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Natural herbal supplements- A study on their nutritional value and their phytochemical constituents

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Abstract

Nutritional deficiency is almost impossible to avoid in these modern times, thus natural supplements help us to overcome the nutritional deficiencies. It also helps us to boost our immune system. Nutritional supplements are also useful in getting rid of the toxins that are accumulated in our body. Thus, the five natural supplements that are mentioned below are tested for the various parameters that include the basic Quality Control Parameters, the phyto chemical analysis, Microbial Analysis that includes the testing for the presence of pathogens along with the total bacterial and fungal count. It is also tested for the presence of heavy metals in them, followed by Aflatoxin and Pesticide analysis. The Nutritional Value for each of them were determined and calculated. The actives of Garcinia Capsule, Ginger Capsule and Holy Basil Capsule were confirmed by the HPLC method. INTRODUCTION: Nutritional deficiency is almost impossible to avoid in these modern times, thus natural supplements help us to overcome the nutritional deficiencies. It also helps us to boost our immune system. Nutritional supplements are also useful in getting rid of the toxins that are accumulated in our body.

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... Besides acting as a phytotherapic coadjuvant for the treatment of obesity, the GC extract and its active component HCA have also been used to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides. It is also available with addition of calcium, magnesium, potassium and mixtures thereof due to other effects, such as improvement of glucose tolerance and of blood pressure 20,21 . ...
... Unlike chemical stimulants used for weight loss, it does not act on the central nervous system and does not cause insomnia, nervousness, changes in blood pressure or heart rate and its efficiency does not decrease along the time 17,21 . This way, the GC extract is quickly becoming a popular ingredient among many supplements for weight loss and has been used routinely for many centuries for not showing toxic effects 3 . ...
... Recently, there was found that the GC supplementation can be used as a metabolic regulator of obesity and lipid abnormalities in the system of mammals. 19 Pandya et al. 21 , Sethi 3 , and Krishnamoorthy 17 claim that GC/HCA reduces the lipid levels in blood, such as triglycerides and cholesterol, besides of increasing the thermogenesis. The HCA inhibits competitively the After 60 min of cycling exercise at 70-75% VO 2max received 500mg of HCA with a meal high in (CHO 80%, 8% LIP, 12% PROT). ...
Article
Introduction: due to the significant increase in the obesity rate in recent years, public health has been facing in many countries of the world, one of the major problems caused by this disease. Because of this, natural products arise, herbal, to assist in the treatment of obesity due to their safer effects. Among these, stands out the extract obtained from dried fruits of Garcinia Cambogia (GC), which has been studied and used as a natural supplement for weight loss. Objective: to investigate the GC administration as a coadjuvant factor in the treatment of obesity regarding to its effectiveness, way of action, recommended daily amount, side effects and contraindications, as a way of food and nutritional security for the population. Methodology: literature review. There were consulted the database of LILACS-BIREME data, SciELO and MEDLINE and there were selected scientific articles published in English, Portuguese and Spanish, between the period of 2007 and 2014 that conducted studies involving the administration of the GC as a way of treatment for obesity. The descriptors used for research articles in the databases were the following: Garcinia Cambogia in Portuguese, and in English the terms used were "Garcinia Cambogia", "weight loss and obesity", and "Hydroxycitric Acid (HCA)"; this last one is not a descriptor indexed in Decs, but given the importance of this term for the search, it was adopted as a keyword. Thirty-four articles were identified, but only 21 were related to the objectives of this study. The first analysis of the articles was conducted by the title and then by the summary. In addition, 17 references were included because of their relevance to the study. Results: in some analyzed works, there was observed that the GC showed positive effects on weight loss process, appetite reduction, body fat percentage, triglycerides, cholesterol and glucose levels, lipogenesis process, while others had no effect. Conclusion: studies suggest positive results about the effectiveness of the GC on the weight loss process. However, the ideal dosage has not been well established yet. There is little evidence of adverse effects and signs of protective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by ethanol. Therefore, it becomes necessary to carry out further studies to confirm the efficacy of this phytotherapy in the weight loss process.
... Concomitantly, the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with the herbal composition, sperm density vis‑a‑vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels [23] @BULLET Pandya et al., 2011, have suggested that Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) can increase the testosterone by increasing the LH and the gonadotropin‑releasing hormone. This hormone is active in stimulating spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in rats [24] @BULLET Seyyed et al., 2015, in their study indicated that the Ferula asafoetida (Hingu) significantly increased the number and viability of sperms (P < 0.05). ...
