Conference Paper

Large Scale Solar Power Plant in Nordic Conditions

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Abstract

Solar power plants have become common during last few years in the middle Europe, especially in Germany. On the other hand, solar power has not grown in the Nordic countries, in spite of Denmark after the favorable net-metering legislation in the year 2011. Finland is one of these countries that has low solar power capacity. Many Nordic countries, such as Finland, have relatively low electricity price that is supposed to cause challenges for the viability of solar power production without legislation or does it? In this paper, the potential for solar power production in Nordic conditions is studied, simulated, and measured. A large scale solar power plant is built to Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT).

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... Interestingly, the panels (each one is 285 Wp) at the 800 kWp plant in Kivikko will be sold for a monthly fee of €4.40 to individual customers, who can then deduct the energy each panel produces from their electricity bill provided they are a customer of that distribution company [11]. Solar irradiation for Finland and other European countries is found in Figure 1 and monthly yields are found in Figure 2 [13]. ...
... Solar power production potential in Europe. From[13]. ...
... Daily solar radiation for 3 cities in Europe. From[13]. ...
Conference Paper
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... Technical potentials utilizing land areas are almost limitless and can be estimated within a range between 675 (north) and 850 (south) kWh/kWp solar electricity generation for Finland from optimally-inclined fixed-tilted systems, 550-850 kWh/kWp for Norway and 675-1000 kWh/kWp for Sweden [83]. Kosonen et al. [86] base their estimations, which are labelled as long-term market potential (2050), on a future 100% renewable energy system, with the constraint of a local power supply (the energy demand has to be satisfied locally within an area of 10,000 km 2 , as proposed by Pleßmann et al. [87]). Other authors consider available south or near-south facing roof areas for their estimations on solar energy potential (e.g., [82,88]). ...
... Household electricity consumption was 35 TWh in 2016 resulting in possible solar electricity generation of 6.7 TWh, 15 TWh and 31 TWh, respectively, considering the different supply rates by Molin et al. (these would need to be adjusted downwards to take into account a national average solar irradiation). Kosonen et al. [86] estimate the Swedish solar PV market potential at 43 GW (37 TWh with average 850 kWh/kWp) by 2050 utilizing 858 km 2 or 0.19% land area. ...
... Solar energy-installed capacity in 2015 (solar PV and solar thermal), solar PV market potential by 2050[86] (installed capacity and estimated solar energy generated). ...
Article
Full-text available
The lands in the northernmost corner of Europe present contradictory aspects in their social and economic development. Urban settlements are relatively few and small-sized, but rich natural resources (minerals, forests, rivers) attract energy-intensive industries. Energy demand is increasing as a result of new investments in mining and industries, while reliable energy supply is threatened by the planned phase out of Swedish nuclear power, the growth of intermittent power supplies and the need to reduce fossil fuel consumption, especially in the Finnish and Norwegian energy sectors. Given these challenges, this paper investigates the potentials of so far unexploited energy resources in the northern counties of Finland, Norway and Sweden by comparing and critically analyzing data from statistic databases, governmental reports, official websites, research projects and academic publications. The criteria for the technical and economic definition of potentials are discussed separately for each resource. It is concluded that, despite the factors that reduce the theoretical potentials, significant sustainable techno-economic potentials exist for most of the resources, providing important insights about the possible strategies to contribute to a positive socio-economic development in the considered regions.
... The targets also include a 20% reduction in GHG emissions compared to 1990 levels, a 20% share of biofuel use in transport and a 20% increase in energy efficiency compared to 2007 levels. The sources of energy consumption are shown in Renewable energy generation in Finland is currently dominated by hydropower (3111 MW e of installed capacity) [28], but wind energy (627 MW e at the end of 2014 [29]) and solar PV (13 MW p at the end of 2013 [30]) are expected to be increased significantly in the years to come. In the case of wind power, a national feed-in tariff has led to high interest in developing wind power projects. ...
... Second, solar PV capacity was defined as 30 GW p for the Basic Scenarios and 35 GW p for Low Biomass scenarios. In a recent study [30], the current market demand for solar PV in Finland was determined to be 24 GW p . However, the authors determined this value based on a current analysis of power demands. ...
... In all scenarios, it is assumed that half of the solar PV capacity would be located on residential or commercial rooftops and the other half in larger, ground-mounted plants. Therefore, the land area requirement for such groundmounted facilities, based on an assumed density of 0.2 km 2 /MW p [30], would be no more than 700 km 2 , or about 0.2% of total Finnish land mass (338,400 km 2 ). ...
