Article

Clausena agasthyamalayana sp. nov. (Rutaceae) from Kerala, India

Abstract and Figures

A new species of Clausena, C. agasthyamalayana is described and illustrated from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. It is similar to C. indica but differs from it being of dwarf habit, and having greenish–black bark, smaller and fewer leaflets, obovate and coriaceous leaves with obtuse or emarginated apex, elliptic and obtuse petals, oblong-cordate anthers, consistently 4-locular ovary with 2 ovules in each chamber and ellipsoid fruits.
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Clausena agasthyamalayana sp. nov. (Rutaceae) from Kerala, India
E. S. Santhosh Kumar, S. M. Shareef, P. E. Roy and J. F. Veldkamp
E. S. Santhosh Kumar (santhoshkumares@gmail.com), S. M. Shareef and P. E. Roy, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research
Institute, Palode, iruvananthapuram district, IN-695 562 Kerala, India. – J. F. Veldkamp, National Herbarium of the Netherlands, PO Box
9514, NL-2300 Leiden, the Netherlands.
A new species of Clausena, C. agasthyamalayana is described and illustrated from the southern Western Ghats, Kerala,
India. It is similar to C. indica but differs from it being of dwarf habit, and having greenish–black bark, smaller and fewer
leaflets, obovate and coriaceous leaves with obtuse or emarginated apex, elliptic and obtuse petals, oblong-cordate anthers,
consistently 4-locular ovary with 2 ovules in each chamber and ellipsoid fruits.
e genus Clausena Burm. f. (Rutaceae) comprises about
23 species, and is mainly distributed in the Old World
tropics from tropical Africa eastwards to Australia through
tropical and subtropical Asia and Malesia (Mabberley 2008).
In India, it is represented by 7 species (Nair and Nayar 1997),
of which 3 are recorded for Kerala (Nair et al. 2006).
During plant exploration trips in the Agasthyamala
Biosphere Reserve of the iruvananthapuram district in
Kerala, the Indian authors collected specimens of Clausena.
After critical studies they were found to differ from the
known species of the genus (Molino 1994, Stone and Nair
1994, Nair and Nayar 1997). It is described and illustrated
as a new species here.
Clausena agasthyamalayana E. S. S. Kumar, Shareef,
Roy & Veldkamp sp. nov. (Fig. 1–2)
Clausenae indicae similis, habitu nano (suffutex ad 1.5 m altus),
foliis minoribus (1.2–5.0 contra 10–30 cm longis), foliolorum
numero minore (4–7 contra 7–13), petalis ellipticis obtusis (con-
tra oblongis acutis), antheris oblonge cordatis (contra globosis ad
ovoideis), ovario 4-loculari (contra 2–5-loculari), loculis ovulis
2 collateralibus, fructibus ellipsoideis (contra globosis) differt.
Type: India. Kerala: iruvananthapuram district, Pongalap-
para, 1440 m a.s.l., 11 Jan 2011, S. M. Shareef and P. E.
Roy 70607 (holotype: TBGT!, isotypes: MH!, TBGT!).
Previously referred to as: Clausena austroindica auct. non
Stone & Narayanan: Gopanraj et al. (2004). Voucher: ca
1500 m a.s.l., Gopanraj 51815 (TBGT!).
Etymology
e specific epithet refers to the type locality, Agasthyamala
Biosphere Reserve.
