ArticleLiterature Review

The influence of Mediterranean, carbohydrate and high protein diets on gut microbiota composition in the treatment of obesity and associated inflammatory state

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Abstract

The role of the gut microbiota in understanding the onset and development of obesity is gaining importance. Dietary strategies are the main tool employed to counteract obesity, and nowadays they are focused on a wide range of different aspects of diet and not only on calorie restriction. Additionally, diet is known to be a major factor influencing modification of the gut microbiota. Therefore the influence of both macronutrient and micronutrient content of any dietary strategy to treat obesity on gut bacterial composition should now be taken into consideration, in addition to energy restriction. This review aims to collect the available data regarding the influence of different dietary components on gut microbiota in relation to obesity and inflammatory states in humans. Although more work is needed, specific dietary factors (carbohydrate, protein and Mediterranean foods) have been shown to have an influence on the gut microbiome composition, meaning that there is an opportunity to prevent and treat obesity based on microbiota outcomes.

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... 22,23 Diet in conjunction with other factors such as host genetics, age, sex and medication use, influences the structure and function of the gut microbiota. 22,[24][25][26][27] Although there is emerging evidence that overall diet quality 28,29 and individual macronutrients and micronutrients of diet have a role in influencing the gut microbiota composition, 24,30 the particular influence of dairy consumption on the gut microbiota composition is yet unclear. ...
... 22,23 Diet in conjunction with other factors such as host genetics, age, sex and medication use, influences the structure and function of the gut microbiota. 22,[24][25][26][27] Although there is emerging evidence that overall diet quality 28,29 and individual macronutrients and micronutrients of diet have a role in influencing the gut microbiota composition, 24,30 the particular influence of dairy consumption on the gut microbiota composition is yet unclear. ...
... healthy, obese or overweight, inflammatory bowel disease) and geographical location differently influence the gut microbiota composition. 22,[24][25][26][27] The RCTs that were included in evidence synthesis were conducted in different geographical regions and on different populations (i.e. diseased and healthy), which may have also affected the gut microbiota outcomes. ...
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The effects of dairy and dairy-derived products on the human gut microbiota remains understudied. A systematic literature search was conducted using Medline, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, and PubMed databases with the aim of collating evidence on the intakes of all types of dairy and their effects on the gut microbiota in adults. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool.The search resulted in 6,592 studies, of which eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met pre-determined eligibility criteria for inclusion, consisting of a total of 468 participants. Seven studies assessed the effect of type of dairy (milk, yogurt, and kefir) and dairy derivatives (whey and casein) on the gut microbiota, and one study assessed the effect of the quantity of dairy (high dairy vs low dairy). Three studies showed that dairy types consumed (milk, yogurt, and kefir) increased the abundance of beneficial genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. One study showed that yogurt reduced the abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, a pathogenic strain. Whey and casein isolates and the quantity of dairy consumed did not prompt changes to the gut microbiota composition. All but one study reported no changes to bacterial diversity in response to dairy interventions and one study reported reduction in bacterial diversity in response to milk intake.In conclusion, the results of this review suggest that dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and kefir may modulate the gut microbiota composition in favor to the host. However, the broader health implications of these findings remain unclear and warrant further studies.
... Una equilibrada composición de la microbiota intestinal le confiere beneficios al huésped, mientras que los desequilibrios en la composición de la microbiota se asocian con trastornos metabólicos (obesidad y diabetes) e inmunológicos y sobre todo en la regulación del peso corporal. (Queipo-Ortuno et al., 2012;Lopez-Legarrea et al., 2014) 2.-COMPOSICIÓN DE LA MICROBIOTA INTESTINAL Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA OBESIDAD. ...
... Los SCFA son metabolitos que en la mayoría de los casos son absorbidos a través de la pared intestinal y son una fuente adicional de energía directa. (Lopez-Legarrea, et al., 2014;Tan & O'Toole, 2015). Los cambios en la composición de la microbiota están relacionados directamente con el tipo y cantidad de carbohidratos dietéticos ingeridos por el individuo, sobre todo en personas obesas. ...
... Los cambios en la composición de la microbiota están relacionados directamente con el tipo y cantidad de carbohidratos dietéticos ingeridos por el individuo, sobre todo en personas obesas. Por ejemplo, Las Bifidobacteria y algunos subgrupos de Clostridium (Roseburia and Eubacterium rectale), mostraron una reducción significativa con la ingesta reducida o limitada de carbohidratos, el cual, se correlacionó fuertemente con la reducción en los niveles de butirato en las heces (Lopez-Legarrea, et al., 2014). ...
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Today, the gastrointestinal microbiota has been transformed into a dynamic research topic to elucidate its relationship with diet and metabolic health of the host. In recent years it has been recognized that the intestinal microbiota presents a close interaction in the regulation of human immune homeostasis and metabolism, leading to new opportunities for the prevention of obesity and associated metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, to generate strategies in the treatment of metabolic diseases and especially in clarifying the prevalence of obesity. Recent research has established elements that allow establishing the intestinal microbiota as a mediator on the impact of diet, metabolic status and body weight of the host. The mechanisms allowing a relationship of the intestinal microbiota with obesity are generated by combining models with experimental animals and clinical trials. The fundamental challenge of the subject is the ability to establish the causality of the relationship between nutrition, microbiota and the health of the host, as well as the factors that influence the changes in the individual's body weight.
... A WD causes a dysbiosis that reduces mucosal barrier function, resulting in higher plasma LPS levels that aggravate the chronic inflammation associated with obesity [15,16]. Some studies have highlighted a potential beneficial effect of carbohydrates on the gut microbiota [17][18][19][20]. Additionally, switching from a WD to a high-carbohydrate diet ameliorates gut microbiota composition and decreases diet-induced inflammation [18]. ...
... Some studies have highlighted a potential beneficial effect of carbohydrates on the gut microbiota [17][18][19][20]. Additionally, switching from a WD to a high-carbohydrate diet ameliorates gut microbiota composition and decreases diet-induced inflammation [18]. However, no distinction has been made between different carbohydrate types. ...
... In accordance with the existing literature, we confirmed that a WD decreased intestinal integrity and that a carbohydrate-rich diet ameliorates intestinal integrity [18]. Furthermore, Saa3 expression was lower in colon tissue of WD-fed mice than in that of mice fed with a carbohydrate-rich diet. ...
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Introduction: The biggest risk factor for obesity and its associated comorbidities is a Western diet. This Western diet induces adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, which causes an AT dysfunction. Since AT is a vital endocrine organ, its dysfunction damages other organs, thus inducing a state of chronic inflammation and causing various comorbidities. Even though it is evident a Western diet, high in fat and carbohydrates, induces obesity and its complications, it is not known yet which macronutrient plays the most important role. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of macronutrient composition on obesity and to reverse the Western diet-induced metabolic risk via caloric restriction (CR) or a change of diet composition. Materials and methods: Male, C57BL/6JRj mice were fed with a diet high in fat, sucrose, fructose, sucrose and fructose, starch, a Western diet, or a control diet for 15 weeks. To assess reversibility of the metabolic risk, mice were first made obese via 15 weeks of WD and then put on either a CR or switched to a sucrose-rich diet. Results: A sucrose-rich and high-starch diet induced less obesity and a better metabolic profile than a Western diet, evidenced by less hepatic steatosis, lower plasma cholesterol, and less insulin resistance. Furthermore, these diets induced less intra-abdominal AT inflammation than a Western diet, since mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory markers were lower and there was less macrophage infiltration. Expression of tight junction markers in colon tissue was higher in the sucrose-rich and high-starch group than the Western group, indicating a better intestinal integrity upon sucrose-rich and high-starch feeding. Additionally, CR induced weight loss and decreased both metabolic abnormalities and AT inflammation, regardless of macronutrient composition. However, effects were more pronounced upon CR with sucrose-rich or high-starch diet. Even without CR, switching obese mice to a sucrose-rich diet induced weight loss and decreased AT inflammation and metabolic aberrations. Discussion: A diet high in sucrose or starch induces less obesity and obesity-associated complications. Moreover, switching obese mice to a sucrose-rich diet elicits weight loss and decreases obesity-induced metabolic complications, highlighting the potential of carbohydrates to treat obesity.
... The gut microbiota is estimated to contain trillions of microorganisms, with more than 100 bacterial species, which are mainly divided into six phylums: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Fusobacteria. Among them, the Firmicutes (such as Clostridium, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, and Ruminococcus) represent up to 60% of the gut microbiota, and the Bacteroidetes (such as Bacteroides and Prevotella) represent up to 15%, while other species own a smaller proportion [2][3][4]. On one hand, gut microbiota are changing with human development and are influenced by dietary habits, health status, drugs, and so on [5][6][7]. On the other hand, gut microbiota can affect carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism, and thus influence several metabolic diseases, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), gout, vitamin deficiency, and atherosclerosis [1,[8][9][10]. ...
... Carbohydrates have become one of the most studied dietary components associated with gut microbiota modifications. Alterations in dietary carbohydrates have important effects on the composition and function of gut microbiota [3,33]. In one dietary intervention study, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for 24 weeks increased both faecal Bacteroides and Bifidobacteria, which have both been related to improved body energy regulation and reduced risk factors for obesity and metabolic syndrome [34]. ...
Article
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Gut microbiota play an important role in maintaining intestinal health and are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Recent studies have shown that the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) can interact with gut microbiota to regulate nutrient metabolism. The vagal nerve system communicates between the CNS and ENS to control gastrointestinal tract functions and feeding behavior. Vagal afferent neurons also express receptors for gut peptides that are secreted from enteroendocrine cells (EECs), such as cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, leptin, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin). Gut microbiota can regulate levels of these gut peptides to influence the vagal afferent pathway and thus regulate intestinal metabolism via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. In addition, bile acids, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), and Immunoglobulin A (IgA) can also exert metabolic control through the microbiota-gut-liver axis. This review is mainly focused on the role of gut microbiota in neuroendocrine regulation of nutrient metabolism via the microbiota-gut-brain-liver axis.
... Research at the cellular level of the Mediterranean diet indicates that it is rich in fibers, mono-saturated fatty acids (MUFA) and poly-saturated acids (PUFA), probiotics, low glycemic foods, vitamins, and antioxidants. This specific content positively affects lipid profile, obesity, and the associated inflammatory state [22,64,65]. The Mediterranean nutritional profile is efficient for prevention and glycemic control of type 2 diabetes [49,51,66,67]. ...
