0.012
0.014
0.012
3
0.01
0.01
0.01166
0.01333
4
0.0075
0.0075
0.0125
0.01
4.5
0.00889
0.00889
0.01111
0.00889
6
0.00667
0.00667
0.01
0.0075
6.5
0.00706
0.00706
0.01231
0.00769
8
0.0075
0.00625
0.01
0.0075
8.5
0.00706
0.00706
0.00941
0.00706
10
0.006
0.006
0.008
0.007
10.5
0.00857
0.00667
0.00762
0.00666
12
0.0075
0.00583
0.00667
Not
Available
14
0.00643
0.00571
Not
Available
15
0.006
0.006
16
0.00688
0.00563
18
0.00611
0.00556
20
0.0055
0.0055
30
0.00617
0.00617
40
0.0065
0.0065
50
0.0067
0.0067
Table 3: Analysis of 4G LTE Estimated Prices for Data Planes by the
Time of 5G's Establishment
IV. CONCLUSION
By 2020 or before, the view of the internet services will
totally be changed; starting from the high persistent speed
to the tools that will be provided beside. The connectivity
view is moving from one aspect which realms of P2P
(People to People) or (People to Machine) P2M to
(machine to machine) M2M; where the communications
options are open between those machines. So, you find the
fridge is able to search online on the cooking requirements
for the frozen objects that were removed and notify the
stove with those requirements. In offices, you may find the
equipments are monitoring each other and advice if
anything goes wrong. 3D movie can be downloaded on
your Smartphone in 6 seconds instead of 6 minutes.
All the above incredible technologies can be brought with
5G; however, 5G will be built as multi layered of existing
technologies and deployed ones. This makes its structure
easy and simple to deploy and operate. This technology
can be offered with a similar cost as today's cost if the
mobile companies can reduce the cost of today's level to
1/1000 per bit.
References
[1] Arunabha Debnath, Abhinandan, "Review on NEXT
Generation Technologies of Wireless
Communication," International Journal on Recent and
Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication
ISSN 2321 8169,Volume: 1, Issue: 4.
[2] Marinčić, Aleksandar, Zorica Civrić, and Bratislav
Milovanović. "Nikola Tesla’s contributions to radio
developments." Serbian Journal of Electrical
Engineering3, no. 2 (2006): 131-148.
[3] Saddam Hossain, "5G Wireless Communication
Systems," American Journal of Engineering Research
(AJER), e-ISSN: 2320-0847, p-ISSN: 2320-0936
Volume-02, Issue-10, 2013, pp-344-353.
[4] Dr. Anwar M. Mousa, "Prospective of Fifth Generation
Mobile Communications," International Journal of
Next-Generation Networks (IJNGN) Vol.4, No.3,
September 2012.
[5] Sanskar Jain, Neha Agrawal and Mayank Awasthi, "5G
- The Future of Mobile Wireless Communication
Networks," Advance in Electronic and Electric
Engineering. ISSN 2231-1297, Volume 3, Number 5
(2013), pp. 569-574.
[6] Sapana Singh & Pratap Singh, "Key Concepts and
Network Architecture for 5G Mobile Technology"
International Journal of Scientific Research
Engineering & Technology (IJSRET)Volume 1 Issue
5 pp 165-170 August 2012.
[7] T. Janevski, "Traffic Analysis and Design of Wireless
IP Networks", Artech House Inc., Boston, USA,
2003.
[8] U.S. seeks trials to test transition to digital phone
networks, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://ytd2525.wordpress.com/category/all-ip-
networks/
[9] Chen, YP; Yang, YH (2007), "A new 4G architecture
providing multimode terminals always best connected
services,” IEEE Wireless Communications, Volume:
14 Issue: 2 pp. 36-41.
[10] R.K.Jain, Risal Singh, "Role of Nanotechnology in
future wireless and communication systems”, National
seminar proceeding, Academy of Business &
Engineering Science Ghaziabad, pp-19-28, 16-17th
January 2009.
[11] Vijay K. Garg and Joseph E. Wilkes, “Principles &
Applications of GSM,” Published by Dopling
Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd., licensees of Pearson
Education in South Asia, First Impression, 2006.
[12] Theodore S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications
Principle and Practice,” published by Pearson
Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltd, Second Edition,
Chapter Two.
[13] Dahlman, Erik, Stefan Parkvall, and Johan
Skold. "4G: LTE/LTE-advanced for mobile
broadband". Academic Press, 2013.
[14] Imthiyaz Ali, “5G the Nanocore” March 5, 2011,
accessed August 18, 2014,
http://www.telecoms.com/27148/enter-5g-
%E2%80%93-the-nanocore/
[15] 3GPP TSG RAN TR 36.913 v8.0.0, Requirements for
Further Advancements for E-UTRA (LTE Advanced).