... After 90 days of treatment with the herbal composition, sperm density vis‑a‑vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels [23] @BULLET Pandya et al., 2011, have suggested that Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris) can increase the testosterone by increasing the LH and the gonadotropin‑releasing hormone. This hormone is active in stimulating spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in rats [24] @BULLET Seyyed et al., 2015, in their study indicated that the Ferula asafoetida (Hingu) significantly increased the number and viability of sperms (P < 0.05). Histological study showed that spermatogenesis process and numbers of Leydig cells were increased with increasing the dose, but the Leydig cells become vacuolated [25] @BULLET Sudipta and Asit in 2013 found that Shweta Musali (Chlorophytum borivilianum) water extract showed highly significant improvement in the semen parameters (volume, liquefaction time, sperm count, and sperm motility) and nonsignificant improvement in serum testosterone levels, in comparison to placebo in a randomized, double‑blind, placebo‑controlled trial upon healthy volunteers of 20–40 years age for 12 weeks in two divided doses of 500 mg per day [26] @BULLET Ahmad et al. in 2010 observed that Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) significantly increased serum testosterone and LH, reduced the levels of FSH and PRL, inhibited lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content, and improved sperm count and motility [27] @BULLET Kamla Kant Shukla et al. in 2010 found that the treatment with Mucuna pruriens (Atmagupta) significantly ameliorated psychological stress and seminal plasma lipid peroxide levels along with improved sperm count and motility, restored the levels of SOD, catalase, GSH, and ascorbic acid in seminal plasma of infertile men [28] @BULLET Falgun et al. in 2015 observed that Asparagus adscendens Roxb. ...
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Ayurveda scientifically described as andrology (Vajikarana) incorporates semen morphology in normal and pathological conditions, as 8-fold pathological condition and therapy are based on them. Morphological and physicochemical evaluation methods of semen are useful in better diagnosis of clinical manifestation of underlying etiopathology. Based on the standard publications on andrology, an attempt is made to integrate the clinical and laboratory diagnostics of semen physiology and pathology, which help in understanding the abnormalities in conventional Ayurveda as well as modern medicine to plan appropriate pharmacotherapy. Integrative approach would open up new arena in andrology and widen the scope of therapeutic benefits to more infertile males.
... Allicin, found in the garlic bulb, serves as a powerful antibiotic which aids the body in inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria [63]. One milligram of allicin is equal to 15 standard units of penicillin [63]. ...
... Allicin, found in the garlic bulb, serves as a powerful antibiotic which aids the body in inhibiting the growth and reproduction of bacteria [63]. One milligram of allicin is equal to 15 standard units of penicillin [63]. Allicin attacks over 23 types of bacteria, such as staph and salmonella, 60 types of fungi and yeast and is also effective against 17 of the most dangerous fungi [64]. ...
... Garlic extract contains enzymes, B vitamins, proteins, minerals, saponins, flavonoids, sulphur and allyl group (H2CHCH2), mainly diallyl disulfide. Furthermore, a phytoalexin (allixin) has been found (Pandya et al., 2011). Kubota et al. (1999) stated that the active substances in garlic cloves is about 1-3% of sulfur compounds are responsible for breaking bud dormancy in grapevine and their effects varied among the concentration and the duration of exposure. ...
... It has been claimed that the positive effect of garlic extract in enhancing crop growth and yield may be due to the presence of nutritional factors such as minerals, enzymes, phenols, essential oils, vitamins, sulfur compounds (Pandya et al. 2011;Abd El-Hamied and El-Amary 2015;El-Sharony et al. 2015), but little is known about its content of phytohormones. ...
Article
Garlic extract has been established to enhance the growth and yield of some plant crops, but little is known about its content of phytohormones. A field study was carried out, in two growing seasons, to evaluate the performance of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cv. “Paulista” in terms of growth traits, biochemical parameters, hormonal status and yield characteristics in response to two-time foliar spray at 30 and 45 days after sowing with three concentrations (1:40, 1:20 and 1:10) of garlic cloves extract (GCE). The experiment was designed in completely randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement with three replicates. The hormonal analysis indicated that GCE contains high levels of various phytohormones particularly salicylates, auxins, and gibberellins. Plant height, leaf area, leaves number, plant weight, flowers number and leaf and pod chemical compositions were significantly enhanced in response to GCE. The high dose of GCE caused the maximum increase in number of pods, pod fresh weight as well as the total pod yield. This stimulating effect of GCE may be due not only to its nutritional factors but also to its richness of phytohormones and phenolic compounds, and it can be further used as a plant growth promoter (PGP).
... The turbidity of the cultures was lowest at the 1.0g/ml concentration of the garlic extract(absorbance was 60%). This is in agreement with the findings of Pandya et al. (2011) who described that aqueous solution of the ethanolic Allium sativum extract can completely inhibit the growth of S. aureus at concentrations of above 1.0 g/ml. ...