Description
Shrubs, to 1.5 m high; bark greenish–black; branchlets
cylindric, minutely puberulent, lenticellate. Leaves 8–12 cm
long; petiole 2–3 cm long, its rachis puberulent; leaflets
4–7, sub-opposite to alternate, 1.2–5.0 0.8–2.5 cm, coria-
ceous; lateral leaflets slightly asymmetric, obovate, (rarely
slightly falcate), cuneate at base, obtuse or emarginate at
apex, their margins undulate or crenate and revolute,
with glands beneath generally convex; secondary nerves
in 5–7 pairs, tertiaries faintly reticulate. Inflorescence
terminal, panicles 4–7 cm long; bracteoles 2, lanceolate,
unequal, ca 1 mm long, ciliate. Flowers subglobose in
bud, ca 3 mm long, 8–10 mm across when opened; pedi-
cels ca 2.5 mm long, glabrous. Calyx deeply 5-lobed with
lobes ca 1 mm long, glabrous, acute at apex, with a termi-
nal pellucid gland, minutely ciliolate along margin. Petals
5, imbricate, elliptic, 5–6 2.5–3.0 mm, white, obtuse at
apex, 3-nerved, their glands inconspicuous. Stamens 10,
5 longer and 5 shorter, 2.8 mm and 2 mm long, respectively;
filaments slightly thickened in the middle, their upper part
subulate, and lower part dilated; anthers oblong, cordate,
ca 1.5 mm long with a terminal gland on the connective.
Gynophore very short but distinct, 0.1–0.3 mm long. Ovary
subglobose, ca 2.0 2.5 mm, distinctly papillate, glabrous,
4-locular, each with 2 collateral ovules; style short, cylindri-
cal, shorter than ovary, glabrous, tipped by a truncate stigma
manifestly wider than the style. Berries ellipsoid, ca 1.5
1.1 cm, glandular, yellowish when ripe, 1-seeded. Seed
ellipsoid, glabrous, smooth.
Phenology, distribution and habitat
Clausena agasthyamalayana was seen mainly in the exposed
montane forests among rocks. e presently known popu-
lations comprise about 40 mature individuals at between
© 2014 e Authors. Nordic Journal of Botany © 2014 Nordic Society Oikos
Subject Editor and Editor-in-Chief: Torbjörn Tyler. Accepted 25 October 2013
Nordic Journal of Botany 33: 151–154, 2015
doi: 10.1111/njb.00404, ISSN 1756-1051
151
Figure 1. Clausena agasthyamalayana sp. nov. (a) fruiting twig, (b) leaflet base and apex, (c) flower, (d)–(e) sepals, (f) petal, (g)–(h) anthers,
(i) gynoecium, (j) cross section of the ovary, (k) fruit, (l) seed. All drawn from Shareef and Roy 70607 by S. Suresh Kumar, JNTBGRI.
152
Figure 2. Clausena agasthyamalayana sp. nov. (a) flowering twig, (b) close-up of flower, (c) fruiting branch showing ellipsoidal fruits. All
photographs taken from its natural habitat by S. M. Shareef.
1200 and 1500 m elevation. e main associated species are:
Eugenia mabaeoides Wight, Eugenia seithurensis Gopalan &
S. R. Srinivas., Eugenia discifera Gamble, Biophytum interme-
dium Wight and Euphorbia santapaui A. N. Henry.
Similar species
Clausena agasthyamalayana is similar to C. indica (Dalz.)
Oliv., but differs from it by its dwarf habit, greenish–black
bark, smaller and fewer, obovate and coriaceous leaflets
with obtuse or emarginated apex, elliptic and obtuse petals,
oblong-cordate anthers, consistently 4-locular ovary with
2 ovules in each chamber and the ellipsoid fruits (Table 1).
Diep et al. (2009) classified Clausena into four groups
based on the chemical nature of their volatile components:
terpenoid-rich, phenylpropanoid-rich, a group with chemi-
cal variants and one with mixed composition. According to
this classification C. indica belongs to the mixed composition
group where the species contain sabinene (53.1%), terpinen-
4-ol (13.1%), etc. (Anil et al. 2011). Gopanraj et al. (2004)
have studied the chemical composition of the essential oil
153
Table 1. Morphological comparison between Clausena agasthyamalayana sp. nov., C. indica, C. austroindica and C. heptaphylla.