... The MUFA improve the postprandial lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin resistant subjects [69]. The Mediterranean diet also improves gut immune function, and reduces gut leakiness and endotoxemia [63,64]. ...
Article
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For the past 80 years, the effect of the Mediterranean diet on overall health has been a constant topic of interest among medical and scientific researchers. Parallel with the persistent global rise of cases of type 2 diabetes, many studies conducted in the past 20 years have shown the benefits of the Mediterranean lifestyle for people with, or at risk of developing, type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, despite the large body of evidence, concerns exist amongst scientists regarding the reliability of the data related to this topic. This review offers a glimpse of the onset of the Mediterranean diet and follows its significant impact on the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. There is a constant rise in type 2 diabetes cases on the Balkan Peninsula and North Macedonia in particular. Having in mind that North Macedonia, as well as most of the countries on the Balkans have low to middle income, there is a need for a certain affordable dietary pattern to ameliorate the rise in diabetes incidence, as well as improve the glycemic control. We did a review based on the available literature regarding Mediterranean diet and people with or at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus, its effects on glycemic control, lipid profile and metabolic outcome.
... The gut microbiota also determines how different key nutrients and bioactive molecules, such as bile acids, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), exert their signaling actions [27,28]. Some data suggest that MD, or some of its bioactive ingredients, can positively modulate gut microbiota by influencing its composition [29][30][31][32][33], increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus, and decreasing the amount of Clostridium and Bacteroides [30]. In a pilot study, the adherence to a Mediterranean-inspired anti-inflammatory diet slightly normalized the gut microbiota in individuals with Crohn's disease [31]. ...
... The gut microbiota also determines how different key nutrients and bioactive molecules, such as bile acids, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), exert their signaling actions [27,28]. Some data suggest that MD, or some of its bioactive ingredients, can positively modulate gut microbiota by influencing its composition [29][30][31][32][33], increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Prevotella, Bifidobacteria, and Enterococcus, and decreasing the amount of Clostridium and Bacteroides [30]. In a pilot study, the adherence to a Mediterranean-inspired anti-inflammatory diet slightly normalized the gut microbiota in individuals with Crohn's disease [31]. ...
Article
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Youth obesity is a strong predictor of adult obesity, which has well-known negative health consequences. Thus, addressing adult obesity requires tackling youth obesity. MED4Youth's main objective is to strengthen the link between the Mediterranean Diet (MD) and the health benefits against youth obesity and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, identifying positive effects exerted by an MD including sourdough bread and healthy products from the Mediterranean basis (chickpeas/hummus, nuts, and pomegranate juice). For this purpose, a multicenter randomized controlled trial in which an MD-based intervention will be compared to a traditional low-fat diet intervention will be carried out with 240 overweight and obese adolescents (13-17 years) from Spain, Portugal, and Italy. Both interventions will be combined with an educational web-application addressed to engage the adolescents through a learning-through-playing approach, using both educational materials and games. To assess the interventions, adherence to the MD, dietary records, physical activity, food frequency, sociodemographic, and quality of life questionnaires as well as classical anthropometric and biochemical parameters will be evaluated. Furthermore, an omics approach will be performed to elucidate whether the interventions can shape the gut microbiota and gut-derived metabolites to gain knowledge on the mechanisms through which the MD can exert its beneficial effects.
... Many diets emphasize the utility of a specific macronutrient (e.g., high-protein or low-fat) or the avoidance of a specific ingredient (e.g., dairy-or gluten-free). Several well-known diets have been studied for their ability to modulate intestinal microbiota, including WD (high animal fat/protein) (115)(116)(117), Mediterranean (MD) (high-fiber, high-monounsaturated fat, antioxidant-rich, and low in red meat) (118)(119)(120), vegetarian, vegan, and gluten-free (121)(122)(123)(124)(125). ...
... The MD, largely acknowledged as a healthier diet than the WD, is characterized by intake of a beneficial fatty acid profile rich in mono-and polyunsaturated fatty acids, nondigestible fibrous plant sources and other low glycemic carbohydrates, and high levels of polyphenols, along with other antioxidants and micronutrients (119). Several studies have identified that a typical MD carries a lower risk of obesity, results in a better lipid profile, and lowers inflammation. ...
Article
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The study of the intestinal or gut microbiome is a newer field that is rapidly gaining attention. Bidirectional communication between gut microbes and the host can impact numerous biological systems regulating immunity and metabolism to either promote or negatively impact the host’s health. Habitual routines, dietary choices, socioeconomic status, education, host genetics, medical care and environmental factors can all contribute to the composition of an individual’s microbiome. A key environmental factor that may cause negative outcomes is the consumption of nicotine products. The effects of nicotine on the host can be exacerbated by poor dietary choices and together can impact the composition of the gut microbiota to promote the development of metabolic disease including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. This review explores the contribution of nicotine, poor dietary choices and other unhealthy lifestyle factors to gut dysbiosis.
... A diet rich in carbohydrates increases Bacteroidetes amount. High fiber intake elevates Bacteroidetes levels and lowers Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio [59,60] and Bacteroides (not to be confused with Bacteroidetes) levels [41]. Contradicting data was found regarding fiber's influence on Actinobacteria levels [41,59,60]. ...
... High fiber intake elevates Bacteroidetes levels and lowers Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio [59,60] and Bacteroides (not to be confused with Bacteroidetes) levels [41]. Contradicting data was found regarding fiber's influence on Actinobacteria levels [41,59,60]. ...
Article
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The immune system plays a key role in cancer suppression. Immunotherapy is widely used as a treatment method in patients with various types of cancer. Immune checkpoint blockade using antibodies, such as anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and anti-CTLA-4, is currently gaining popularity. A systematic literature search was executed, and all available data was summarized. This review shows that specific dietary patterns (such as, e.g., animal-based, vegetarian, or Mediterranean diet) alter the gut microbiome’s composition. An appropriate intestinal microbiota structure might modulate the function of human immune system, which affects the bodily anti-cancer response. This paper shows also that specific bacteria species inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract can have a beneficial influence on the efficacy of immunotherapy. Antibiotics weaken gut bacteria and worsen the immune checkpoint blockers’ efficacy, whereas a faecal microbiota transplant or probiotics supplementation may help restore bacterial balance in the intestine. Other factors (like vitamins, glucose, or BMI) change the cancer treatment response, as well. This review demonstrates that there is a strong association between one’s diet, gut microbiome composition, and the outcome of immunotherapy. However, further investigation on this subject is required.
... The benefits of using WP in clinical practice are very well described in the literature, such as effects on immunomodulation, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity among others (Vasconcelos et al. 2018). However, there are not many studies investigating the safety and potential adverse effects of a diet with indiscriminate use of these protein supplements (Wong et al. 2011;Lopez-Legarrea et al. 2014). Some studies have already shown that the exacerbated use of WP may be detrimental to health in the long term (Wakefield et al. 2011;Gurgen et al. ...
... It is known that the diet has a direct influence on the intestinal microbiota modification, both positively and negatively (Lopez-Legarrea et al. 2014). Physical activity can also modify the microbiota by changing intestinal transit as well as promoting the growth of some beneficial bacteria (Bressa et al. 2017). ...
Article
Whey protein comprises soluble whey proteins and its benefits are well described in the literature. However, there are not many studies investigating the potential adverse effect of a diet with indiscriminate use of this supplement. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of papers that addressed this theme. A search was conducted in Medline, LILACS, TOXNET, Web of science, and Scopus electronic databases. In the end, 11 documents comprised this review. The majority of the papers associated the damaging effect with the chronic and abusive use of whey protein, with the kidneys and liver being the main organs affected. The other studies related whey protein to aggravation of aggression, presence of acne, and modification of the microbiota. Therefore, excessive consumption over a long period of protein supplementation may have some adverse effects on the body, which is aggravated when associated with sedentary lifestyle. PROSPERO registration no.: CRD42020140466. Novelty: A systematic review of experimental and randomized studies about the use of whey proteins supplements and its impact on physical health. Analysis revealed that chronic and without professional guidance use of whey protein supplementation may cause some adverse effects specially on kidney and liver function. Presented data support a need for future studies co-relating the use of different types of whey protein with and without exercise to better see the impact on human physical health.
... The indices AHEI and MMDS (related to quality of diet and adherence to Mediterranean diet, respectively) were negatively associated with intestinal Lactobacillus levels. Increased Lactobacillus levels have been correlated with a higher PUFA/SFA ratio intake, probably mediated by changes in bile acid secretion and composition [23,63,64]. Extra virgin olive oil is an important component of Mediterranean diet and is a source of unsaturated fatty acids that can be metabolized by some intestinal Lactobacillus species [65][66][67]. ...
Article
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During the last decades the gut microbiota has been identified as a key mediator in the diet-health interaction. However, our understanding on the impact of general diet upon microbiota is still limited. Dietary indices represent an essential approach for addressing the link between diet and health from a holistic point of view. Our aim was to test the predictive potential of seven dietary ratings on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and on the composition and metabolic activity of the intestinal microbiota. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on a sample of 73 subjects aged >50 years with non-declared pathologies. Dietary inflammatory index (DII), Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Index (EDII), Healthy Eating Index (HEI), Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Mediterranean adapted Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), Modified Mediterranean Diet Score (MMDS) and relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED) were calculated based on a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Major phylogenetic types of the intestinal microbiota were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by gas chromatography. While DII, HEI, DQI-I and MMDS were identified as predictors of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii levels, AHEI and MMDS were negatively associated with Lactobacillus group. HEI, AHEI and MMDS were positively associated with fecal SCFAs. In addition, DII and EDII explained lipoperoxidation level and Mediterranean scores the serum IL-8 concentrations. The lower detection of IL-8 in individuals with higher scores on Mediterranean indices may be partially explained by the increased levels of the anti-inflammatory bacterium F. prausnitzii in such individuals.