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This study was carried out to determine the anti-biofilm effect of various concentrations of ethanolic Allium sativum extract on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from wound swab samples. The presence of the clfA gene in the isolate used for this study was confirmed via PCR and agarose gel electrophoresis. Ethanolic extract of Allium sativum was prepared in 0.2, 0.25, 0.33, 0.5 and 1g/ml concentrations; these were used to treat broth cultures of the Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Changes in the turbidity of the cultures were determined using a spectrophotometer (600nm). A general decrease in culture turbidity was observed with increasing concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus broth cultures treated with 0.2g/ml concentration had an absorbance of 89% while at the 1.0g/ml concentration, absorbance was 60%.The decrease in turbidity of Staphylococcus aureus indicates allicin’s suppression of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation or dispersal of the produced biofilm. This study showed the effect of Allium sativum extract in inhibiting biofilm formation in S. aureus. The prospect of employing purified A. sativum extracts in treating S. aureus infections may improve the efficacy of treatment of previously difficult to treat infections.
... Wild fruits and berries have been consumed as a source of vitamins, minerals and nutrient supplements (Singh, 2011;Bhatt, Rawat, Badhani, & Rawal, 2017) and are used in the preparations of energy drinks, antioxidant and multivitamin pills, natural flavor, wine, color and food ingredients (Ferruzzi, 2003;Pandya, Solanki, Maniar, Gurav, & Bhatt, 2011). The market of natural antioxidants is increasing exponentially every year and demand in Asia Pacific region is much higher as compared to other regions (Antioxidant market, 2015). ...
Article
Berberis jaeschkeana fruits, source of nutraceutically important polyphenolics were investigated. A total of 32 experimental run were conducted under Plackett-Burman and Central Composite design. Microwave power, methanol and HCl concentration significantly (p<0.05) affect extraction of polyphenols under linear, quadratic and interactive effect. The model showed good fitness with significant (p<0.05) model F-value and a non-significant lack of fit. Under optimum microwave assisted extraction (MAE) condition the total phenolics, flavonoids, tannins and antioxidant activity were in closed context with predicted values. As comparison to ultrasonic (UAE) and maceration extraction (ME), MAE showed significantly (p<0.05) higher recovery of TP, TF and FRAP antioxidant activity. HPLC-DAD analysis detects a total of 10 polyphenolic compounds under MAE as compared to 9 under UAE and ME. Designing of MAE conditions showed promising results for polyphenolic antioxidants extraction as revealed by higher yield with lesser time and solvent consumption, which can contribute in green extraction technology and its application in nutraceutical industry.
... Similar finding in the present work reveals with the prior work. 4,14 ...
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Herbal medicines are used to cure diseases since a great many year back in light of its simple accessibility, social worthiness and less side effect. As of late a fast request of herbal products is seen in the worldwide situation on account of unfavorable impact of advanced medicines. A survey based study was composed thusly to perceive the awareness about herbal medicines among literate populace. Most extreme people groups (69.67%) satisfy with the use of herbal products. Maximum individuals fall in awareness index 4 and 3 (39.13 and 28.26%) it signifies awareness of people with herbal products. The general population use herbal medication for the most part for cosmetics took after by teeth consideration and assimilation. Awareness index was found more in rural population and peoples with higher education level. Now it is concluded peoples have acceptable information about herbal medicines, philosophy of usage and manufacturer.
... Medicinal plants play an important role for the management of different microbial infections . Medicinal plants must be tested for microbiological contamination and foreign materials to assure quality (Kruti et al., 2011). In third world countries, including Pakistan, where contagious diseases are common, it is important to search out and promote plant-derived medicines. ...
... It can increase the testosterone by increasing the luteinizing hormone and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. [10] This hormone is effective in building muscles as well as improving fertility and libido, and it has also been proved to be active in stimulating spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in rats. [11] However, to generate an evidence based on this, this clinical study has been carried out on Gokshura for the role of Vrishya (Aphrodisiac). ...
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Infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting on an average 8-12% of couples worldwide. Low sperm count (Oligozoospermia) is one of the main causes of male infertility and it is correlated with Kshina Shukra. The fruits of Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris. Linn) are considered to act as a diuretic and aphrodisiac; they used for urolithiasis, sexual dysfunctions, and infertility. Hence, it was planned to study the effect of Gokshura in the management of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), and to evade the preconception, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was designed. In this study, eligible subjects between the age of 21 and 50 years, with a complaint of Kshina Shukra (Oligozoospermia), were randomized to receive either Gokshura granules or placebo granules for 60 days. The primary outcome measures were percentage changes in the Pratyatmaka Lakshanas (cardinal symptoms) of Kshina Shukra, Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, the semenogram, and in the Quality of the Sexual Health Questionnaire. The placebo granules showed 70.95% improvement, whereas, the Gokshura granules showed 78.11% improvement in Rogi bala (Agni bala, Deha bala, Satva bala, and the Quality of Sexual Health) and Rogabala (Semen Analysis and Pratyatmaka Lakshanas). The Gokshura granules have shown superior results in the management of Kshina Shukra, as compared to the placebo granules.
... is mentioned as a Vrishya (Aphrodisiac) [9] and also used in almost all prescriptions, along with other drugs, to treat the malady Kshina Shukra. Studies have suggested that Gokshura can enhance the hormone levels to within a normal range. It can increase the testosterone by increasing the luteinizing hormone and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone. [10] This hormone is effective in building muscles as well as improving fertility and libido, and it has also been proved to be active in stimulating spermatogenesis and sertoli cell activity in rats. [11] However, to generate an evidence based on this, this clinical study has been carried out on Gokshura for the role of Vrishya (Aphrodisiac ...
