As with all crops, indigenous or exotic, in Africa there are many different production systems. The main differentiating attributes include location, size, proximity to homestead, commercial or subsistence, nature and quantity of inputs, and whether the crops are planted in mixed or pure stands (see Chapter 1). Different combinations of these attributes result in a wide array of production systems, both within countries and between them. For example, Table 5.1 shows considerable regional differences in AIV production systems between two cities in Uganda. In comparison, in northern Tanzania, approximately one third of AIVs are intercropped, while two-thirds are cultivated in pure stands, with 67 per cent of all plots using sowing rather than broadcasting (Weinberger and Msuya, 2004). Intercropping of AIVs with field crops such as maize, cassava and sugar cane has multiple uses. The ever-changing climatic situation globally has left Africa, in particular, very vulnerable to the unpredictability of weather. Indigenous crops are better placed to withstand drastic changes in natural systems. Intercropping of adaptable species could be used by farmers as an insurance against crop failure. The most commercially viable crops are also produced in farms as opposed to kitchen gardens. Even within urban areas, AIV production systems are not uniform. Gockowski et al (2003) identified three distinctive styles of production across the urban/peri-urban landscape in Yaoundé: 1 an intensive urban (IU) system located within the city limits, characterized by mono-cropping, often on raised beds in inland valleys using high levels of inputs; 2 a semi-intensive peri-urban (SIPU) style extending approximately 30km outside the city limits that also mono-crops on raised beds in inland valleys but using fewer inputs than intensive urban producers; and 3 an extensive peri-urban (EPU) style within an approximate radius of 30km of the city limits that produces AIVs in mixed associations with staple crops and no purchased inputs. In rural areas, subsistence AIV cultivation generally follows an extensive cropping pattern in association with staples or tree crops. AIVs are planted between and around other staple crops such as maize, cassava, etc. In rural areas, production and marketing is undertaken mainly by women. However, as soon as cash generation potential of the crop increases, men become more involved (Jansen van Rensburg et al, 2007) (as is the case with many other natural resources). This may be one of the reasons why more men are involved in production activities in urban and peri-urban areas, while marketing is still left to women. In addition, producers are younger in urban areas, where commercial production is more labour intensive and often necessitates hired labour, which is mainly offered by young men. Some young people who migrated from rural and resource-poor regions in search of improved living standards convert to the production of AIVs when they are unable to secure the jobs they hoped for, which provides them with a source of income and food for subsistence. The further away one moves from the urban centre, women increasingly engage in production activities, while men are called upon for tasks that require greater physical strength. Activities such as ploughing, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide application have always been considered men’s activities, while sowing, harvesting and trading are considered women’s activities. Although there are a great variety of production systems, the two most common ones, typically differentiated by size and location, are arable fields and home gardens. There are many variations of these.