[16] Gohil, Asvin, Hardik Modi, and Shobhit K. Patel. "5G
technology of mobile communication: A survey."
In Intelligent Systems and Signal Processing (ISSP),
2013 International Conference on, pp. 288-292. IEEE,
2013.
[17] 5G: A Technology Vision, HUAWEI
TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD. 2013, accessed August
18, 2014, http://www.huawei.com
[18] M. Bhalla, A. Bhalla, “Generations of Mobile
Wireless Technology: A Survey,” International
Journal of Computer Applications, Volume 5- No.4,
August 2010.
[19] Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ahmed,
Usman M Al, “Future Generations of Mobile
Communication Networks” Academy of
Contemporary Research Journal V II (I), 15-21, ISSN:
2305-865, January 2013.
[20] 4G Wireless Standard, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://www3.nd.edu/~mhaenggi/NET/wireless/4G/#3
G%20Vs%204G%20
[21] Millimeter Waves May Be the Future of 5G Phones,
Ariel Bleicher, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://spectrum.ieee.org/telecom/wireless/millimeter-
waves-may-be-the-future-of-5g-phones
[22] A Survey report on Generations of networks: 1G, 2G,
#G, 4G, 5G, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://www.slideshare.net/noorec786/generations-of-
network-1-g-2g-3g-4g-5g
[23] 5G, PCWorld, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://www.pcworld.com/article/2055880/5g-will-
have-to-do-more-than-send-speed-up-your-phone-
ericsson-says.html
[24] Nexus 5, Forbes, accessed August 18, 2014,
http://www.forbes.com/sites/tristanlouis/2013/09/22/th
e-real-price-of-wireless-data/
... The Second Generation of wireless mobile technology improved on 1G using digital signals to enhance transmission. It was introduced in the early 1990s (Sharma, 2013) with the digital modulation schemes, not only improving voice service, but providing simultaneously text messaging (Nokia, 2014), broadly known as Short Message Service (SMS) and e-mail (Elmannai and Elleithy, 2014). Moreover, 2G enhanced the spectral efficiency and augmented the roaming level of development, allowing the creation of the global system of mobile communication (GSM) standard. ...
... Launched in 2001, 3G networks allowed for higher capacity for voice services in connection with the relatively fast and affordable mobile data services (Nokia, 2014). In other words, e-mail, wireless web base access, video and multimedia services were the flagship features offered by the Third-Generation cellular network technology (Elmannai and Elleithy, 2014). Continuous improvements in spectral efficiency lead to the broader network capacity and the Universal Mobile Telecommunication Service system, which enhanced the old GSM standard. ...
... In other words, the total subscriber base will increase to slightly over 600 million, representing around half the population. 10 While the increased availability of smartphones has already resulted in increased internet access across the socio-economic spectrum globally, there is still substantial heterogeneity across the world in terms of average monthly mobile data consumption (often referred to as average monthly traffic), measured in gigabytes (GB) per person ( Figure 4). For instance, while there are several countries with subscribers' average monthly traffic exceeding 10 GB (Kuwait, 31 GB; Finland, 23 GB; Saudi Arabia 13 GB), there are also economies in which subscribers are consuming on average less than 0.08 GB monthly per capita (Afghanistan, Ukraine, and Bolivia). ...
Article
Digital connectivity, including through the modern cellular network technologies, is expected to play a key role for the Future of Work in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We estimate the cost of introducing a full-scale 4G network by 2025 in SSA and an operable 5G network by 2040. We adapt the costing model of Lombardo (2019) by accounting for the significant demographic transformation and rapid urbanization in SSA. We use the WorldPop and GADM databases and the UN’s medium-variant population projections to project the population densities at the highest level of administrative division for each SSA country in 2025 and 2040. For full 4G connectivity, the required capital and operational costs stands approximately at US$14 billion by 2025 and for 5G connectivity, costs amount to US$57 billion in 2040, conditional on having the 4G in place by 2025. These costs roughly translate to 8.4 percent of annual subscriber income, on a median basis, by 2025 for 4G and 4.9 percent of subscriber income by 2040 for 5G. Having the infrastructure in place is not sufficient to bridge the mobile Digital Divide. In addition, policies are needed to address affordability and knowledge gaps.
... Pricing models for Ultra-dense deployments are presented in [6,7]. Elmannai and Elleithy [8] promises that following the authors' proposals, the cost per bit could remain the same. Analysis on opportunities on Service Level Agreements (SLA), which consist promising financial opportunities for providers and telecommunication operators, have been analyzed in [9,10]. ...
... It is possible that alternate amounts of antennas exist on each side. Usual number of antennas for MIMO scenarios are 4,8,16. ...