... This is not due to the irradiation conditions, but due to a lack of well-adjusted legislation for PV markets and rather low electricity prices. [44] According to calculations of Lappeenranta University of Technology, PV could cover 10% of energy production in Finland by 2050 [46]. Figure 14 shows the energy pay-back period of multicrystalline silicon PV systems in rooftop use, revealing the reasonable period even in the Nordic conditions. ...
... Current status of solar PV markets in the Nordic countries; retrieved from[44]. ...
Technical Report
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... Germany has installed almost 40 GW solar power during the last 7 years starting in practice from zero and the annual installation speed has been over 7 GW during the years 2010-2012 [2]. It has been shown that Finland has almost the same annual solar power production potential as in Germany and solar power is already profitable also in Finland at this moment, if the energy is mainly self-consumed [3]. ...
... In this case, measurements are used, because the data is available for different solar PV plants. Simulations for LUT solar power plant are already carried out and analyzed in [3]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Renewable energy production, such as solar and wind power, require energy storage systems because of their intermittent nature. Hydrogen is potential candidate to store energy, because it has high-energy content capacity also in long term and it is possible to build affordable large-scale energy storages based on hydrogen. This paper studies solar power and water electrolyser cooperation and system designing.
... The laboratory test system consists of a container for hydrogen production manufactured by IRD, and a grid-connected solar PV plant. The solar PV plant used in the test setup is part of the bigger system that is presented in more detail in [8] and [9]. The hydrogen container includes a 5.5 kW PEM electrolyser with additional devices, such as a water purification system, a hydrogen dryer, two 350 l composite cylinders for a storage that are necessary from the operation point of view. ...
Presentation
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... [3]. Solar PV based on [4]. Solar thermal based on [5]. ...
Conference Paper
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... The net annual production in snow rich countries is unlikely to ever reach that found closer to the equatorial region. This, however, does in no way preclude the implementation of BIPV [130,131]. ...
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As building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are becoming increasingly popular, the demand for optimized utilization will be increasing with respect to efficiency, aesthetics and reliability. In cold climate regions, we predict that there will also be a growing focus on how to avoid snow and ice formation on the exterior surfaces of BIPV. During the winter period there is substantially less incident solar radiation. This is also the period when the solar radiation is most needed for heating, lighting and power production purposes. The task to avoid accretion of snow and ice is challenging due to the fact that snow, ice and ambient weather conditions exist in countless variations and combinations. Snowfall, freezing of rain water and condensation of air moisture with subsequent freezing, are examples of aspects that have to be addressed in a satisfactory way. The present study aims to review the cold weather challenges facing BIPV, the strategies for overcoming them and the opportunities that follow from successfully overcoming them.
... The pilot plant was located at the premises of Lappeenranta University of Technology (LUT) in the summer of 2017. The pilot plant consisted of four parts; a 206.5 kW p solar PV power plant [27], a DAC unit, a hydrogen production unit [28], and a two-step synthesis unit. However, the production capacities for H 2 and DAC were lower than the feed requirement of the synthesis unit. ...
Preprint
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This work demonstrates hydrocarbon production directly from water, solar energy, and air-called SOLETAIR. The plant includes direct air capture (DAC) of carbon dioxide, hydrogen production by water electrolysis, and two-step synthesis bench-scale units that operate using grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity. In addition, co-feeding of hydrogen and carbon monoxide from gas bundles are utilized to enable scaling between units. This pilot plant achieved a total operating time of approx. 300 h with a combined production of oil and wax of 6.2 kg per day. The mass and energy balances in integration of the units are studied. According to the experiments and studies, potential and bottlenecks to improve the individual units and their integration are found. Finally, a conceptual Power-to-X plant is presented, which can achieve energy and carbon efficiencies of 47% and 94%, respectively , considering liquid and solid hydrocarbons as products.
... From the point of view of solar energy generation, a common misconception is that only the lower latitudes receive sufficient solar radiation for useful solar energy generation. Yet, during the summer in the Nordic countries, the long hours of sunlight yield considerable amounts of energy [15]. Combined with the high degree of development and increasing interest for solar energy generation in the region, we find that a dedicated study mapping the strengths and weaknesses of satellite-based irradiance estimates over the Nordic countries is called for. ...