Characters C. indica C. agasthyamalayana C. austroindica C. heptaphylla
Bark Dark green Greenish–black Green Green
Leaves (cm) 10–30 8–12 30–40 20–45
Leaflets 7–13, 3.5–7.5 2.0–3.5 cm,
elliptic to elliptic-ovate to
oblong or rarely
ovate-lanceolate,
membranous, apex acute
or acuminate
4–7, 1.2–5.0 0.8–2.5 cm,
obovate, (rarely slightly
falcate), coriaceous, apex
obtuse or emarginate
5–9, 5.5–16.0 2.5–6.0 cm,
lanceolate to obovate,
coriaceous, apex
obtuse-rounded
9–11, 6.5–11.5 3.5–4.5
cm, ovate to oblong-
lanceolate or elliptic-
oblong, membraneous to
chartaceous, acuminate
at apex
Inflorescence
(cm)
7–12 4–7 15–20 18–25
Flowers Globose in bud, to 2 mm
long, borne on 3 mm long
pedicel
Sub-globose in bud, 3 mm
long, borne on 2.5 mm
long pedicel
Sub-globose in bud, 6 mm
long, borne on 2–5 mm long
pedicel
Sub-globose, 5 mm long,
borne on 3 mm long
pedicel
Petal Oblong, acute at apex,
3.5 1.2 mm, glandular
Elliptic, obtuse at apex,
5–6 2.5–3.0 mm,
obscurely glandular
Elliptic, obtuse at apex,
3–5 1.5–3.0 mm,
obscurely glandular
Oblong or suborbicular,
obtuse-rounded at apex,
3.0–3.5 1.0–1.5 mm,
pellucid-punctate,
glabrous
Anther Ellipsoid, ca 1 mm long Oblongoid, ca 1.5 mm long Oblongoid-rhomboid, 1.5 mm
long
Oblongoid-rhombohedral,
1 mm long
Ovary 2–5-locular, each with 1 or
2 ovules
Consistently 4-locular, each
with 2 ovules
4–5-locular, each with
2 collateral ovules
4-locular, each with
2 super-imposed ovules
Fruit Globose, ca 1.5 1.5 cm Ellipsoid, ca 1.5 1.1 cm Globose or oblate, ca
8 12 mm
Oblongoid or ovoid, ca
10–15 1 mm long
of what they called C. austroindica B. C. Stone & K. N.
Nair. According to them, it belongs to the phenyl propanoid-
rich group with elemicin (66.6%) and myristicin (19.13%)
as the main compounds. An examination of their voucher
specimen (Gopanraj 51815, TBGT!) collected at 1500 m
a.s.l., revealed that it belongs to C. agasthyamalayana. is
prompted us to make a detailed investigation of the essential
oils of C. austroindica, and it was found that it belongs to the
phenylpropanoid-rich group with tran-anethole (92%) as the
principal compound (unpubl.). It is interesting to note that
many members of the genus Clausena are rich in phenylpro-
panoids. However, anethole and estragole are the major con-
stituents of the essential oils for most of the other species of
the genus investigated (Gopanraj et al. 2004). Elimicin and
myristicin are polyoxegenated phenylpropanoids and these
have not been reported as major constituents for any member
of this genus previously investigated. is is additional sup-
port of the taxonomic distinctiveness of the new species.
Additional specimen examined (paratype)
India. Kerala: iruvananthapuram district, Pongalappara,
1440 m a.s.l., 11 Jan 2011, S. M. Shareef and P. E. Roy
70699 (TBGT).
Key to the species of Clausena occurring in India
Inflorescence exclusively axillary …………… 1. C. anisata
– Inflorescence terminal and/or axillary ……………… 2
Ovary glabrous or rarely slightly hairy ……………… 32.
– Ovary pilose or hirsute …………………………… 6
Ovary cylindric, ovoid or tetragonal, sulcate, 4-lobed 3.
…….……………………………………C. heptaphylla
– Ovary subglobose, glandular-papillate ……………… 4
Ovary 3-locular ……………………………… 4. C. indica
– Ovary 4–5-locular ………………………………… 5
Fruits ellipsoid …………………… 5. C. agasthyamalayana
– Fruits globose or oblate ……………..… C. austroindica
Leaflets 15–35; gynophore hourglass-shaped …………… 6.