Article
Failure of conception and failed to reproduce is a curse in the society, the couple faces a lot of mental agony. A case of Asthenospermia treated with Ayurvedic management with truthful result is presented here. The case of infertility, married since 2 years having age of 29 and 21 years of male and female partners respectively. They were having H/O using contraceptive for 6 months after marriage. Thereafter the couple are not using any contraceptive for 1 year. Failure to conceive within 1 year she came for Ayurvedic treatment. After investigating the couple, it was found that clinically with follicular study of female partner was WNL, while semen analysis of male partner shows Asthenospermia. Thereafter male partner was given Ayurvedic treatment for 3 months, which caused increased in sperm motility and after 7 months the couple get conceived.
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The provision of the needs of Egypt's wheat is the hardest challenge in light of the widening gap between production and the increasing demands to this crop, especially with increasing population and water resources shortage in Egypt. So, two field experiments were conducted of urea fertilizer (1and 2 %), licorice (5 and 10%) and garlic extract (0.5 and 1%) as a foliar application on wheat aspects, N, K, P content and uptake under sandy soil conditions. The used experimental design was a complete randomized block design with three replicates. The treatments were added three times at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing .The obtained results illustrated that the used treatments significantly affected wheat plant. The highest grains and straw yield values were recorded with 0.5 % garlic extract followed by 1 % garlic extract, then 2 % urea, while the lowest values were occurred with the control treatment in both seasons. The best biological yield values (5475.6 and 6359.34 kg fed-1) in both seasons were found with the treatment of 0.5 % garlic extract. The total nitrogen content in straw was significantly affected by all used treatments where, it increased with the treatments of 1 % urea, 2% urea followed by 0.5 % garlic extract and decreased significantly with the treatment of 10% licorice extract compared with the control. The all used treatments were significantly increased potassium uptake by grains and straw compared with the control treatment. Phosphorus uptake in grains was significantly increased with increasing urea, garlic extract concentration and 5 % licorice extract while, it decreased with the treatments of 10 % licorice extract. Finally, it could be concluded that natural garlic extract is the best for enhancing wheat plant production and at the same time reducing the use of urea as a chemical fertilizer.
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Ayurvedic formulations [such as solid dosage (vati, churna), semisolid (avaleha, ghritas), liquid (asava, arishta)] have numerous uses in Ayurveda. They effect or help to rectify the three doshas in the body, and restore homeostatic balance that builds up in the body’s digestive system and spreads to the tissues. Standardization and analysis of the chemical marker of the Ayurvedic and other poly herbal formulation has always been a concern. For Researchers, Standardization is the need of hour for the present era to set standards for maintaining the quality and efficacy of the herbal products. HPTLC offers major advantages over other conventional chromatographic techniques such as unsurpassed flexibility (esp. stationary and mobile phase), choice of detection wavelength, user friendly, rapid and cost effective/economical. The present study compiles the progress made on the development of optimized and validated HPTLC/HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of markers in different ayurvedic churnas/ preparations. HPTLC/HPLC profile is quite helpful in setting up of standards. The present study is an attempt to compile the major studies carried out on Ayurvedic preparations like: Churnas, avaleha, asava, arishta, vati, rasa, taila, ghritas and herbal capsules etc. which may be of use to develop/compile the fingerprint profile for evaluating the purity & quality of ayurvedic formulations, thus helpful as a reference in developing pharmacopoeial standards.
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The molluscicidal activity of water extracts of pre- and post-harvested garlic (Allium sativum) was studied against the snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus. The increase in 24-h toxicity of garlic bulbs from the 2nd to the 11th month after sowing, against Lymnaea acuminata was 48.33 times, whereas against I. exustus it was 24 times. The increase in toxicity of pre- and post- harvest garlic bulbs is discussed in relation to the synthesis of a chemical in the pre-harvested bulb and changes in the chemical composition of garlic after harvesting.
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We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia as compared to gentamicin in E. Coli induced peritonitis. Pretreatment with tinospora cordifolia or gentamicin reduced mortality in mice injected with 1 x 10(8) E. coli intraperitoneally from 100% in controls to 17.8% and 11.1% respectively. This was associated with significantly improved bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils in the Tinospora cordifolia treated group. In the gentamicin treated mice although bacterial clearance was rapid, polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. Tinospora cordifolia did not possess in vitro bactericidal activity. The results demonstrate that a "prohost approach" may be beneficial in the therapy of peritonitis.