... Factors that affect microbiota composition often have a strong effect and produce changes in composition that can be detected at the phylum level. For example, dietary changes (27,28) and colonization with diverse microbes (e.g., Cryptosporidium parvum [29], Vibrio parahaemolyticus [30], and Klebsiella pneumoniae [31]) produce phylumlevel changes. In contrast, the compositions of uncolonized and C. albicans-colonized mice under the conditions of our experiments showed minimal differences at the phylum level (Fig. S2A), with some differences detected at the genus level (Fig. S2B). ...
Article
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The mammalian gut microbiota is a complex community of microorganisms which typically exhibits remarkable stability. As the gut microbiota has been shown to affect many aspects of host health, the molecular keys to developing and maintaining a “healthy” gut microbiota are highly sought after. Yet, the qualities that define a microbiota as healthy remain elusive. We used the ability to resist change in response to antibiotic disruption, a quality we refer to as ecological resistance, as a metric for the health of the bacterial microbiota. Using a mouse model, we found that colonization with the commensal fungus Candida albicans decreased the ecological resistance of the bacterial microbiota in response to the antibiotic clindamycin such that increased microbiota disruption was observed in C. albicans - colonized mice compared to that in uncolonized mice. C. albicans colonization resulted in decreased alpha diversity and small changes in abundance of bacterial genera prior to clindamycin challenge. Strikingly, co-occurrence network analysis demonstrated that C. albicans colonization resulted in sweeping changes to the co-occurrence network structure, including decreased modularity and centrality and increased density. Thus, C. albicans colonization resulted in changes to the bacterial microbiota community and reduced its ecological resistance. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is the most common fungal member of the human gut microbiota, yet its ability to interact with and affect the bacterial gut microbiota is largely uncharacterized. Previous reports showed limited changes in microbiota composition as defined by bacterial species abundance as a consequence of C. albicans colonization. We also observed only a few bacterial genera that were significantly altered in abundance in C. albicans -colonized mice; however, C. albicans colonization significantly changed the structure of the bacterial microbiota co-occurrence network. Additionally, C. albicans colonization changed the response of the bacterial microbiota ecosystem to a clinically relevant perturbation, challenge with the antibiotic clindamycin.
... Intriguingly in recent years, some studies have correlated the gut microbiota to CVD [51], representing a realistic therapeutic target [52]. The microbiome is clearly influenced by dietary intake [18] and specific dietary features (such as MD) control CVD risk factors through the modulation of bacterial populations and their activities [53]. ...
Article
The Mediterranean diet (MD) is becoming a milestone for the prevention of chronic disease, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Ancel Keys in the 1950’s showed a low mortality rate, in particular for coronary heart disease, among people resident in Mediterranean area. The MD is characterized by the intake of high amount of vegetables, fruit and cereals and regular but moderate consumption of wine, fish and dairy products, while olive oil is the main source of culinary fat. Therefore, it is principally a plant-based diet rich in polyphenols, a heterogeneous category of compounds with different properties and bio availabilities. Among polyphenols, anthocyanins have been combined into the human food regime for centuries and have been utilized as traditional herbal remedies for their abilities to treat several conditions, as potent anti-oxidants, anti-diabetic and anti-carcinogenic compounds. This reviews summarizes our knowledge on the health-enhancing component of anthocyanins-rich diet.
... High MD adherence has many beneficial outputs to human health. It is a great resource to manage obesity-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes and pro-inflammatory conditions [14][15][16]. Table 1 shows those species that are more associated with adherence to the MD. ...
Article
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The Mediterranean diet (MD) is recognised as one of the healthiest diets worldwide and is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, among others. Dietary habits are considered one of the strongest modulators of the gut microbiota, which seems to play a significant role in the health and disease of the host. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and habitual dietary intake in 360 Spanish adults of the Obekit cohort (normal weight, overweight and obese subjects). Dietary intake and adherence to the MD tests together with faecal samples were collected from each subject. Faecal 16S rRNA sequencing was performed and checked against the dietary habits. MetagenomeSeq was the statistical tool applied to analyse at the species taxonomic level. Results from this study confirm that a strong adherence to the MD increases the population of some beneficial bacteria, improving microbiota status towards a healthier pattern. Bifidobacterium animalis is the species with the strongest association with the MD. One of the highlights is the positive association between several SCFA-producing bacteria and high adherence to the MD. In conclusion, this study shows that MD, fibre, legumes, vegetables, fruit and nuts intakes are associated with an increase in butyrate-producing taxa such as Roseburia faecis, Ruminococcus bromii and Oscillospira (Flavonifractor) plautii.
... Clostridiaceae 1, Facealibacterium and Prevotella were increased and Acidaminococcus and Enterococcus were decreased in PD MedD (Solch et al., 2022). Moreover, MedD can also increase the abundance of beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and exert anti-inflammatory activity (Lopez-Legarrea et al., 2014). Therefore, MedD show great potential in regulating GM and host homeostasis, and has a good prospect in the field of NDs research. ...
Article
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As the world’s population ages, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have brought a great burden to the world. However, effective treatment measures have not been found to alleviate the occurrence and development of NDs. Abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins is an important cause of NDs. Therefore, effective inhibition of the accumulation of pathogenic proteins has become a priority. As the second brain of human, the gut plays an important role in regulate emotion and cognition functions. Recent studies have reported that the disturbance of gut microbiota (GM) is closely related to accumulation of pathogenic proteins in NDs. On the one hand, pathogenic proteins directly produced by GM are transmitted from the gut to the central center via vagus nerve. On the other hand, The harmful substances produced by GM enter the peripheral circulation through intestinal barrier and cause inflammation, or cross the blood–brain barrier into the central center to cause inflammation, and cytokines produced by the central center cause the production of pathogenic proteins. These pathogenic proteins can produced by the above two aspects can cause the activation of central microglia and further lead to NDs development. In addition, certain GM and metabolites have been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Therefore, modulating GM may be a potential clinical therapeutic approach for NDs. In this review, we summarized the possible mechanism of NDs caused by abnormal accumulation of pathogenic proteins mediated by GM to induce the activation of central microglia, cause central inflammation and explore the therapeutic potential of dietary therapy and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in NDs.
... Among these three microbes, Klebsiella varricola can degrade the polysaccharides as previously reported, but its degradation efficiency is still unknown [50]. In addition to carbohydrates, complex compounds such as lipid, protein, oil, and grease also present in POME [51]. There are different literatures exist that showed the degradation capability of lipid, polysaccharides, protein by Klebsiella variicola [50], lipid, monosaccharides as well as, oil and grease degradation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa [52,53], and also monosaccharides and lipid degradation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae [54,55]. ...
Article
Low power generation and low voltage output is a common problem in microbial fuel cell (MFC) run with complex wastewater. Biocatalysts are one of the major components to ensure the high performance of the MFCs. In the present study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) is treated with a combination of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Klebsiella variicola and Pseudomonas aeruginosa to intensify the power generation and treatment efficiency of the MFC. MFCs are catalyzed by pure cultures exhibited low power generation in the range of 50-103 mW/m2 whereas the yeast-bacteria inoculum demonstrates 5-10 fold higher power generation (500 mW/m2 at 0.67 V) with ~90% COD removal efficiency. The mechanism of enhanced power generation by yeast-bacteria inoculum is unravelled which suggests that Klebsiella variicola and Pseudomonas aeruginosa play a crucial role in transferring the electrons from the bulk phase to the electrode surface through self-produced electron-shuttles and at the same time extract electrons from the yeast leading to high power generation. Moreover, substrate-inoculum synergism also offers higher wastewater treatment efficiency. The findings of the work suggest that the use of substrate-inoculum mutualistic interaction between yeast and bacteria as a profound replacement to the existing bacterial inoculum for achieving higher performance in MFCs.
... Quantitatively, the total number of microbial genes in the gut or 'gut microbiome' outnumbers the host (human) genome by 100 to 1 [81], and they may significantly impact the host's physiology and ultimately health. Recent advances in 16S rRNA-based sequencing technologies have facilitated species-level identification of several of these non-culturable bacteria, with the majority belonging to the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria [46,82,83]. Evidence suggests that there are complex and dynamic associations between the host's health, diet, lifestyle, and environment and the composition of the host's gut microbiome throughout the host's lifespan [84]. ...
Article
The approach to studying diet–health relationships has progressively shifted from individual dietary components to overall dietary patterns that affect the interaction and balance of low-molecular-weight metabolites (metabolome) and host-enteric microbial ecology (microbiome). Even though the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has been recognized as a powerful strategy to improve health, the accurate assessment of exposure to the MedDiet has been a major challenge in epidemiological and clinical studies. Interestingly, while the effects of individual dietary components on the metabolome have been described, studies investigating metabolomic profiles in response to overall dietary patterns (including the MedDiet), although limited, have been gaining attention. Similarly, the beneficial effects of the MedDiet on cardiometabolic outcomes may be mediated through gut microbial changes. Accumulating evidence linking food ingestion and enteric microbiome alterations merits the evaluation of the microbiome-mediated effects of the MedDiet on metabolic pathways implicated in disease. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize the current evidence from observational and clinical trials involving the MedDiet by (1) assessing changes in the metabolome and microbiome for the measurement of diet pattern adherence and (2) assessing health outcomes related to the MedDiet through alterations to human metabolomics and/or the microbiome.
... Previous researches described that a high-protein diet could increase Bacteroides type of bacteria. 14,15 Earlier said that the intake of protein did not affect significantly to the ability of converting daidzein into equol and can be caused by a high intake of protein cannot increase the specific bacterial strain, which was able to convert daidzein into equol. In this case, further research was needed to detect the specific strain which was affected by the presence of high levels of protein in the digestive tract. ...
... About Mediterranean diet (MD), a dietary pattern characterized by the consumption of cereals preferably as whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits, in high amount and frequency, several studies have shown that the consumption of foods included in the typical MD determines changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota leading to an increase in beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Prevotella, and a reduction in pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium, also improving obesity, lipid profile, and inflammation (Del Chierico et al. 2014;Lopez-Legarrea et al. 2014). De Filippis et al. investigated the potential effects of the MD including omnivore, vegetarian and vegan subjects and detected significant associations between degree of adherence to the MD and increased levels of fecal SCFAs, which are considered anti-inflammatory and important for the maintenance of the mucosal barrier, Prevotella bacteria and other Firmicutes (De Filippis et al. 2016). ...