…………………………………………… C. excavata
– Leaflets 5–9 or rarely 1–3-foliolate; gynophore cylindric
……………………………………………………… 7
Evergreen trees; ovary globose, 5-angled …………… 7.
…….……………………………………… C. lansium
– Deciduous shrubs; ovary subglobose or oblong, entire
…….…………………………………… C. kanpurensis
Acknowledgements e authors are grateful to Dr P. G. Latha,
Director, JNTBGRI, for the facilities provided and for constant
encouragements and to Mr S. Suresh Kumar, Artist, JNTBGRI for
the illustration.
References
Anil, J. et al. 2011. Chemical composition and antibacterial activ-
ity of the leaf oil of Clausena indica from south India. J.
Essential Oil Bearing Plants 14: 776–781.
Diep, P. T. M. et al. 2009. Chemical composition and antimicrobial
activity of Clausena indica (Dalz.) Oliv. (Rutaceae) essential oil
from Vietnam. – Nat. Prod. Comm. 4: 869–872.
Gopanraj, S. et al. 2004. Chemical composition and antibacterial
activity of the leaf oil from Clausena austroindica. J. Trop.
Med. Plants 5: 233–235.
Mabberley, D. J. 2008. e plant book. – Cambridge Univ.
Press.
Molino, J.-F. 1994. Revision du genre Clausena Burm. f. (Ruta-
ceae). Bull. Mus. Natl d’Hist. Nat. Paris, 4 Ser., 16, Sect. B.
– Adansonia 1: 105–153.
Nair, K. N. and Nayar, M. P. 1997. Clausena. – In: Hajra, P. K.
et al. (eds), Flora of India. Vol. 4. Bot. Surv. Ind. Kolkata,
pp. 320–330.
Nair, T. S. et al. 2006. Flowering plants of Kerala, a handbook.
Trop. Bot. Gard. Res. Inst, iruvananthapuram, Kerala,
India.
Stone, B. C. and Nair, K. N. 1994. A new species of Clausena
(Rutaceae) from India. – Nord. J. Bot. 14: 491–493.
154
... Raj and co-workers reported the chemical composition of the leaf oil of a Clausena specimen (named as C. austroindica) collected from Agasthyamala Hills (8 • 37 ′ N, 77 • 14 ′ E; 1468 m asl) in southern Western Ghats with phenyl propanoids (elemicin 60.6%, myristicin 19.1%) as its major constituents (Raj et al., 2004). Recently, the same Clausena specimen from Agasthyamala Hills has been described as the new species Clausena agasthyamalayana E.S.S. Kumar, Shareef, Roy & Veldkamp (Santhosh Kumar et al., 2015). Therefore, Raj and co-workers (2004) actually reported the leaf oil composition of C. agasthyamalayana. ...
... But the present study showed that the leaf oil composition of C. austroindica collected from JNTBGRI and Arippa (trans-anethole: 97.44% (JNTBGRI), 95.12% (Arippa)) is entirely different from C. agasthyamalayana. These differences in chemical compositions also support the Clausena collection from Agasthyamala Hills (previously considered as C. austroindica) as the new species, C. agasthyamalayana (Santhosh Kumar et al., 2015). ...