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Allixin, a phytoalexin isolated from garlic, was examined for its effects on aflatoxin B1(AFB1)-induced mutagenesis using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 as the bacterial tester strain and rat liver S9 fraction as the metabolic activation system. The effects of allixin on the binding of [3H]AFB1 to calf thymus DNA and on the formation of metabolites of [3H]AFB1 were also determined. Allixin showed a dose-related inhibition of Histidine+ revertants induced by AFB1. Allixin at 75 micrograms/ml inhibited [3H]AFB1 binding to calf thymus DNA and reduced formation of AFB1-DNA adducts. In addition, allixin exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the formation of organosoluble metabolites and the glutathione conjugates of [3H]AFB1. The data indicate that the effect of allixin on AFB1-induced mutagenesis and binding of metabolites to DNA may be mediated through an inhibition of microsomal P-450 enzymes. Allixin may thus be useful in the chemoprevention of cancer.
Article
This study was designed to evaluate the antimotion sickness activity of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) and to characterize the effects of ginger on gastric function. Twenty-eight human volunteers participated in the project. Subjects made timed head movements in a rotating chair until they reached an endpoint of motion sickness short of vomiting (malaise III or M-III). Each subject was tested with either ginger or scopolamine and a placebo. A substance was judged to possess antimotion sickness activity if it allowed a greater number of head movements compared to placebo control. Gastric emptying of a liquid was measured by nuclear medicine techniques in normal and motion sick subjects. Gastric electrical activity was monitored by cutaneous (surface) electrodes positioned over the abdominal area. Powder ginger (whole root, 500 or 1,000 mg) or fresh ginger root (1,000 mg) provided no protection against motion sickness. In contrast, subjects performed an average of 147.5 more head movements (p less than 0.01) after scopolamine (0.6 mg p.o.) than after placebo. The rate of gastric emptying was significantly (p less than 0.05) slowed when tested immediately after M-III but was inhibited less when tested 15 min after M-III. Powdered ginger (500 mg) had no effect on gastric emptying in normal or motion-sick subjects. Gastric motility was also changed during motion sickness. The frequency of the electrogastrogram (EGG) was increased after M-III (tachygastria) and the normal increase in EGG amplitude after liquid ingestion was reduced in motion sick subjects. Although powdered ginger (500 mg) partially inhibited tachygastria in motion sickness, it did not enhance the EGG amplitude in motion sick subjects. We conclude that ginger does not possess antimotion sickness activity, nor does it significantly alter gastric function during motion sickness.
Article
In a multicentric placebo-controlled randomised study the effect of standardized garlic-powder tablets (Kwai, Sapec) in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia was investigated. A total of 261 patients of 30 general practitioners in West Germany with total cholesterol and/or triglyceride values more than 200 mg/dl (mostly hyperlipoproteinaemia type II a/II b) took part in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to take tablets containing a total of 800 mg garlic powder (standardized to 1.3% of alliin content) daily or the same number of placebo tablets for 16 weeks (monthly controlled). 221 patients were used for statistical analysis of total cholesterol and 219 patients for the analysis of triglyceride values. Mean serum cholesterol levels dropped in the verum group from 266 to 235 mg/dl (i.e. 12%) during the 4 month treatment period, mean triglyceride values fell in the verum group from 226 to 188 mg/dl (i.e. 17%). The best cholesterol lowering effects were seen in the patients with initial total cholesterol values between 250-300 mg/dl. The difference between the verum and placebo group was highly significant (p less than 0.001). A mild garlic smell was observed in up to 21% of the verum group and up to 9% in the placebo group. Only one of the patients left the study for this reason. Standardized garlic tablets have been shown to be effective in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia by lowering total cholesterol values by an average of 12% and triglyceride values by an average of 17%.
Article
In a double-blind randomized placebo trial, the effect of the powdered rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was tested on seasickness. Eighty naval cadets, unaccustomed to sailing in heavy seas reported during voyages on the high seas, symptoms of seasickness every hour for 4 consecutive hours after ingestion of 1 g of the drug or placebo. Ginger root reduced the tendency to vomiting and cold sweating significantly better than placebo did (p less than 0.05). With regard to vomiting, a modified Protection Index (PI) = 72% was calculated. Remarkably fewer symptoms of nausea and vertigo were reported after ginger root ingestion, but the difference was not statistically significant. For all symptom categories, PI = 38% was calculated.
Article
The effects of the powdered rhizome of Zingiber officinale on the symptoms of motion sickness were compared with those of dimenhydrinate and placebo in 36 undergraduate men and women who reported very high susceptibility to motion sickness. Motion sickness was induced by placing the blindfolded subject in a tilted rotating chair. Measurements of perceived degree of gastrointestinal distress were reported every 15 s for up to 6 minutes by means of psychophysical methods. Z. officinalewas superior to dimenhydrinate in reducing motion sickness.