Article
The interaction between nutrition and the immune system is very complex. In particular, at every stage of the immune response, specific micronutrients, including vitamins and minerals play a key role and often synergistic, and the deficiency of only one essential nutrient may impair immunity. An individual’s overall nutrition status and pattern of dietary intake (comprised of nutrients and non-nutritive bioactive compounds and food) and any supplementation with nutraceuticals including vitamins and minerals, can influence positively or negatively the function of the immune system. This influence can occur at various levels from the innate immune system and adaptive immune system to the microbiome. Although there are conflicting evidence, the current results point out that dietary supplementation with some nutrients such as vitamin D and zinc may modulate immune function. An update on the complex relationship between nutrition, diet, and the immune system through gut microbiota is the aim of this current review. Indeed, we will provide the overview of the link among immune function, nutrition and gut microbiota, paying particular attention at the effect of the Mediterranean diet on the immune system, and finally we will speculate the possible role of the main one functional supplements on immune function.
... Concerning carbohydrates, natural and artificial sweeteners promote different effects on microbiota composition: natural sweeteners tend to increase Bifidobacteria and reduce Bacteroides, while artificial sweeteners seem to have the opposite effect [257]. There is no doubt that the Western diet is associated with dysbiosis (increase in Bacteroides and Enterobacteria and reduction in Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, and Eubacteria) [261], while the Mediterranean diet appears to have opposite and beneficial effects on the gut microbiome [262]. In this context, both obesity and malnutrition (despite the few studies available) have a severe impact on gut microbiota as well as individual micronutrient deficiencies [263]. ...
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Modulation of immune responses by nutrients is an important area of study in cellular biology and clinical sciences in the context of cancer therapies and anti-pathogen-directed immune responses in health and disease. We review metabolic pathways that influence immune cell function and cellular persistence in chronic infections. We also highlight the role of nutrients in altering the tissue microenvironment with lessons from the tumor microenvironment that shapes the quality and quantity of cellular immune responses. Multiple layers of biological networks, including the nature of nutritional supplements, the genetic background, previous exposures, and gut microbiota status have impact on cellular performance and immune competence against molecularly defined targets. We discuss how immune metabolism determines the differentiation pathway of antigen-specific immune cells and how these insights can be explored to devise better strategies to strengthen anti-pathogen-directed immune responses, while curbing unwanted, non-productive inflammation.
... There are many factors affecting the composition and diversity of the gut microbiome, including intrinsic factors, diseases, medication, harmful habits, dietary factors (Zhernakova et al., 2016) as well as geographical location (Nakamoto and Schnabl, 2016). Effects of specific local diets on the gut microbiome have been previously described (Del Chierico et al., 2014;Lopez-Legarrea et al., 2014), but there is lack of data about the impact of a typical Baltic countries' diet on the gut microbiome. Data from the European Food Safety Authority's (EFSA) Comprehensive European Food Consumption Database show that dietary patterns in the Baltic region differ from those in Western Europe. ...
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Kefir is a fermented dairy product, created by fermentation of milk by bacteria and yeasts. Kefir is the most common traditional non-sweetened fermented dairy beverage in the Baltic countries. Whole kefir and specific fractions and individual organisms isolated from kefir provide a multitude of health benefits, including regulation of composition of the gut microbiome. This review aims to summarise the available data about influence of kefir consumption on the gut microbiome in healthy individuals and to highlight the effects that kefir consumption as well as separated fractions of kefir can have in disease states via modulation of the host microbiome.
... Previous researches described that a high-protein diet could increase Bacteroides type of bacteria. 14,15 In this study, the intake of protein did not affect significantly the ability of converting daidzein into equol and can be caused by a high intake of protein cannot increase the specific bacterial strain, which was able to convert daidzein into equol. In this case, further research was needed to detect the specific strain that was affected by the presence of high levels of protein in the digestive tract. ...
... Significant reduction of several anti-inflammatory gut bacteria (e.g., Bacteroides fragilis) and increase of proinflammatory bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli) have been, in fact, detected in patients with cognitive impairment and AD [79]. Several authors have demonstrated a positive correlation between MedDi and a beneficial modification of gut microbiota, with an increased amount of Bifidobacteria and, thereafter, increased anti-inflammatory and hypocholesterolemic activity [80]. ...
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Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of senile dementia, accounting for up to 70% of dementia cases. AD is a slowly progressive disease, which causes global mental deterioration by affecting various cognitive areas. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that lifestyle habits and nutritional patterns could delay the natural course of the neurodegeneration process. There is no single dietary pattern unequivocally proven to prevent AD. Nevertheless, epidemiological data suggest that by adopting several dietary habits, especially if accompanied with a healthy lifestyle, the negative consequences of AD could potentially be delayed. Alongside with others, two specific eating patterns have been well investigated concerning their potential beneficial effect on cognitive status: the Mediterranean diet (MedDi) and the Ketogenic Diet (KD). Despite the different underlying mechanisms, both of them have demonstrated a fairly profitable role in reducing or delaying cognitive impairment. The aim of the present narrative review is to overview the existing research on the efficacy of MedDi and KD against AD-related cognitive decline, focusing on the proposed protective mechanisms of action. Although the current knowledge on this complex topic does not allow us, at this point, to make exhaustive conclusions, this information could be of help in order to better characterize the possible role of MedDi and KD as nonpharmacological therapies in the treatment of AD and, more generically, of neurodegenerative disorders.
... The effects of dietary changes on gut microbiota are still not well known, although modifications in microbiota composition have been observed after controlled changes of the habitual diet-e.g., weight-loss diet, Mediterranean diet, high-protein diet, high-fat diet, and probiotics and prebiotics [10][11][12][13]. In addition, specific dietary compounds may have selective effects on the microbiota. ...
Article
AimsGut microbiota significantly impacts human health and is influenced by dietary changes. We evaluated the effects of diets naturally rich in polyphenols (PP) and/or long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn3) on microbiota composition in an ancillary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk.Methods Seventy-eight individuals with high waist circumference and at least one additional component of the metabolic syndrome were randomized to an isoenergetic 8-week diet: (a) low LCn3 and PP; (b) high LCn3; (c) high PP; or (d) high LCn3 and PP. Microbiota analysis was performed on feces collected before and after the intervention. DGGE analysis of the predominant bacteria, Eubacterium rectale and Blautia coccoides group (Lachnospiraceae, EREC), Clostridium leptum (Ruminococcaceae, CLEPT), Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacteria, and Lactobacillus group was performed. A quantitative real-time PCR was performed for the same group, additionally including Atopobium cluster (Coriobatteriaceae). Before and after the intervention, participants underwent a 75 g OGTT and a high-fat test meal to evaluate glucose and lipid response.ResultsAdherence to the four diets was optimal. PP significantly increased microbial diversity (p = 0.006) and CLEPT (p = 0.015), while it reduced EREC (p = 0.044). LCn3 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacteria (p = 0.041). Changes in CLEPT numbers correlated with changes in early insulin secretion (r = 0.263, p = 0.030). Changes in Atopobium numbers correlated with postprandial triglycerides in plasma (r = 0.266, p = 0.026) and large VLDL (r = 0.313, p = 0.009), and cholesterol in large VLDL (r = 0.319, p = 0.008).Conclusions Diets naturally rich in PP or LCn3 influenced gut microbiota composition in individuals at high cardiometabolic risk. These modifications were associated with changes in glucose/lipid metabolism.
... There is a large amount of written evidence that shows a high adherence to the MD to be beneficial to human health. The MD is a great resource in helping to manage obesity-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and proinflammatory conditions [34][35][36]. Table 2 shows those species that are more strongly associated with the adherence to the MD. The high-adherence group represents those participants that have a diet closer to the MD model. ...
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The MD (Mediterranean diet) is recognized as one of the healthiest diets worldwide and is associated with the prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Dietary habits are considered one of the strongest modulators of gut microbiota, which seem to play a significant role in health status of the host. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate interactive associations between gut microbiota composition and habitual dietary intake in 360 Spanish adults from the Obekit cohort (normal weight, overweight, and obese participants). Dietary intake and adherence to the MD tests were administered and fecal samples were collected from each participant. Fecal 16S rRNA (ribosomal Ribonucleic Acid) gene sequencing was performed and checked against the dietary habits. MetagenomeSeq was the statistical tool applied to analyze data at the species taxonomic level. Results from this study identified several beneficial bacteria that were more abundant in the individuals with higher adherence to the MD. Bifidobacterium animalis was the species with the strongest association with the MD. Some SCFA (Short Chain Fatty Acids) -producing bacteria were also associated with MD. In conclusion, this study showed that MD, fiber, legumes, vegetable, fruit, and nut intake are associated with an increase in butyrate-producing taxa such as Roseburia faecis, Ruminococcus bromii, and Oscillospira (Flavonifractor) plautii.
... It also found [59] that pulses intake was negatively related to clostridium. In addition, the changes were translated significantly into gut microbiota of infants [65][66][67]. A previous study showed that high fat or oral probiotic supplement can drive gut microbiota changes in offspring [65]. ...
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Background: Individualized maternal diet and alcohol consumption can influence both maternal and infant’s gut microbiota. These relationships are still unknown in Chinese population. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of alcohol consumption and diet during pregnancy on maternal and infant’s gut microbiota. Methods: Twenty-nine mother-child dyads were enrolled in Central China. Fecal samples of mothers during late pregnancy and of newborns within 48 hours were collected. The V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA sequences were analyzed. A self-administrated questionnaire about simple diet frequency in the past week was completed by mothers before childbirth. The general demographic information was finished by mothers at 24 hours after childbirth. Results: Among these 29 mothers, 10 mothers reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy. The PCoA (β-diversity) showed significant difference in maternal gut microbiota between the alcohol consumption group vs the non-alcohol consumption group (Jaccard, R = 0.2, P = 0.006). The same phenomenon was observed in newborns (unweighted-UniFrac full tree ,R = 0.174,P = 0.031). Maternal alcohol consumption frequency showed positive associations with maternal Phascolarctobacterium (P = 0.032) and Blautia (P = 0.019); maternal Faecalibacterium (P = 0.013) was negatively correlated with frequency of alcohol consumption. A positive relationship between Megamonas and maternal alcohol consumption (P = 0.035). The diet was not associated with both maternal and infant’s gut microbiota. Conclusions: Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy influenced the gut microbiota on both mothers and the newborns. Future research is needed to explore these relationships in a lager birth cohort. Understanding the long-term effect of alcohol consumption on maternal and newborns’ gut microbiota is needed.