... Wireless Networks (2020) 26:[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] ...
Article
Full-text available
High communicational standards have been set for the 5G mobile networks. Therefore, it is of great importance that technological solutions that include all the significant features, such as the high coverage and capacity and low round-trip delays, are adopted for the next generation of mobile networks. Except for their technical efficiency, these technologies should be profitable for providers as well. As a result, the need for limiting the costs spent for the development of these technologies emerges. In this papers, four models two for each one of the two solutions for 5G networks are developed, namely the Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and the Distributed Antenna System. The architectural models assumed for the techno-economic analyses are presented. The mathematical models for both technologies are developed. Experiments are conducted using prices of the Greek market and also Sensitivity Analysis (SA) is used to pinpoint, which cost parameters are the most expensive ones and therefore it is likely that they discourage providers to invest in them. To our knowledge there are not many studies comparing and contrasting these technologies and there is no SA for MIMO. Therefore, it is considered that research for these models is of vital importance for the next generation of mobile communication networks, as they are foundation stonesfor the formation of 5G.
... This makes its structure easy and simple to deploy and operate. 5G can be offered with a similar cost as today's cost if the mobile companies can reduce the cost of today's level to 1/1000 per bit (Elleithy & Elmannai, 2014). ...
Thesis
Governments invest a lot of money in the road network and the automated vehicle will play a role in the future. The research question is: How can the current investments in the road network be made sustainable for the introduction of automated vehicles? The communication between cars and infrastructure will be with WI-FI-P and 5G communication. Traffic signs will disappear but not all traffic signs be removed. The road authority probably will invest less in physical and more in the digital infrastructure. Telecom providers will play a role in the digital infrastructure. Interviews with experts are combined with the literature to study case studies. The first case is about the enforcement. The police should invest in WI-FI-P equipment to communicate with automated vehicles. The second case is the Flemish traffic sign database. To keep it up-to-date there is need of a rapid response team. Intersections will change a lot, there will be need for a small server at each intersection to receive the signals from the vehicles. The fourth case is about governmental asset management. Governments should be responsive against quicker response times for maintenance. Another case is about road works. The role of the traffic centre will play a role in it by communicating directly to the vehicles. Overall, it is important to invest in a central database where different stakeholders can tap in for different purposes. Governments should invest in in-car systems used by WI-FI-P and 5G. It is less useful to invest in roadside systems.
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores future mobile systems with emphasis on re-configurability based on cognitive andsoftware defined radios. 5G (Fifth Generation) network architecture consisting of reconfigurable multitechnologycore and a single fully reconfigurable terminal able to autonomously operate in differentheterogeneous access networks is proposed. The proposed network is enforced by nanotechnology, cloudcomputing and based on All IP Platform. The paper highlights 5G main development challenges andillustrates why there is a need for 5G. It also reviews in brief the evolution of wireless and cellular systemsfocusing on four main key factors: radio access, data rates, bandwidth and switching schemes in additionto change in network architecture. The 3G transitional cellular and wireless systems toward 4G and thetrue 4G IMT-advanced systems are thoroughly presented.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Following research and inventions into the field of polyphase low frequency alternating current system of generation, transmission and utilization, Nikola Tesla, around 1890, entered into a new and unknown field of high frequency currents. After developing new generators capable of producing higher frequency alternating currents, he turned his attention to generating alternating currents by discharging condenser through a coil coupled to another coil – secondary of "Tesla transformer". In the three famous lectures between 1891 and 1893 he presented many new characteristics and possible uses of high frequency currents: for illumination, in medicine, industry and for wireless energy transmis-sion. For wireless energy transmission, in 1891-1892 he developed connection of generator to antenna-ground through tuned Tesla transformer. In 1893 he disclosed the principle of wireless energy transmission system with already explained radio transmitter and receiver tuned to operating frequency of the transmitter. In 1897 Tesla submitted two patents on apparatus and system of electrical energy transmission, issued in 1900. These patents were used in the Supreme Court case brought by the Marconi Wireless Telegraph Company of America against the United States of America, alleging that they have used wireless devices that infringed on Marconi patent of June 28, 1904. After 25 years, the United States Supreme Court on June 21, 1943 invalidated the funda-mental American radio patent of Marconi, as containing nothing which was not already contained in patents granted to Lodge, Tesla and Stone. However, in spite of this and many others who are recognizing Tesla as one of the radio pioneers, inventing basic radio principle of four tuned circuits, Tesla's name is still waiting the fool recognition of his role in the development of radio.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The objective of this paper is comprehensive study related to 5G technology of mobile communication. Existing research work in mobile communication is related to 5G technology. In 5G, researches are related to the development of World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN) and Real Wireless Communication. The most important technologies for 5G technologies are 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN), Ad-hoc Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) and Wireless networks for digital communication. 4G technology will include several standards under a common umbrella, similar to 3G, but with IEEE 802.xx wireless mobile networks integrated from the commencement. The major contribution of this paper is the key provisions of 5G (Fifth Generation) technology of mobile communication, which is seen as consumer oriented. In 5G technology, the mobile consumer has given utmost priority compared to others. 5G Technology stands for 5th Generation Mobile Technology. 5G technology is to make use of mobile phones within very high bandwidth. The consumer never experienced the utmost valued technology as 5G. The 5G technologies include all types of advanced features which make 5G technology most dominant technology in near future.