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... The laboratory test system consists of a container for hydrogen production manufactured by IRD, and a grid-connected solar PV plant. The solar PV plant used in the test setup is part of the bigger system that is presented in more detail in [8] and [9]. The hydrogen container includes a 5.5 kW PEM electrolyser with additional devices, such as a water purification system, a hydrogen dryer, two 350 l composite cylinders for a storage that are necessary from the operation point of view. ...
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Solar and wind power have intermittent nature. In order to guarantee continuous power supply, they need to be accompanied with energy storage systems or bridges between different energy sectors. Hydrogen is a potential candidate for both applications (an energy storage system and bridging technology). Hence, it is interesting to study the practical dynamic properties and limitations of electrolysers in the viewpoint of renewable energy production. This paper studies optimization strategies of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyser together with a solar photovoltaic (PV) system.
... Typically, irradiation decreases at higher latitudes, but local weather conditions, such as cloudiness also play a significant role. The annual received irradiation in southern Finland is close to the respective values in Germany and the UK [19,20], whereas Norway receives 1000-1200 kWh/m 2 per year [21] which is comparable to many places in Germany. Regarding that the use of solar energy focuses on summertime, it should be noted that although the electricity demand peaks at winter due to extensive heating needs, the electricity price in the Nord Pool spot market is high also during summer due to e.g. ...
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Bifacial photovoltaics (BPV) is a rapidly growing technology that can improve electricity production by utilizing light irradiation from both sides of the panel. A vertical east-west mounting of BPV provides two production peaks, one in the morning and one in the evening, instead of one prominent peak at noon. The vertical mounting of BPV leads to a closer match with typical load profiles and improves the self-consumption of BPV production for household and neighborhood systems. Improving the self-consumption of small-scale PV systems is vital because it increases economic profitability and reduces the requirements for grid interaction. At high latitudes, vertical BPV can be especially beneficial, as the low average solar altitude angle enables the vertical surfaces to efficiently collect irradiation for many hours. This review investigates current state-of-the-art BPV based on modelling and experimental perspectives as well as integrating PV with power grids at different levels. The suitability of BPV in electricity production, its integration to the built environment and landscape and the barriers impeding its implementation are discussed for high latitude conditions. BPV has potential and its application has grown significantly over recent years. However, many key questions have failed to address areas such as the quantitative economic benefits of vertically mounted BPV in terms of the levelized cost of electricity.
... Background information of Finland and Finnish electricity distribution is presented in Table I. [5], [6] Consumption and generation curves in the Finnish electricity system are presented in Fig 2.Strong dependence of consumption on wintertime low temperatures, electric heating can be seen. 1.2 Main steps of the study The target of the study is to illustrate the limits and possibilities for the large-scale solar PV integration [7],[8] in Finland from the electricity distribution infrastructure perspective. The study utilizes a nationwide database of buildings and roof surface areas, a case specific network data from actual distribution areas and nationwide statistics of distribution system operators. ...
Conference Paper
In a large-scale integration of distributed generation (DG), a hosting capacity reflects the technical limit for the adaption. Hosting capacity depends strongly on the existing electricity infrastructure and a profile of electricity demand of end-customers. Hosting capacity and economic feasibility of large-scale integration of PV relate strongly to each other. The target of the study is to illustrate what are the limits and possibilities for the large-scale solar PV integration in Finland from the electricity distribution infrastructure perspective. The study utilizes a nationwide database of buildings and roof surface areas, a case specific network data from actual distribution areas and nationwide statistics of distribution system operators. Hourly-based load and generation data are used considering geographical location and point of compass of individual buildings. The study shows that there is significant residential rooftop solar PV capacity available according to the building and electricity infrastructure information. The main outcome is that implementing this amount of solar PV in residential level does not bring significant challenges for electricity distribution system.
... The world's average price is multiplied by a factor quoting the ratio of countries' prices for each of these groups. The ratio is based on experience and statements of several countries' experts that have been contacted [7][8][9][10][11]. This has been validated in previous publications [12][13][14][15]. ...
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The installed capacity of photovoltaics (PV) is rising steadily. Most PV is installed in highly electrified countries as on-grid systems. Further, there are reams of small off-grid systems in rural areas of developing countries. Due to this, reliable installation rates for PV are available only for a small number of countries. For the end of 2014 SolarPower Europe reports 178,391 MWp of globally installed PV capacity, giving clear national specific data for 21 countries. IEA PVPS gives a number of 176,965 MWp installed by providing detailed data for 34 countries, 24 of which coming from official sources in IEA PVPS member countries. This paper gives an overview of installed PV for all countries in the world, predicated based on the examination of publically accessible data. Furthermore, an analysis of the development of cumulative PV capacities in recent years is given. Resulting from this evaluation, PV installations are localized in 190 countries, representing 177,600 MWp.