... The majority of up to 100 trillion microbes reside in the colon [1]. Gut microbiota exert numerous functions such as nutrient metabolism, maintenance of gut barrier function, development of the gastrointestinal immune system, and protection against pathogens [1,2]. Imbalance in the gut microbiota could result in various disease, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus and inflammatory diseases. ...
Article
Background:Healthy obesity means obese individuals remain free of metabolic health complications. Several researches link microbiota changes to obesity, focus on metabolic role of IL-6 and its ability to alter fat metabolism and correlate circulating calprotectin concentration to morbid obesity. This study evaluated the relative abundance of gut microbiota (Prevotella and γ-Proteobacteria), estimated the serum levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-6 and calprotectin) and studied the correlation between them in healthy obese and normal weight adults. Methods: 33 healthy obese (HO) and 14 normal weight (NW) controls were included. Serum levels of IL-6 and calprotectin were estimated by ELISA. Abundances of Prevotella and γ-Proteobacteria were determined in stool using real time PCR. Results: IL-6 and calprotectin levels were significantly lower in HO than in NW (p=0.001, p=0.001 respectively) with significant negative correlation between IL-6 and body mass index (BMI) in HO (r=-0.438, p=0.011) and negative but statistically insignificant correlation with BMI in NW groups (r=-0.024, p=0.935). There was negative but statistically insignificant correlation between calprotectin and BMI in HO (r=-0.075, p=0.677) and NW (r=-0.381, p=0.179). Prevotella and γ-Proteobacteria abundances were higher in HO than in NW and insignificant (p=0.31, p=0.55 respectively) with significant positive correlation between Prevotella and γ-Proteobacteria abundance in HO (r=0.436, p=0.011), positive and insignificant correlations between abundance of Prevotella and levels of IL-6 in HO and NW (r=0.303, P=0.086 vs r=0.316, p=0.272 respectively). Conclusion: IL-6 and calprotectin have role in regulation of energy homeostasis. Elevated abundances of Prevotella and γ-Proteobacteria may be the primary shifts in gut microbiota of HO.
... About Mediterranean diet (MD), a dietary pattern characterized by the consumption of cereals preferably as whole grains, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits, in high amount and frequency, several studies have shown that the consumption of foods included in the typical MD determines changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota leading to an increase in beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Prevotella, and a reduction in pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium, also improving obesity, lipid profile, and inflammation (Del Chierico et al. 2014;Lopez-Legarrea et al. 2014). De Filippis et al. investigated the potential effects of the MD including omnivore, vegetarian and vegan subjects and detected significant associations between degree of adherence to the MD and increased levels of fecal SCFAs, which are considered anti-inflammatory and important for the maintenance of the mucosal barrier, Prevotella bacteria and other Firmicutes (De Filippis et al. 2016). ...
... While the gut microbial community can be modified by dietary carbohydrates, it can also affect carbohydrates by playing a role in their metabolism (Gentile and Weir, 2018;Yadav et al., 2018). Many studies have shown that diverse types of dietary carbohydrates can also induce remarkable alterations in gut microbiota (Lopez-Legarrea et al., 2014;Yadav et al., 2018). Therefore, there is interaction between carbohydrates and the gut microbiota. ...
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In our previous study, we demonstrated that Shen-ling-bai-zhu-san (SL), a classical Chinese herbal formula, could alleviate lactose-induced diarrhea. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying SL action or the efficacy of the polysaccharide (PL) derived from SL. In this study, we investigated the effect of SL and PL on improving the dysregulated luminal and mucosal microbiota in rats with high lactose diet using 16S rRNA analysis. The concentrations of lactose, lactic acid in cecum and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in cecum and portal vein were measured, meanwhile the expression of ion transporters were ascertained. Our data suggest that the SL, PL and cecal microbiota transplantation (CMT) significantly decreased fecal water content and water intake. In the luminal microbiota there was a significant increase in Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium and Blautia and a lower abundance of Lactobacillus, Escherichia-Shigella, and Dubosiella, while the mucosal microbiota showed a significant increase in Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Albaculum, Bilophila, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG-002 and a lower abundance of Enterococcus, Helicobacter, Dubosiella, and Collinsella. Furthermore, the treatments enhanced lactose fermentation and SCFA production, which may be related to the modulation of the luminal microbial community. A lower ratio of phosphorylation Na/H exchanger3/Na/H exchanger3 (pNHE3/NHE3) and a higher sodium monocarboxylate1 (sMCT1) expression were found in the treatment group than in the model group, which may be related to the changes in the mucosal microbial community. Also, the treatments may restore the impacted metabolic pathways of gut microbiota. These results provide an important foundation for mechanism of SL action and developing PL-based treatment for lactose-induced diarrhea.
... Carbohydrates can alter the composition and function of gut microbes (133,134). Some animal experiments have shown that fructose intake is responsible for altering intestinal microbiota, mucosal status, and liver homeostasis in mice. ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently become the most common liver disease with a global prevalence of over 25% and is expected to increase. Recently, experts have reached a consensus that “fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction or MAFLD” may be a more appropriate and inclusive definition than NAFLD. Like the former name NAFLD, MAFLD, as a manifestation of multiple system metabolic disorders involving the liver, has certain heterogeneity in its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, pathological changes and natural outcomes. We found that there is a delicate dynamic balance among intestinal microflora, metabolites and host immune system to maintain a healthy intestinal environment and host health. On the contrary, this imbalance is related to diseases such as MAFLD. However, there are no clear studies on how dietary nutrients affect the intestinal environment and participate in the pathogenesis of MAFLD. This review summarizes the interactions among dietary nutrients, intestinal microbiota and MAFLD in an attempt to provide evidence for the use of dietary supplements to regulate liver function in patients with MAFLD. These dietary nutrients influence the development and progression of MAFLD mainly through the hepatic-intestinal axis by altering dietary energy absorption, regulating bile acid metabolism, changing intestinal permeability and producing ethanol. Meanwhile, the nutrients have the ability to combat MAFLD in terms of enriching abundance of intestinal microbiota, reducing Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and promoting abundance of beneficial gut microbes. Therefore, family therapy with MAFLD using a reasonable diet could be considered.
... Circulating BCAA concentrations are associated with reduced insulin resistance and are proportional to dietary intake, although studies show a significant increase in blood glucose as well. Circulating concentrations of the protein zonulin, which reduces inflammation-related intestinal permeability (8), were inversely proportional to dietary protein intake. These and related studies confirm the importance of protein source and content as likely effectors of metabolic health and disease onset and progression. ...
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Background: Poultry eggs are a low-cost, high-protein nutrient package that can be consumed as part of quality diets. However, consumption of poultry egg products is historically contentious, which highlights the importance of investigating impacts of long-term egg consumption on metabolic health. Objective: Our study utilized the zebrafish, Danio rerio, a newly defined model of human metabolic health, to understand the metabolic consequence of consuming egg products in lieu of other well-described protein sources. Methods: Reference diets were formulated to contain multisource protein with casein and fish protein hydrolysate (CON; control protein sources), the protein sources that have been historically utilized in numerous reference diets. These proteins were then partially replaced with either whole egg (WE; protein and lipid source), egg white (EW; protein source), wheat gluten (WG; cereal protein source), or a high-lipid-content diet containing a multisource protein with casein and fish protein hydrolysate (HFCON; isonitrogenous and isolipidic with the WE diet) in a 34-wk trial (n = 8 tanks, 10 fish per tank). Daily feeding was initiated at the early juvenile life stage and terminated at the late reproductive adult stage. Results: The amino acid composition of control versus egg product diets did not vary substantially, although methionine and lysine were apparently limiting in fish fed WG. At termination, fish fed EW as the protein source had weight gain and body composition similar to those fed the CON diet. Fasting and postprandial blood glucose did not differ between any dietary treatment. Assessment of the liver transcriptome using RNAseq revealed no differential gene expression between zebrafish fed CON or WE diets. Zebrafish fed WG had lower weight gain in males. Conclusions: Long-term consumption of egg products promoted metabolic health equal to that of historically relevant proteins. These data support the value of egg products for maintaining long-term metabolic health in animal diets.
Article
Background and Aim Growing evidence has linked gut microbiota with regulation of adiposity. We aimed to examine whether the genetically determined relative abundance of gut microbial taxa was associated with long-term changes in adiposity and body composition among individuals who were overweight or obese in weight-loss diet interventions. Methods The study included 692 participants with overweight or obese from the POUNDS Lost trial. We created a genetic risk score (GRS) for the relevant abundance of gut microbial taxa using 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from a recent genome-wide association study. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Higher GRS for the relative abundance of gut microbial taxa was significantly associated with greater reductions in waist circumference, total fat mass (FM), whole-body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), and percentage of trunk fat (TF%) at 2 years (p=0.022, 0.034, 0.023, 0.023, respectively). In addition, dietary protein significantly modified the association between GRS for gut microbial abundance and changes in total FM, FM%, and TF% (p-interactions=0.04, 0.013, and 0.006, respectively) at 6-month, when the maximum weight loss was achieved, even though such interactions were attenuated at 2 years. In the average-protein diet group, a higher microbial abundance GRS was associated with greater reductions in total FM (p=0.007), FM% (p=0.002), and TF% (p<0.001) at 6 months, while no associations were found in the high-protein diet group (p>0.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that the higher genetically determined relative abundance of gut microbial taxa may be related to long-term improvement of whole-body and central fatness and body composition in response to low-calorie diet interventions.
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Tip 1 Diabetes Mellitusun (T1D) tıbbi beslenme tedavisi, diyabet bakımı ve eğitiminin temel bileşenlerinden biridir. T1D’li çocuk ve adolesanlara beslenme hakkında verilen öneriler tamamen sağlıklı beslenme kuralları çerçevesinde oluşturulur ve temel amacı çocuğun büyüme/gelişmesinin devamını sağlamaktır. Diyabetli çocuk ve adolesanların beslenme tedavisinde ve eğitiminde karşılaşılan zorluklar genelde yaşla ilişkilidir ve farklı yaş gruplarının beslenme ve gelişim ihtiyaçlarını yansıtmaktadır. Bu nedenle, beslenme tedavisi yapılırken farklı yaş gruplarının belirleyici özellikleri mutlaka göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. Bu makalede, okul öncesi dönem ve adolesan dönemdeki diyabetlilerin beslenme ile ilişkili sorunlar ve diyabetli gençlerin erişkin kliniğine devri üzerinde durulacaktır.