Article
Male Wistar rats weighing 150–200 g maintained under standard laboratory conditions and given Hindustan Lever Pellets and waterad libitum were exposed to −20°C for determination of the rate of fall of rectal temperature and survival time. The rate of fall of body temperature was significantly increased and the survival time was reduced, when animals were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 ml/kg BW of CCl4 24 h but not 2 h earlier. Pre-treatment of the animals with 0.006 ml of garlic oil in a 2% solution of arachis oil for 3 days gave a significant protection to the animals against the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. Administration of glucose orally 300 mg in 2 ml of saline eliminated the CCl4-induced fall in cold tolerance. The animals displayed a hypoglycemia 24 h, but not 2 h after injection of CCl4. CCl4-induced hypoglycemia was reduced by pre-treatment with garlic oil. The results indicate that the CCl4-induced reduction in cold tolerance is secondary to hypoglycemia and not due to the direct effect of CCl4 on the thermoregulatory mechanism in the CNS. The critical level of blood glucose below which the cold tolerance is reduced was found to be 76 mg/100 ml of blood.
Article
The rate of rise of body temperature and the survival time on exposure to a temperature of 40°C was recorded in normal Wistar rats and those given ip injection of 1 ml/kg BW of CCl4 24 h earlier with and without administration of (a) garlic oil (0.006 ml in arachis oil) 3 days earlier, (b) Dl-α-tocopherol (450 mg/kg BW) 48 h before CCl4 (c) glucose (300 mg in 2 ml saline) 30 min before exposure to heat stress. Significant protection against the reduction in heat tolerance by CCl4 was provided by glucose and garlic but not by vitamin E. The reduction in heat tolerance by CCl4 was attributed to the hypoglycemia caused by it, followed by breakdown of the thermoregulatory centres in the hypothalamus. The protective effect of glucose was attributed to the restoration of blood glucose levels and that of the garlic oil to its protective effect on hepatocytes against CCl4 toxicity.
Albino rats were pretreated orally for seven days with different doses of the essential oil and juice of garlic. These animals were challenged with isoprenaline (85 mg/kg, s.c.) on day six and seven to induce myocardial necrosis. The same rats were also subjected to swimming test before and after forty eight hr of first injection of isoprenaline. Pretreatment with essential oil (2.0 and 4.0 mg/kg) and juice (2.0 and 4.0 ml/kg) significantly protected the myocardium from isoprenaline-induced necrosis. These animals also exhibited better swimming performance. In separate group of animals, pretreatment with garlic juice (4.0 ml/kg) or essential oil (4.0 mg/kg) improved the chances of survival in isoprenaline-challenged animals.
Article
Cholesterol containing diet significantly increased not only the body weight, but also the weight of liver and adipose tissue of rats. This is accompanied by a significant increase in blood lipids, atherogenic index and lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in reduced glutathione level, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in tissues. Treatment with S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide reverses the deleterious effects of cholesterol diet significantly and almost as effectively as gugulipid.
Article
Allium sativum (garlic) derived preparations are used alone or with amphotericin B in Asia to treat human systemic fungal infections and cryptococcal meningitis. To evaluate the scientific merit of using allicin-derived compounds as an anti-fungal drug, we prepared a concentrated A. sativum extract that contained 34% allicin, 44% total thiosulfinates, and 20% vinyldithiins. We found that the concentrated extract possessed potent in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activity against 3 different isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the concentrated garlic extract against 1 x 10(5) organisms of C. neoformans ranged from 6 to 12 micrograms/ml. In addition, in vitro synergistic fungistatic activity with amphotericin B was demonstrated against all isolates of C. neoformans. This study lends laboratory support for the treatment of cryptococcal infections with concentrated garlic extracts.
Article
The effects of garlic (Allium sativum L., Liliaceae) dialysate were studied on arrhythmias induced in anaesthetized dogs and on isolated left rat atria. Garlic dialysate suppressed premature ventricular contractions (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ouabain-intoxicated dogs as well as the ectopic rhythms induced by isoprenaline (10(-6) M) and aconitine (10(-8) M) on electrically driven left rat atria. The effective refractory period (ERP) and the sinus node recovery time (SNRT) of isolated rat atria were prolonged in a dose-dependent manner by the administration of this extract. Garlic dialysate decreased the positive inotropic and chronotropic effects of isoprenaline in a concentration-dependent manner. These last effects were increased by propranolol. The results suggest that garlic dialysate has a significant antiarrhythmic effect in both ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias.
Article
The antioxidant properties of three garlic preparations and organosulfur compounds in garlic have been determined. Aged garlic extract inhibited the emission of low level chemiluminescence and the early formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBA-RS) in liver microsomal fraction initiated by t-butyl hydroperoxide. However, the water extracts of raw and heat-treated garlic enhanced the emission of low level chemiluminescence. Among the variety of organosulfur compounds, S-allylcysteine (SAC) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), the major organosulfur compounds found in aged garlic extract, showed radical scavenging activity in both chemiluminescence and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, indicating that these compounds may play an important role in the antioxidative activity of aged garlic extract.
