J Pediatr Neonatal Care 2014, 1(2): 00005
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Journal of Pediatrics & Neonatal Care
Breast Milk versus Formula Milk and
Neuropsychological Development and Sleep
Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2014
Tamer Mohamed Gaber Rizk*
Department of Pediatrics, Al-Takhassusi Hospital, Saudi
*Corresponding author: Tamer Mohamed Gaber
Rizk, Department of Pediatrics, Al-Takhassusi Hospital,
Dr. Suleiman Al-Habib Medical Group (HMG), Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia, Tel: 96611-283-3733; Fax: 96611-283-
3033; E-mail: email@example.com
Received: April 14, 2014 | Published: May 16, 2014
areas of infantile development, namely gross motor development,
attributable to special components of breast milk or may be to a
unique feature in breastfeeding.
A cohort study including 14000 newborns, about half of
their lives, this percentage dropped down to about 4% by the
end of the fourth month of age. One third of these babies were
months. The proportion of infants who acquired their milestones
overtime increased with exclusivity of breastfeeding. Infants who
had never been breastfed were 40-50% more prone to have some
sort of motor delay than breast fed infants (10.7% vs 7.3%). These
e.g. biological, socioeconomic or psychosocial factors .
Neuro-physiological outcomes in breast fed infants was
wave latencies in formula fed infants, in addition to that,
was also seen in formula fed infants in comparison with breast
concludes that maturation and brain myelination patterns in
breast fed infants is more mature than formula fed infants .
Small for Gestational Age (SGA) born babies are at high risk
for neuro-developmental delay. Studies have shown that enriched
formula fed to term SGA infants improve their growth and their
neuro-developmental outcome. A multicenter randomized
controlled study in United Kingdom showed that there was no
Index (MDI) or Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at
MDI and PDI scores than formula fed infants. Confounding factors
accounted for one third of the resulted association with MDI
score and none of the association with PDI score. It is previously
enhancing linear growth, though this was not correlated with
assessment of neonates was done for 83 neonates at their ninth
breast fed and 42 were formula fed, the study showed that
depression, and withdrawal. This proves that breast feeding
is much advantageous for neuro-behavioral development and
organization of infants .
Minimal duration of breast feeding, or exclusive breast
feeding duration that will be needed to provide optimal neuro-
behavioral and neuro-psychological outcomes for the newborns
was previously investigated through assessing the quality
of motor development of neonates. A directly proportional
life were found to have optimal gross motor milestones in 47%,
compared to 18% in the group of neonates who were breast fed
for less than 6 weeks [5,6].
Follow up randomized studies in Honduras for breast fed
infants for 4 months and older showed that exclusive breast
feeding for 6 months was linked to better developmental
milestones acquirement than introducing solid food. In addition
to breast feeding from the fourth month, they crawled sooner and
was more likely to walk by a maximum of 12 months, than other
infants who were exposed to solid food since the age of 4 months
even in addition to breast feeding .
Exclusive breast feeding should always be encouraged and
sleeping pattern, psychosocial development as well as other
critical areas of early infant development.
2. Khedr EM, Farghaly WM, Sel-D A, Osman AA (2004) Neural maturation
Breast Milk versus Formula Milk and Neuropsychological Development and Sleep
Citation: Gaber Rizk TM (2014)
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3. Morley R, Fewtrell MS, Abbott RA, Stephenson T, MacFadyen U, et al.
(2004) Neurodevelopment in children born small for gestational age:
a randomized trial of nutrient-enriched versus standard formula and
comparison with a reference breastfed group. Pediatrics 113 (3 Pt 1):
breast-fed one-week-olds demonstrate superior neurobehavioral
organization. J Pediatr Psychol 28(8): 529-534.
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