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Obesity has consistently been associated with an increased risk of metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as the development of several types of cancer. In recent decades, unfortunately, the rate of overweight/obesity has increased significantly among adults and children. A growing body of evidence shows that there is a relationship between metabolic disorders such as obesity and the composition of the gut microbiota. Additionally, inflammation is considered to be a driving force in the obesity–gut microbiota connection. Therefore, it seems that anti-inflammatory nutrients, foods, and/or diets can play an essential role in the management of obesity by affecting the intestinal flora and controlling inflammatory responses. In this review, we describe the links between the gut microbiota, obesity, and inflammation, and summarize the benefits of anti-inflammatory diets in preventing obesity.
Chapter
Obesity is a severe worldwide health problem driven by both hereditary and environmental factors, and its prevalence is increasing year after year. According to current thinking, The bacteria in the stomach may have a part in the growth of obesity and other health comorbidities. To better fully comprehend the link between obesity but also microbiomes, we sum up the features of the intestinal microbiota in obese people, the metabolic pathway of obesity-induced by the intestinal microbiota, and the impact of biological factors on the intestinal microbiota and adiposity in this chapter. The microbiome has been shown to have a major role in the development of obesity by regulating energy metabolism. The makeup and density of intestinal flora can be influenced by diet. Simultaneously, it is suggested that the gut microbiome be used in obesity studies. Some food items have recently shown that pro capability via functional ingredients that impact the intestinal flora, attracting the interest of scientists.
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Background: The production of healthy and nutritious food, in an ecologically sustainable and safe way, has become one of the great ethical issues of our time. The recent G 20 urged the "promotion and work on the social determinants of health to address other critical health issues such as food and nutrition". Objective: The aim of this work is to analyze the current scientific literature regarding the role of obesity in the severe COVID-19 outcomes. In the light of the indications of the G20, the main causes of obesity are examined, and lifestyles are suggested with particular regard to proper nutrition in order to prevent/treat overweight since childhood. Methods: Multidisciplinary work, in which the biological and legal perspectives provide a meta-legal analysis of the obesity problem. Results: Unhealthy habits induce metabolic imbalance and increase in the body weight promoting obesity. This condition is the result of many factors (genetic predisposition, social position and "junk food" consumption) and is associated with a high risk of diseases, among them exacerbations from viral respiratory infections, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: The industrial food revolution changed our eating habits, leading to production of too much unhealthy food, absent in ancient diet, thus contributing to the onset of some disorders. The business of food industry should be downsized in favor of morally or ethically fair choices for consumers and for the well-being of society, together with an ethical food distribution, governmental food education programs, and balanced oversight of food production.
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Background: Gut microbiota holds a key-role in numerous biological functions and has emerged as a driving force for the development of diabetes. Diet contributes to gut microbiota diversity and functionality providing a tool for the prevention and management of the disease. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a dietary intervention with pistachio nuts, a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, dietary fibers and phytochemicals on gut microbiota composition in the rat model of Type 1 Diabetes. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: healthy animals which received control diet (CD) or pistachio diet (PD), and diabetic animals which received control diet (DCD) or pistachio diet (DPD) for 4 weeks. Plasma biochemical parameters were determined and histological examination of liver and pancreas was performed at the end of the dietary intervention. Adherent intestinal microbiota populations in jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon were analyzed. Fecal microbiota populations at the beginning and the end of the study were determined by microbiological analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing. Results: Diabetic animals of both groups exhibited high plasma glucose and low insulin concentrations, as well as characteristic pancreatic lesions. Pistachio supplementation significantly increased lactobacilli and bifidobacteria populations in jejunum, ileum and caecum (p < 0.05) and normalized microbial flora in all examined intestinal regions of diabetic animals. After 4 weeks of supplementation, populations of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were increased in feces of both healthy and diabetic animals, while enterococci levels were decreased (p < 0.05). Next Generation Sequencing of fecal samples revealed increased and decreased counts of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, respectively, in healthy animals that received the pistachio diet. Actinobacteria OTUs were higher in diabetic animals and increased over time in the pistachio treated groups, along with increased abundance of Bifidobacterium. Lactobacillus, Turicibacter and Romboutsia populations were elevated in healthy animals administered the pistachio nuts. Of note, relative abundance of Bacteroides was higher in healthy than in diabetic rats (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Dietary pistachio restored normal flora and enhanced the presence of beneficial microbes in the rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
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İnsan gastrointestinal (GI) sistemi yüz trilyon mikroorganizmayı (bakteri, virüs, mantar ve protozoalar) ve binden fazla bakteri türünü barındırmaktadır. Bağırsak mikrobiyotasının insan sağlığı üzerindeki etkisi bugüne dek pek çok hayvan ve insan çalışmasında gösterilmiştir. Yapılan son çalışmalarda, bağırsak florasının bağışıklık sistemi, metabolizma ve nörodavranış ile ilgili yolaklarda etkili rol oynadığı ve disbiyozis, kardiyovasküler hastalıklar, obezite, diyabet, kanser, irritabl bağırsak sendromu (İBS) gibi gastrointestinal hastalıklar ve nörolojik bozukluklar gibi hastalıklar ile yakından ilişkili olduğu bildirilmiştir. Mikrobiyotayı etkileyen faktörler arasında yaş, genetik, fiziksel aktivite gibi faktörlerin yanı sıra beslenme de önemli etkenlerden biri olarak belirtilmektedir. Yüksek oranda hayvansal protein, doymuş yağ, şeker ve tuz alımı insan sağlığı için yararlı olan bakterilerin sayıca azalmasına neden olmakla birlikte patojenik olan bakterilerin gelişimini teşvik ettiği ayrıca belirtilmiştir. Hayvan çalışmalarında yüksek doymuş yağ ve düşük lifli diyetin yararlı bakterilerden Bacteroidetes ailesi üyelerinde azalmaya, Firmicutes ve Proteobacteria ailesi üyelerinde ise bir artışa neden olduğunu gösterilmiştir. Beslenme ile alınan makrobesinlerindeki değişiklikler, mikrobiyotada değişikliklere neden olmasının yanında, mukus tabakasında değişikliklere ve epitel hasarına da sebep olabilmektedir. Ayrıca mikrobiyota değişikliğine bağlı olarak mikrobiyota tarafından üretilen metabolitlerin konağın bir takım fizyolojik ve bağışıklık sistemi ile ilgili rahatsızlıklar ve bulaşıcı hastalıklar ile ilişkileri son çalışmalarda vurgulanmaktadır. Bu nedenle, son yıllarda vegan/vejeteryan, glütensiz beslenme, ketojenik beslenme, FODMAP diyeti, Akdeniz diyeti, Western diyet gibi beslenme şekilleri ile alınan mikro ve makrobesinlerin konak bağırsak mikrobiyotası, bu mikrobiyotanın mukozal bariyer ile ilişkisi ve bağışıklık fonksiyonları üzerindeki etkisi üzerinde durulmaktadır. Gıda bileşikleri ve bağırsak bakterileri arasındaki etkileşimlerin anlaşılması için bu konuda yapılmış detaylı araştırmaların irdelenmesi gelecekte yapılan çalışmalara bir bakış açısı sunacaktır.
Chapter
Obesity is an outcome of irregular energy intake and balance, changes in gut microbiota, and improper diet, which is further influenced by the host's genetic makeup and environmental factors. Several studies in vitro, in vivo, and human clinical trials have highlighted the influence of fermented food and microbes on obesity-associated consequences. They include probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics. Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms that reach the intestine in an active state sufficient to exert positive health benefits. A prebiotic is “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host well-being and health.” A synbiotic is a synergistic combination of both pre and probiotics. Here we try to explain the factors influencing obesity, the role of microbiome, and probiotic intervention in obesity. These effects could be attributed to their ability to alter the intestinal microbiota, remodeling the energy metabolism, alter the expression of genes related to thermogenesis, glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism, and change the parasympathetic nerve activity. Further in-depth studies are necessary to identify the best probiotic or synbiotic mixture, optimum dosage, duration of the intervention, and mode of action to reduce obesity.
Chapter
Cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) include cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), metabolic syndrome, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors (including dietary patterns, lifestyles, genetic, and epigenetic factors) seem to be involved with the pathogenesis of CMDs. Typical gut bacterial clusters in humans (enterotypes) have been correlated with CMD profile differences. Diet is a major environmental factor that can change the composition of gut microbiota, influencing the metabolic state of the host. Research studies have reported that several diet-derived microbial metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), secondary bile acids (BAs), and trimethylamine oxide (TMAO), are able to modulate human metabolism and thereby alter CMD risk. This chapter provides an overview of the link between dietary patterns, enterotypes, gut microbiota-derived metabolites, and possible occurrence or prevention of CMDs. This information illustrates how avoiding consuming an unhealthy diet (Western diet) may reduce risk of CMDs.
Article
Zusammenfassung Zahlreiche Studien haben gezeigt, dass die mediterrane Ernährung vor ernährungsmitbedingten Erkrankungen wie Übergewicht, Diabetes mellitus Typ 2, Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen und verschiedenen Krebsentitäten, einschließlich Brustkrebs, schützen kann. Die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen sind jedoch weitgehend unklar. Bislang wurde vor allem die Rolle antiinflammatorischer Fettsäuren diskutiert. In der vorliegenden Übersichtsarbeit soll am Beispiel des genetisch determinierten sowie des sporadischen Brustkrebses der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Rolle das Darmmikrobiom spielen könnte, dessen Zusammensetzung und Funktion durch die mediterrane Ernährung verändert wird.