Book
This book focuses on LTE with full updates including LTE-Advanced (Release-11) to provide a complete picture of the LTE system. Detailed explanations are given for the latest LTE standards for radio interface architecture, the physical layer, access procedures, broadcast, relaying, spectrum and RF characteristics, and system performance. Key technologies presented include multi-carrier transmission, advanced single-carrier transmission, advanced receivers, OFDM, MIMO and adaptive antenna solutions, radio resource management and protocols, and different radio network architectures. Their role and use in the context of mobile broadband access in general is explained, giving both a high-level overview and more detailed step-by-step explanations. This book is a must-have resource for engineers and other professionals in the telecommunications industry, working with cellular or wireless broadband technologies, giving an understanding of how to utilize the new technology in order to stay ahead of the competition. New to this edition: In-depth description of CoMP and enhanced multi-antenna transmission including new reference-signal structures and feedback mechanisms. Detailed description of the support for heterogeneous deployments provided by the latest 3GPP release. Detailed description of new enhanced downlink control-channel structure (EPDDCH). New RF configurations including operation in non-contiguous spectrum, multi-bands base stations and new frequency bands. Overview of 5G as a set of well-integrated radio-access technologies, including support for higher frequency bands and flexible spectrum management, massive antenna configurations, and ultra-dense deployments. Covers a complete update to the latest 3GPP Release-11. Two new chapters on HetNet, covering small cells/heterogeneous deployments, and CoMP, including Inter-site coordination. Overview of current status of LTE release 12 including further enhancements of local-area, CoMP and multi-antenna transmission, Machine-type-communication, Device-to-device communication
Article
In this paper we provide an extensive analysis of voice service in wireless IP networks. Voice traffic is serviced with priority over the rest of the traffic. Hence, we concentrate on the voice traffic in the analysis. We model the packetized voice traffic with Markov Modulated Poisson Process (MMPP), and we propose an analytical framework for its analysis in wireless networks. Also, we created a simulator in Matlab, with capability for QoS analysis in different network scenarios, considering user call intensity, voice-encoding rate, link capacity and buffer sizes. The observed QoS parameters are packet loss and delay. Voice traffic is very sensitive to delay, while some low losses may be tolerated. We present overwhelming QoS analysis of IP telephony traffic at different network setups and give a concept for dimensioning wireless links for IP telephony under given constraints on the QoS parameters.
Article
Wireless communication is the transfer ofinformation over a distance without the use ofenhanced electrical conductors or "wires”. Thedistances involved may be short (a few meters as intelevision remote control) or long (thousands ormillions of kilometers for radio communications).When the context is clear, the term is oftenshortened to "wireless". It encompasses varioustypes of fixed, mobile, and portable two-way radios,cellular telephones, Personal Digital Assistants(PDAs), and wireless networking. In this paper wewill throw light on the evolution and developmentof various generations of mobile wirelesstechnology along with their significance andadvantages of one over the other. In the past fewdecades, mobile wireless technologies haveexperience 4 or 5 generations of technologyrevolution and evolution, namely from 0G to 4G.Current research in mobile wireless technologyconcentrates on advance implementation of 4Gtechnology and 5G technology. Currently 5G termis not officially used. In 5G researches are beingmade on development of World Wide Wireless Web(WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks(DAWN) and Real Wireless World.
Article
In recent years, wireless communication technology has undergone a tremendous change. Various radio access technologies have been deployed all over the world. The 4G mobile system was proposed to integrate all of these radio access technologies into a common network called the open wireless architecture (OWA) platform. As one of the main features of a 4G mobile system, always best connected (ABC) services enable users to choose the best available access networks in a way that best suits their needs. A new architecture capable of supporting ABC service is proposed in this study. There are three parts to the proposed architecture. First, a novel access discovery mechanism that integrates service location protocol and location-based service is presented. Second, a new personalized network selection scheme is put forward. Users can select their personalized "best" network by changing weight factors and constraints in a single objective optimization problem. Third, a seamless handover mechanism based on Mobile IPv6 is proposed. The mechanism supports end-to-end quality of service. Through analysis, this architecture demonstrates that it has benefits not only for network operators, but also for users