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The installed capacity of photovoltaic (PV) is rising steadily. Most PV is installed in highly electrified countries as on-grid systems. Further there are reams of small off-grid systems in rural areas of developing countries. Due to this, reliable installation rates for PV are available only for a small number of countries. For the end of 2012 EPIA reports 102,156 MWp of installed PV capacity giving data for 50 countries, whereas 2,098 MWp are not allocatable to specific countries. IEA-PVPS provides data for 89,500 MWp installed in 23 countries. This Paper gives an overview on installed PV for all countries in the world, being predicated on the examination of public accessible data. Furthermore, an analysis on development of cumulative PV capacities in recent years is given. Resulting from this evaluation, PV installations are localized in 190 countries claiming 98,988 MWp.
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Grid-parity is a very important milestone for further photovoltaic (PV) diffusion. A grid-parity model is presented, which is based on levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) coupled with the experience curve approach. Relevant assumptions for the model are given, and its key driving forces are discussed in detail. Results of the analysis are shown for more than 150 countries and a total of 305 market segments all over the world, representing 98.0% of world population and 99.7% of global gross domestic product. High PV industry growth rates enable a fast reduction of LCOE. Depletion of fossil fuel resources and climate change mitigation forces societies to internalize these effects and pave the way for sustainable energy technologies. First grid-parity events occur right now. The 2010s are characterized by ongoing grid-parity events throughout the most regions in the world, reaching an addressable market of about 75–90% of total global electricity market. In consequence, new political frameworks for maximizing social benefits will be required. In parallel, PV industry tackle its next milestone, fuel-parity. In conclusion, PV is on the pathway to become a highly competitive energy technology.
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Renewable sources of energy are anticipated to play a major role in electricity generation in Ireland in the future. Currently, electricity is mainly generated from imported gas and coal due to a lack of indigenous fossil fuel resources in Ireland. Solar energy is omnipresent, freely available and environmental friendly. The utilisation of solar energy to produce electricity has become increasingly attractive worldwide. However, solar electricity generation has not been very popular in Ireland to-date either on a large scale or on a domestic scale. The unclear economics of domestic solar PV systems, under Irish conditions, is considered the biggest obstacle for expanding domestic solar PV system installation in Ireland. This paper presents a methodology to accurately evaluate the economic viability of a domestic solar PV system on a case-by-case basis. The methodology utilises the software programmes HOMER and Microsoft Excel 2007 for the energy and economic analyses. Utilising this methodology, a realistic economic analysis of eight sample domestic solar PV systems available in Ireland is presented. Based on the predictions, the domestic solar PV system is not economically viable under current conditions in Ireland. Domestic solar PV systems still do not look promising even if better financial support is given.
Study on the profitability of commercial self-consumption solar installations in Germany
  • S Willborn
  • A Hesse
  • A Balser
  • A Luh
S. Willborn, A. Hesse, A. Balser, and A. Luh, "Study on the profitability of commercial self-consumption solar installations in Germany," REC Solar Germany GmbH, Munich, Germany, available at www.recgroup.com, Accessed on May 2014.
Solar radiation and photovoltaic electricity potential country and regional maps for Europe
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T. Huld and I. Pinedo-Pascua, "Solar radiation and photovoltaic electricity potential country and regional maps for Europe," European Union, Joint Research Centre, available at http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/cmaps/eur.htm, Accessed on May 2014.
Global market outlook -For photovoltaics
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Trends 2013 in photovoltaic applications – Survey report of selected IEA countries between Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme of the Int
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Electricity prices for domestic consumers, from 2007 onwards -bi-annual data
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EC Eurostat, "Electricity prices for domestic consumers, from 2007 onwards -bi-annual data", European Commission, Luxembourg, available at http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/submitViewTableAction.do, Accessed on May 2014.
Current status and future potential of back-contact (BC) module technology
  • H Wirth
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H. Wirth and U. Eitner, "Current status and future potential of back-contact (BC) module technology," Photovoltaics Int. 14th ed., 122-127, 2012.
Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme of the Int. Energy Agency, 2013, available at www.iea-pvps.org
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IEA-PVPS, "Trends 2013 in photovoltaic applications -Survey report of selected IEA countries between 1992 and 2012," Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme of the Int. Energy Agency, 2013, available at www.iea-pvps.org, Accessed on May 2014.