Article
Screening of 132 extracts from Argentine folk-medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity has been conducted using a penicillin G resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger as test microorganisms. Cephazolin, ampicillin and miconazole were used as standard antibiotics and concentration-response curves were obtained using the agar-well diffusion method. Boiling water extracts of plant materials were tested and 12 species were active against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas 10 were effective against Escherichia coli and 4 against Aspergillus niger. Tabebuia impetiginosa bark, Achyrocline sp. aerials parts, Larrea divaricata leaves, Rosa borboniana flowers, Punica granatum fruit pericarp, Psidium guineense fruit pericarp, Lithrea ternifolia leaves and Allium sativum bulbs produced some of the more active extracts.
Using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 100 and TA 1535, the mutagenicity and anti-mutagenicity of extracts of several spices were checked. Spices like pepper, pippali, ginger and mustard increased the number of revertants indicating their mutagenic potential. Garlic extract on the other hand was found to inhibit the mutagenicity produced by direct acting mutagens such as N-methyl N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium azide. Asafoetida and turmetic extract were found to inhibit microsomal activation dependent mutagenicity of 2-acetamidofluorene. Similar results were also obtained using curcumin and eugenol which are phenolics present in turmeric and clove respectively. These results indicated that some of the spices may ameliorate the effect of environmental mutagens especially present in the food.
Article
S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide (SACS), a sulphur containing aminoacid of garlic is the precursor of allicin and garlic oil, and has been found to show significant radio protective effect in albino rats which were whole body irradiated with 400 rads of irradiation by Cobalt 60 source. It markedly reduced the radiation induced mortality and showed significant protection against the tissue damaging effects of irradiation in histopathological sections of liver and lung.
Article
Adult male Swiss albino mice were administered 74 kBq g-1 body weight of 45Ca in the presence and absence of garlic unsaturated oils, and the changes in total lipids, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids contents of liver were observed at various intervals from 1 to 14 days post-treatment. The results obtained indicate that garlic oils prevented rapid increase in hepatic total lipids, triglycerides and phospholipids and decrease in free fatty acids induced by radiocalcium and the values reached normal values earlier in garlic treated animals than in irradiated animals. Possible mechanism underlying the protective action of garlic oils is reported.
Article
Crude aqueous extract of garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L. single clove variety) was administered by gavage to mice of both sexes daily for up to 30 and 60 days, in doses corresponding to 6 g for a 60 kg human body. Sodium arsenite (at 1/50 of LD50 dose) was injected subcutaneously to mice on every 7th day of the experiment. Chromosome preparations made from bone marrow following flame drying Giemsa schedule were screened for chromosomal aberrations. The clastogenic affects of prolonged exposure to sodium arsenite --a strong clastogen-- was reduced by a highly significant amount when crude garlic extract, in the dose used, was given daily to the mice by intubation for the same period.
Article
Exposure of HeLa cells to 0, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 microg/ml of guduchi extracts (methanol, aqueous and methylene chloride) resulted in a dose-dependent but significant increase in cell killing, when compared to non-drug-treated controls. The effects of methanol and aqueous extracts were almost identical. However, methylene chloride extract enhanced the cell killing effect by 2.8- and 6.8-fold when compared either to methanol or aqueous extract at 50 and 100 microg/ml, respectively. Conversely, the frequency of micronuclei increased in a concentration-dependent manner in guduchi-treated groups and this increase in the frequency of micronuclei was significantly higher than the non-drug-treated control cultures and also with respect to 5 microg/ml guduchi extract-treated cultures, at the rest of the concentrations evaluated. Furthermore, the micronuclei formation was higher in the methylene chloride extract-treated group than in the other two groups. The dose response relationship for all three extracts evaluated was linear quadratic. The effect of guduchi extracts was comparable or better than doxorubicin treatment. The micronuclei induction was correlated with the surviving fraction of cells and the correlation between cell survival and micronuclei induction was found to be linear quadratic. Our results demonstrate that guduchi killed the cells very effectively in vitro and deserves attention as an antineoplastic agent.
Article
Garlic and some of its organosulfur components have been found to be potent inhibitors of platelet aggregation in vitro. Demonstration of their efficacy in vivo, however, especially when administered over extended periods, is sparse. We recently performed a 10-month study comparing the effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) with placebo on the lipid profiles of moderately hypercholesterolemic men. In the course of the intervention trial, we examined platelet functions and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation in a subgroup of this study population. Study subjects supplemented with 7.2 AGE per day showed a significant reduction of epinephrine- and, to a lesser degree, collagen-induced platelet aggregation but failed to demonstrate an inhibition of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen, measured in a laminar flow chamber at moderately high shear rate, was reduced by approximately 30% in subjects taking AGE compared with placebo supplement. A trend toward decreased susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation also was noted during AGE administration compared with the placebo period. We conclude that the beneficial effect of garlic preparations on lipids and blood pressure extends also to platelet function, thus providing a wider potential protection of the cardiovascular system.