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The composition and functioning of the gut microbiota, the complex population of microorganisms residing in the intestine, is strongly affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, among which diet is key. Important perturbations of the microbiota have been observed to contribute to disease risk, as in the case of neurological disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, among others. Although mechanisms are not fully clarified, nutrients interacting with the microbiota are thought to affect host metabolism, immune response or disrupt the protective functions of the intestinal barrier. Similarly, key intermediaries, whose presence may be strongly influenced by dietary habits, sustain the communication along the gut-brain-axis, influencing brain functions in the same way as the brain influences gut activity. Due to the role of diet in the modulation of the microbiota, its composition is of high interest in inherited errors of metabolism (IEMs) and may reveal an appealing therapeutic target. In IEMs, for example in phenylketonuria (PKU), since part of the therapeutic intervention is based on chronic or life-long tailored dietetic regimens, important variations of the microbial diversity or relative abundance have been observed. A holistic approach, including a healthy composition of the microbiota, is recommended to modulate host metabolism and affected neurological functions.
Chapter
Clinical interest in the human gut microbiota has increased considerably, because of the increasing number of studies linking the human intestinal microbiota and microbiome to an ever increasing number of non-communicable diseases. Many attempts at modulating the gut microbiota have been made using probiotics and prebiotics. However, there are other avenues that are still little explored from a clinical point of view that appear promising to obtain modifications of the microbial ecology and biological activities connected to the microbiome. This chapter summarizes all in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies demonstrating the possibility to positively modulate the intestinal microbiota by using probiotics, foods (and prebiotics), essential oils, fungus and officinal plants. For the future, clinical studies investigating the ability to modify the intestinal microbiota especially by using foods, officinal and aromatic plants or their extracts are required. More knowledge in this field is likely to be of clinical benefit since modulation of the microbiome might support the therapy of most non-communicable diseases in the future.
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Diet and gut microbiota play important roles in numerous normal physiological activities such as harvesting energy, regulation of gene expression, absorption of nutrients, and modulation of host immunity. Long-term consumption of Western diet is associated with dysbiosis, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation leading to the pathogenesis of diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. In contrast, long-term consumption of Mediterranean and vegetarian diets does not produce dysbiosis and induce beneficial effects on human health by retarding the induction of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation leading to delaying the inset of type 2 diabetes, heart diseases, and neurological disorders.
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Legitimate nutrition assumes a significant role in preventing diseases and, in this way, nutritional interventions establish vital strategies in the area of public health. Nutrigenomics centres on the different genes and diet in an individual and how an individual’s genes influence the reaction to bioactive foodstuff. It targets considering the genetic and epigenetic interactions with nutrients to lead to a phenotypic alteration and consequently to metabolism, differentiation, or even apoptosis. Nutrigenomics and lifestyle factors play a vital role in health management and represent an exceptional prospect for the improvement of personalized diets to the individual at risk of developing diseases like cancer. Concerning cancer as a multifactorial genetic ailment, several aspects need to be investigated and analysed. Various perspectives should be researched and examined regarding the development and prognosis of breast and colon cancer. Malignant growth occurrence is anticipated to upsurge in the impending days, and an effective anticipatory strategy is required. The effect of dietary components, basically studied by nutrigenomics, looks at gene expression and molecular mechanisms. It also interrelates bioactive compounds and nutrients because of different 'omics' innovations. Several preclinical investigations demonstrate the pertinent role of nutrigenomics in breast and colon cancer, and change of dietary propensities is conceivably a successful methodology for reducing cancer risk. The connection between the genomic profile of patients with breast or colon cancer and their supplement intake, it is conceivable to imagine an idea of personalized medicine, including nutrition and medicinal services.
Article
Zusammenfassung Zahlreiche Studien haben gezeigt, dass die mediterrane Ernährung vor ernährungsmitbedingten Erkrankungen wie Übergewicht, Diabetes mellitus Typ 2, Herz-Kreislauf-Erkrankungen und verschiedenen Krebsentitäten, einschließlich Brustkrebs, schützen kann. Die zugrunde liegenden Mechanismen sind jedoch weitgehend unklar. Bislang wurde vor allem die Rolle antiinflammatorischer Fettsäuren diskutiert. In der vorliegenden Übersichtsarbeit soll am Beispiel des genetisch determinierten sowie des sporadischen Brustkrebses der Frage nachgegangen werden, welche Rolle das Darmmikrobiom spielen könnte, dessen Zusammensetzung und Funktion durch die mediterrane Ernährung verändert wird.
Chapter
Gut microbiota have evolved with animal and humans through a symbiotic relationship. They play important roles in numerous physiological activities, such as vitamin production, regulation of gene expression, protection against pathogenic bacteria, absorption of nutrients, regulation of metabolic disorders, modulation of host immunity, and harvesting energy. Alterations in microbiota, including a reduction in health-promoting bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, may lead to dysbiosis, a process caused by Gram-negative bacteria producing immunogenic endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), inducing oxidative stress, and initiating low-grade inflammation. Long-term consumption of a Western diet produces detrimental effects on human health, whereas consumption of Mediterranean and vegetarian diets produces beneficial effects on human health.
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The association between gut microbiota and circulating zonulin level, a marker of intestinal permeability, has not been studied yet. The aim of the study is the assessment of plasma zonulin, haptoglobin and proinflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and IL-6) levels in relation to composition of gut microbiota in obese and normal weight subjects. Circulating inflammation markers, such as TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, IL-6, zonulin, and haptoglobin levels were measured and semiquantitative analysis of gut microbiota composition was carried out in 50 obese and 30 normal weight subjects without concomitant diseases. Higher circulating zonulin, TNF- α , sTNFR1, sTNFR2, and IL-6 levels were found in the obese subjects. Plasma zonulin level correlated positively with age (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), body mass (r = 0.30, P < 0.01), BMI (r = 0.33, P < 0.01), fat mass and fat percentage (r = 0.31, P < 0.01 and r = 0.23, P < 0.05, resp.). Positive correlations between bacterial colony count and sTNFR1 (r = 0.33, P < 0.01) and plasma zonulin (r = 0.26, P < 0.05) but not haptoglobin levels were found. Additionally, plasma zonulin level was proportional to daily energy intake (r = 0.27, P < 0.05) and serum glucose concentration (r = 0.18, P < 0.05) and inversely proportional to diet protein percentage (r = -0.23, P < 0.05). Gut microbiota-related systemic microinflammation in the obese is reflected by circulating zonulin level, a potential marker of interstitial permeability.
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BACKGROUND: Observational cohort studies and a secondary prevention trial have shown an inverse association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular risk. We conducted a randomized trial of this diet pattern for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events. METHODS: In a multicenter trial in Spain, we randomly assigned participants who were at high cardiovascular risk, but with no cardiovascular disease at enrollment, to one of three diets: a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (advice to reduce dietary fat). Participants received quarterly individual and group educational sessions and, depending on group assignment, free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small nonfood gifts. The primary end point was the rate of major cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes). On the basis of the results of an interim analysis, the trial was stopped after a median follow-up of 4.8 years. RESULTS: A total of 7447 persons were enrolled (age range, 55 to 80 years); 57% were women. The two Mediterranean-diet groups had good adherence to the intervention, according to self-reported intake and biomarker analyses. A primary end-point event occurred in 288 participants. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.92) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.96) for the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with extra-virgin olive oil (96 events) and the group assigned to a Mediterranean diet with nuts (83 events), respectively, versus the control group (109 events). No diet-related adverse effects were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Among persons at high cardiovascular risk, a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or nuts reduced the incidence of major cardiovascular events. (Funded by the Spanish government's Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; Controlled-Trials.com number, ISRCTN35739639.).
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Dietary strategies seem to be the most prescribed therapy in order to counteract obesity regarding not only calorie restriction, but also bioactive ingredients and the composition of the consumed foods. Dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is gaining importance in order to assess the quality of the diet. Ninety-six obese adults presenting metabolic syndrome (MetS) symptoms completed an 8-week intervention trial to evaluate the effects of a novel dietary program with changes in the nutrient distribution and meal frequency and to compare it with a dietary pattern based on the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines.Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were assessed at baseline and at the endpoint of the study, in addition to 48-hours food dietary records. Both diets equally (p > 0.05) improved MetS manifestations. Dietary TAC was the component which showed the major influence on body weight (p = 0.034), body mass index (p = 0.026), waist circumference (p = 0.083) and fat mass (p = 0.015) reductions. Transaminases (ALT and AST) levels (p = 0.062 and p = 0.004, respectively) were associated with lower TAC values. RESMENA diet was as effective as AHA pattern for reducing MetS features. Dietary TAC was the most contributing factor involved in body weight and obesity related markers reduction. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01087086.
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Abstract Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1-green tea; group 2-placebo; group 3-green tea plus resistance training; group 4-placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength.
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The involvement of the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, and the ability of whole grains to affect both host metabolism and gut microbial ecology, suggest that some benefits of whole grains are mediated through their effects on the gut microbiome. Nutritional studies that assess the effect of whole grains on both the gut microbiome and human physiology are needed. We conducted a randomized cross-over trial with four-week treatments in which 28 healthy humans consumed a daily dose of 60 g of whole-grain barley (WGB), brown rice (BR), or an equal mixture of the two (BR+WGB), and characterized their impact on fecal microbial ecology and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. All treatments increased microbial diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and the abundance of the genus Blautia in fecal samples. The inclusion of WGB enriched the genera Roseburia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister, and the species Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia faecis and Roseburia intestinalis. Whole grains, and especially the BR+WGB treatment, reduced plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and peak postprandial glucose. Shifts in the abundance of Eubacterium rectale were associated with changes in the glucose and insulin postprandial response. Interestingly, subjects with greater improvements in IL-6 levels harbored significantly higher proportions of Dialister and lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae. In conclusion, this study revealed that a short-term intake of whole grains induced compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in host physiological measures related to metabolic dysfunctions in humans.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 4 October 2012; doi:10.1038/ismej.2012.104.
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The microbial communities that colonize different regions of the human gut influence many aspects of health. In the healthy state, they contribute nutrients and energy to the host via the fermentation of nondigestible dietary components in the large intestine, and a balance is maintained with the host's metabolism and immune system. Negative consequences, however, can include acting as sources of inflammation and infection, involvement in gastrointestinal diseases, and possible contributions to diabetes mellitus and obesity. Major progress has been made in defining some of the dominant members of the microbial community in the healthy large intestine, and in identifying their roles in gut metabolism. Furthermore, it has become clear that diet can have a major influence on microbial community composition both in the short and long term, which should open up new possibilities for health manipulation via diet. Achieving better definition of those dominant commensal bacteria, community profiles and system characteristics that produce stable gut communities beneficial to health is important. The extent of interindividual variation in microbiota composition within the population has also become apparent, and probably influences individual responses to drug administration and dietary manipulation. This Review considers the complex interplay between the gut microbiota, diet and health.