Article
In this study, the chemical profile of the leaf essential oil of hitherto uninvestigated shrub Clausena austroindica B.C.Stone & K.K.N.Nair and its insecticidal potential against two stored product pests, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) are being investigated. Essential oils from the leaves of C. austroindica collected from two locations in south India were isolated by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Six to eight compounds comprising 99.41-99.44% were characterized with trans-anethole (phenyl propanoid) as the major component (95.12-97.44%) in leaf essential oils. Trans-anethole was isolated from the leaf oil by column chromatography, characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis), 1H-, 13C- and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT 135) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and quantified by external standardization. Insecticidal activity of C. austroindica leaf oil and trans-anethole were assessed against the rice weevil (S. oryzae) and red flour beetle (T. castaneum) by contact and fumigant toxicity assays. The mammalian cell toxicity of C. austroindica leaf oil and trans-anethole was also tested against L929 cell lines using (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) MTT assay and quantification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). C. austroindica leaf oil and trans-anethole demonstrated superior contact and fumigant toxicities against adult beetles of S. oryzae and T. castaneum. C. austroindica leaf oil and trans-anethole showed potential fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae (lethal concentration 50 (LC50) 38.80 & 76.98 µL/L) and T. castaneum (LC50 35.65 & 29.10 µL/L). Relatively less prominent viz., S. oryzae: LC50 leaf oil 469.70 µL/L, trans-anethole 2543.20 µL/L; T. castaneum: LC50 leaf oil, 1090.70 µL/L, trans-anethole 2050.84 µL/L, but significant contact toxicities were displayed by the leaf oil and trans-anethole against the two stored product pests. Both C. austroindica leaf oil and trans-anethole ( 2.0 µg/mL) have not demonstrated any mammalian cell (L929 cell line) toxicity. Our study demonstrates the potential C. austroindica leaf essential oil as a new botanical insecticide for controlling stored product pests. Its major component, trans-anethole, also showed prominent insecticidal activity.
Book
this Bibliography on scientific contributions represents the research output from JNTBGRI in the thirty five years, since the inception of its publication activities in 1980. The research outcome of inter-institutional collaborations is also included. This volume contains 1893 references published during the period 1980-2015, categorised as books, research papers, chapters in books, booklets, popular articles, newsletters etc. A subject index is included to facilitate ready reference. Indices on authors, plant categories and journals are also provided.
Book
Full-text available
The work treats 4681 flowering plants found in Kerala State, India
Article
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The palaeotropical genus Clausena is revised. 4 sections, 15 species and 6 varieties are recognized. A new vietnamese species, C. poilanei Molino, is described, 6 new combinations and one new name are proposed, and numerous new synonymies established (especially under C. anisata (Willd.) Hook.f. ex Benth., here considered as an asiatic species which recently invaded Africa). Keys to all taxa as well as typifications, descriptions, maps and drawings are given.
Article
Full-text available
The essential oil obtained from the branches and leaves of Clausena indica (Dalz) Oliv. (Rutaceae) has been analyzed by GC/MS. Fifty-three components of the essential oil, representing 96.9% of the total amount, were identified. The main constituents were myristicin (35.3%), terpinolene (16.7%), and delta-3-carene (11.3%). The essential oil was screened for antimicrobial activity, showing positive results against some bacterial strains. Moreover, a comparison between constituents of C. indica essential oil with the ones reported in the literature for other Clausena ssp. is pointed out and some chemotaxonomic considerations have been identified.
Article
Volatile oil from the fresh leaves of Clausena indica (Dalz.) Oliv. (Rutaceae) was isolated by hydrodistillation. The leaf oil was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Thirty four constituents comprising 99.0 % of the leaf oil were identified. Sabinene (53.1 %), terpinen-4-ol (13.1 %), γ-terpinene (5.0 %) and β-phellandrene (4.5 %) were the major constituents. The in vitro antibacterial activity of the leaf oil was studied by agar disc diffusion technique. C. indica leaf oil showed significant antibacterial activity against the bacteria Bacillus cereus, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella typhi.
Article
Southern Indian plants hitherto identified as Clausena heptaphylla by Gamble have been found to differ consistently in several features from that species and are here distinguished as C. austroindica n.sp. Description, relationships, relevant comparisons, habitat, variation, and specimens examined are given.
  • K N Nair
  • M P Nayar
Nair, K. N. and Nayar, M. P. 1997. Clausena. -In: Hajra, P. K. et al. (eds), Flora of India. Vol. 4. Bot. Surv. Ind. Kolkata, pp. 320-330.
Flowering plants of Kerala, a handbook
  • T S Nair
Nair, T. S. et al. 2006. Flowering plants of Kerala, a handbook. -Trop. Bot. Gard. Res. Inst, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India.
Revision du genre Clausena Burm. f. (Rutaceae). Bull. Mus. Natl d'Hist. Nat. Paris, 4 Ser., 16, Sect. B
  • Molino