Article
A large and increasing number of patients use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician regarding their use. More than one third of Americans use herbs for health purposes, yet patients (and physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies. Burgeoning interest in medicinal herbs has increased scientific scrutiny of their therapeutic potential and safety, thereby providing physicians with data to help patients make wise decisions about their use. This article provides a review of the data on 12 of the most commonly used herbs in the United States. In addition, we provide practical information and guidelines for the judicious use of medicinal herbs.
Article
Epidemiological studies in China provide reason to suspect that a rich garlic content in the diet might reduce the proliferation of tumors in humans. We conducted experiments on human tumor cell lines and determined the influence of a garlic powder preparation, a garlic extract (reported as 8-10% L(+)-alliin enriched), and a combination thereof, on cellular proliferation in cell cultures, employing the widely used indirect neutral red procedure. Garlic powder failed to inhibit the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 or human colorectal carcinoma Caco2 cells at concentrations of up to 1000 micrograms/ml. Garlic extract, in which the alliin content was highly enriched was also unable to inhibit the growth of these cells. However, when the garlic extract was supplemented with garlic powder (to 10% final concentration) there was a concentration-dependent clear inhibition of tumor cell growth (IC50 values of 330 micrograms/ml for HepG2 and 480 micrograms/ml for Caco-2 cells). The growth of the human lymphatic leukemia cell line CCRF CEM was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by both garlic powder and garlic extract at concentrations as low as 30 micrograms/ml. However, no potentiation of this effect occurred upon mixing of the two preparations. Our results suggest that the antiproliferative effects of garlic may be due to breakdown products of alliin, such as allicin or polysulfides, rather than alliin itself, since the addition of an alliinase system (garlic powder) to an alliin enriched preparation without alliinase (garlic extract) potentiated the effects observed with the two preparations alone.
Article
An arabinogalactan of mean M(r) 2.2 x 10(6) has been isolated from the dried stems of Tinospora cordifolia and examined by methylation analysis, partial hydrolysis and carboxyl reduction. Purified polysaccharide showed polyclonal mitogenic activity against B-cells, their proliferation did not require macrophages.
Article
The protective effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) and neem leaf (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) was investigated on hepatic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status during N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)-induced gastric carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Enhanced lipid peroxidation in the liver of tumour-bearing animals was accompanied by significant decreases in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels. Administration of garlic and neem leaf extracts significantly lowered lipid peroxidation and enhanced the hepatic levels of glutathione and glutathione dependent enzymes. We speculate that garlic and neem leaf significantly alter cancer development at extrahepatic sites by influencing hepatic biotransformation enzymes and antioxidants.
Article
Unlabelled: Ginger and several other medications were compared with scopolamine and d-amphetamine for effectiveness in prevention of motion sickness. Methods: Double-blind techniques were used. The subjects were given the medications two hours before they were rotated in a chair making head movements until a symptom total short of vomiting was reached. Standardized N.A.S.A. techniques were used for speed of rotation and end-point of motion sickness. Results: The three doses of ginger were all at the placebo level of efficacy. Amitriptyline, ethopropazine and trihexyphenidyl increased the tolerated head movements but the increase was not statistically significant. Significant levels of protection were produced by dimenhydrinate, promethazine, scopolamine and d-amphetamine. Protection was further increased by combination of these latter drugs with d-amphetamine. Efficacy was greatest as the dose was increased. Conclusions: The medication of choice in this study was scopolamine 0.6 mg with d-amphetamine 10 mg. This combination provided good protection with acceptable side effects.
Article
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a standardized and highly concentrated extract of 2 ginger species, Zingiber officinale and Alpinia galanga (EV.EXT 77), in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. Two hundred sixty-one patients with OA of the knee and moderate-to-severe pain were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group, 6-week study. After washout, patients received ginger extract or placebo twice daily, with acetaminophen allowed as rescue medication. The primary efficacy variable was the proportion of responders experiencing a reduction in "knee pain on standing," using an intent-to-treat analysis. A responder was defined by a reduction in pain of > or = 15 mm on a visual analog scale. In the 247 evaluable patients, the percentage of responders experiencing a reduction in knee pain on standing was superior in the ginger extract group compared with the control group (63% versus 50%; P = 0.048). Analysis of the secondary efficacy variables revealed a consistently greater response in the ginger extract group compared with the control group, when analyzing mean values: reduction in knee pain on standing (24.5 mm versus 16.4 mm; P = 0.005), reduction in knee pain after walking 50 feet (15.1 mm versus 8.7 mm; P = 0.016), and reduction in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis composite index (12.9 mm versus 9.0 mm; P = 0.087). Change in global status and reduction in intake of rescue medication were numerically greater in the ginger extract group. Change in quality of life was equal in the 2 groups. Patients receiving ginger extract experienced more gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events than did the placebo group (59 patients versus 21 patients). GI adverse events were mostly mild. A highly purified and standardized ginger extract had a statistically significant effect on reducing symptoms of OA of the knee. This effect was moderate. There was a good safety profile, with mostly mild GI adverse events in the ginger extract group.