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A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all "ancestral foods" have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the "forgotten organ" of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a "double hit" by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition, potentially explaining the exceptional macronutrient-independent metabolic health of non-Westernized populations, and the apparent efficacy of the modern "Paleolithic" diet on satiety and metabolism.
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Alterations in intestinal microbiota composition are associated with several chronic conditions, including obesity and inflammatory diseases. The microbiota of older people displays greater inter-individual variation than that of younger adults. Here we show that the faecal microbiota composition from 178 elderly subjects formed groups, correlating with residence location in the community, day-hospital, rehabilitation or in long-term residential care. However, clustering of subjects by diet separated them by the same residence location and microbiota groupings. The separation of microbiota composition significantly correlated with measures of frailty, co-morbidity, nutritional status, markers of inflammation and with metabolites in faecal water. The individual microbiota of people in long-stay care was significantly less diverse than that of community dwellers. Loss of community-associated microbiota correlated with increased frailty. Collectively, the data support a relationship between diet, microbiota and health status, and indicate a role for diet-driven microbiota alterations in varying rates of health decline upon ageing.
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Background Prebiotics are food ingredients, usually non-digestible oligosaccharides, that are selectively fermented by populations of beneficial gut bacteria. Endoxylanases, altering the naturally present cereal arabinoxylans, are commonly used in the bread industry to improve dough and bread characteristics. Recently, an in situ method has been developed to produce arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides (AXOS) at high levels in breads through the use of a thermophilic endoxylanase. AXOS have demonstrated potentially prebiotic properties in that they have been observed to lead to beneficial shifts in the microbiota in vitro and in murine, poultry and human studies. Methods A double-blind, placebo controlled human intervention study was undertaken with 40 healthy adult volunteers to assess the impact of consumption of breads with in situ produced AXOS (containing 2.2 g AXOS) compared to non-endoxylanase treated breads. Volatile fatty acid concentrations in faeces were assessed and fluorescence in situ hybridisation was used to assess changes in gut microbial groups. Secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in saliva were also measured. Results Consumption of AXOS-enriched breads led to increased faecal butyrate and a trend for reduced iso-valerate and fatty acids associated with protein fermentation. Faecal levels of bifidobacteria increased following initial control breads and remained elevated throughout the study. Lactobacilli levels were elevated following both placebo and AXOS-breads. No changes in salivary secretory IgA levels were observed during the study. Furthermore, no adverse effects on gastrointestinal symptoms were reported during AXOS-bread intake. Conclusions AXOS-breads led to a potentially beneficial shift in fermentation end products and are well tolerated.
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Few studies have investigated the effect of dietary polyphenols on the complex human gut microbiota, and they focused mainly on single polyphenol molecules and select bacterial populations. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on select gut microbial groups implicated in host health benefits. Ten healthy male volunteers underwent a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, all of the subjects received red wine, the equivalent amount of de-alcoholized red wine, or gin for 20 d each. Total fecal DNA was submitted to polymerase chain reaction(PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time quantitative PCR to monitor and quantify changes in fecal microbiota. Several biochemical markers were measured. The dominant bacterial composition did not remain constant over the different intake periods. Compared with baseline, the daily consumption of red wine polyphenol for 4 wk significantly increased the number of Enterococcus, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides uniformis, Eggerthella lenta, and Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale groups (P < 0.05). In parallel, systolic and diastolic blood pressures and triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and C-reactive protein concentrations decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Moreover, changes in cholesterol and C-reactive protein concentrations were linked to changes in the bifidobacteria number. This study showed that red wine consumption can significantly modulate the growth of select gut microbiota in humans, which suggests possible prebiotic benefits associated with the inclusion of red wine polyphenols in the diet. This trial was registered at controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN88720134.
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Introduction and objectives: An obese-type human microbiota with an increased Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio has been described that may link the gut microbiome with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. Dietary fat and carbohydrate are modifiable risk factors that may impact on MetS by altering the human microbiome composition. We determined the effect of the amount and type of dietary fat and carbohydrate on faecal bacteria and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in people 'at risk' of MetS. Design: A total of 88 subjects at increased MetS risk were fed a high saturated fat diet (HS) for 4 weeks (baseline), then randomised onto one of the five experimental diets for 24 weeks: HS; high monounsaturated fat (MUFA)/high glycemic index (GI) (HM/HGI); high MUFA/low GI (HM/LGI); high carbohydrate (CHO)/high GI (HC/HGI); and high CHO/low GI (HC/LGI). Dietary intakes, MetS biomarkers, faecal bacteriology and SCFA concentrations were monitored. Results: High MUFA diets did not affect individual bacterial population numbers but reduced total bacteria and plasma total and LDL-cholesterol. The low fat, HC diets increased faecal Bifidobacterium (P=0.005, for HC/HGI; P=0.052, for HC/LGI) and reduced fasting glucose and cholesterol compared to baseline. HC/HGI also increased faecal Bacteroides (P=0.038), whereas HC/LGI and HS increased Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.022 for HC/HGI and P=0.018, for HS). Importantly, changes in faecal Bacteroides numbers correlated inversely with body weight (r=-0.64). A total bacteria reduction was observed for high fat diets HM/HGI and HM/LGI (P=0.023 and P=0.005, respectively) and HS increased faecal SCFA concentrations (P<0.01). Conclusion: This study provides new evidence from a large-scale dietary intervention study that HC diets, irrespective of GI, can modulate human faecal saccharolytic bacteria, including bacteroides and bifidobacteria. Conversely, high fat diets reduced bacterial numbers, and in the HS diet, increased excretion of SCFA, which may suggest a compensatory mechanism to eliminate excess dietary energy.
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The low-grade inflammation observed in obesity has been associated with a high-fat diet, though this relation is not fully understood. Bacterial endotoxin, produced by gut microbiota, may be the linking factor. However, this has not been confirmed in obese patients. To study the relationship between a high-fat diet and bacterial endotoxin, we analyzed postprandial endotoxemia in morbidly obese patients after a fat overload. The endotoxin levels were determined in serum and the chylomicron fraction at baseline and 3 h after a fat overload in 40 morbidly obese patients and their levels related with the degree of insulin resistance and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia. The morbidly obese patients with the highest postprandial hypertriglyceridemia showed a significant increase in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in serum and the chylomicron fraction after the fat overload. Postprandial chylomicron LPS levels correlated positively with the difference between postprandial triglycerides and baseline triglycerides. There were no significant correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) and LPS levels. The main variables contributing to serum LPS levels after fat overload were baseline and postprandial triglyceride levels but not glucose or insulin resistance. Additionally, superoxide dismutase activity decreased significantly after the fat overload. Postprandial LPS increase after a fat overload is related to postprandial hypertriglyceridemia but not to degree of insulin resistance in morbidly obese patients.
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Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet.
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Gut is the major source of endogenous bacteria causing infections in advanced cirrhosis. Intestinal barrier dysfunction has been described in cirrhosis and account for an increased bacterial translocation rate. We hypothesize that microbiota composition may be affected and change along with the induction of experimental cirrhosis, affecting the inflammatory response. Progressive liver damage was induced in Balb/c mice by weight-controlled oral administration of carbon tetrachloride. Laparotomies were performed at weeks 6, 10, 13 and 16 in a subgroup of treated mice (n = 6/week) and control animals (n = 4/week). Liver tissue specimens, mesenteric lymph nodes, intestinal content and blood were collected at laparotomies. Fibrosis grade, pro-fibrogenic genes expression, gut bacterial composition, bacterial translocation, host's specific butyrate-receptor GPR-43 and serum cytokine levels were measured. Expression of pro-fibrogenic markers was significantly increased compared with control animals and correlated with the accumulated dose of carbon tetrachloride. Bacterial translocation episodes were less frequent in control mice than in treated animals. Gram-positive anaerobic Clostridia spp count was decreased in treated mice compared with control animals and with other gut common bacterial species, altering the aerobic/anaerobic ratio. This fact was associated with a decreased gene expression of GPR43 in neutrophils of treated mice and inversely correlated with TNF-alpha and IL-6 up-regulation in serum of treated mice along the study protocol. This pro-inflammatory scenario favoured blood bacterial translocation in treated animals, showing the highest bacterial translocation rate and aerobic/anaerobic ratio at the same weeks. Gut microbiota alterations are associated with the development of an inflammatory environment, fibrosis progression and bacterial translocation in carbon tetrachloride-treated mice.
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Diets that are high in protein but reduced in carbohydrate contents provide a common approach for achieving weight loss in obese humans. However, the effect of such diets on microbiota-derived metabolites that influence colonic health has not been established. We designed this study to assess the effect of diets with reduced carbohydrate and increased protein contents on metabolites considered to influence long-term colonic health, in particular the risk of colorectal disease. We provided 17 obese men with a defined weight-maintenance diet (85 g protein, 116 g fat, and 360 g carbohydrate/d) for 7 d followed by 4 wk each of a high-protein and moderate-carbohydrate (HPMC; 139 g protein, 82 g fat, and 181 g carbohydrate/d) diet and a high-protein and low-carbohydrate (HPLC; 137 g protein, 143 g fat, and 22 g carbohydrate/d) diet in a crossover design. Fecal samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of phenolic metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, and nitrogenous compounds of dietary and microbial origin. Compared with the maintenance diet, the HPMC and HPLC diets resulted in increased proportions of branched-chain fatty acids and concentrations of phenylacetic acid and N-nitroso compounds. The HPLC diet also decreased the proportion of butyrate in fecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations, which was concomitant with a reduction in the Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale group of bacteria, and greatly reduced concentrations of fiber-derived, antioxidant phenolic acids such as ferulate and its derivatives. After 4 wk, weight-loss diets that were high in protein but reduced in total carbohydrates and fiber resulted in a significant decrease in fecal cancer-protective metabolites and increased concentrations of hazardous metabolites. Long-term adherence to such diets may increase risk of colonic disease.
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