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Health and Nutritional Benefits from Coconut Oil: An Important Functional Food for the 21st Century

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Abstract

Coconut oil has a unique role in the diet as an important physiologically functional food. The health and nutritional benefits that can be derived from consuming coconut oil have been recognized in many parts of the world for centuries. Although the advantage of regular consumption of coconut oil has been underappreciated by the consumer and producer alike for the recent two or three decades, its unique benefits should be compelling for the health minded consumer of today. A review of the diet/heart disease literature relevant to coconut oil clearly indicates that coconut oil is at worst neutral with respect to atherogenicity of fats and oils and, in fact, is likely to be a beneficial oil for prevention and treatment of some heart disease. Additionally, coconut oil provides a source of antimicrobial lipid for individuals with compromised immune systems and is a nonpromoting fat with respect to chemical carcinogenesis.

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... Since saturated fat is associated with the elevation of serum cholesterol levels in the human body, common argument was that the usage of coconut oil is unhealthy. However, many research studies have shown the health benefits of coconut oil due to the presence of MCFT and MCT in coconut oil because they tend to increase HDL cholesterol levels rather than LDL cholesterol levels [3,4]. ...
... In order to make Coconut oil to be more stable and long lasting, manufacturers heat coconut oil excessively and is subjected to partially or fully hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation process creates transfatty acids which are unhealthy for human consumption [3,6]. ...
... The dispersion curves in Figure 2 corresponding to white, pale yellow and dark yellow coconut oil show that they tend to coincide with each other at larger wavelengths. The graphs were extrapolated to larger wavelengths according to equation (3). It has been found that they coincide with each other at three different wavelengths: 635.90 (pale yellow& dark yellow), 682.57 ...
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Commercially available white, pale yellow and dark yellow coconut oil samples were obtained from eight locations in Sri Lanka and their refractive indices were measured at room temperature 28C in the wavelength range of 410  630 nm using refractometric techniques. Experimental data were fitted to Caushy dispersion formula with a high accuracy (r2 = 0.98). The refractive index for a given wavelength showed the variation, w p d n  n  n (where , , w p d n n n represents respectively white, pale yellow and dark yellow coconut oils). Independent of its colour, the refractive index decreased monotonically with increasing wavelength. The observed refractive indices of the tested coconut oil samples were higher than the values specified by Sri Lankan Food Act, no. 26 of 1980. The calculated density values of coconut oils samples complied with the accepted norms, independent of the colour of coconut oils.
... Of the free fatty acids present in coconut oil, lauric acid (C:12:0) is proven to be more active as antibacterial agent compared to caprilic acid (C8:0), capric acid (C10:0), and myristic acid (C14:0). Free fatty acids and their monoglycerides inactivate bacteria by disrupting plasma membrane of lipid bilayer [7,10]. ...
... The most potential antibacterial activity of MCFA exerted by free fatty acid and monoglycerides which may inactivate bacteriaby disrupting microbial plasma membraneof lipid bilayer. Of the many saturated fatty acids, lauric acid (C:12) shown to be the most active as antibacterial compared to caprilic(C8:0), carpric(C10:0), and myristicacid (C14:0) [7,10,18]. ...
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Objective:The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the partial hydrolysis of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on it's antibacterial activity. Methods:The VCO used in this study was the productof UD SinarNias. Hydrolysis was carried out by enzyme and sodium hydroxide. Enzymatic hydrolysis using lipozyme was conducted in four different incubation time namely, 3 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours and 12 hours. Alkaline hydrolysis preformed with 25%, 50% and 75% NaOH calculated from the saponification valueof coconut oil. Acidified hydrolyzed VCO was extracted with n-hexane. Recovered hydrolyzed products were mixed with water (5 g in water to make 10 ml) to form water in oil emulsion (w/o). Antibacterial activity test was conducted against bacteria Pseudomonasaeruginosa (ATCC 25619), Staphylococcusaureus (ATCC 29737), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) and Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC 6918) by diffusion agar method using the paper disc of 6 mm in diameter. Antibacterial activity of hydrolyzed VCO was compared with tetracycline and ampicillin. Results: Un-hydrolyzed VCO did not show antibacterial activity but hydrolyzed oil did. The longer the incubation time and the higher the amount of NaOH used in the hydrolysis increased antibacterial activity. VCO hydrolyzed by enzyme was more effective than those hydrolyzed by sodium hydroxide. Hydrolyzed VCO were more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa than other bacteria. Conclusions: Un-hydrolyzed VCO did not inhibit bacterial growth, while VCO after hydrolysis was found to have antibacterial activity. Hydrolyzed VCO by enzyme is more active asantibacterial than VCOhydrolyzed by NaOH. Tetracyclin and ampicillin were more active than those of hydrolyzed VCO.
... Due to this property coconut oil is not normally hydrogenated, stabilized and not replaced by oxygen atom which create bad free radicals for human health. [5][6][7] ...
... Consequently, all consumed food containing coconut oil are catabolized to release energy without conversion to fat. [5][6][7] ...
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Abstract: For several years, Consumers were made to believe that coconut oil is deleterious to health as it would block the arteries and cause heart disease. In recent years Coconut oil is receiving attention as a Functional food oil and its consumption has dramatically risen. Coconut oil has been claimed to have beneficial effects on health. There are rarely published studies from Saudi Arabia exploring the awareness about benefits or risks of coconut oil. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the knowledge of students of Hail University about the effects of coconut oil on health with a comparison between females (scientific and Literary College) and males (scientific and Literary College). Also, this report aims to review the available literature about benefits and risks of coconut oil consumption and highlight its positive effects on health. Results of the present study was concluded that students of University have a moderate knowledge about effect of coconut oil on human health but the knowledge of female students more than male students. Comparison between students of scientific College and Literary College in level of knowledge about healthy importance of coconut oil show a none significant difference in all questions. The present work concluded that coconut oil is the best oil for health and reported the need to increase the knowledge of students about beneficial of coconut oil by distributing booklets or by health education program to highlight its positive effects on health and correct their thinking that coconut oil is harmful. Keywords: Coconut Oil, Benefits of Coconut Oil, Risks of Coconut Oil, Antimicrobial Property, Antioxidants Property
... The oil contained high lauric acid (C-12, c.a. 50%) as saturated fatty acid and has known well as medium chain fatty acid (MCFA). MCFAs are burned up immediately after consumption and therefore the body uses it immediately to make energy rather than store it as body fat (Enig, 1996;Kabara, 1984). ...
... For this reason, MCFA are essential in baby formulas, and are routinely used in hospitals for patients with digestive, metabolic and malabsorption problems. Also, the MCFA in VCO are used to improve insulin secretion and the utilization of glucose, and therefore greatly helps relieve the symptoms and reduce the health risks of diabetes (Enig, 1996). ...
Article
Coconut oil (Cocos nucifera L.) has a unique role in the diet as an important physiologically functional food. The health and nutritional benefits that can be derived from consuming coconut oil have been recognized in many parts of the world for centuries. There are few techniques for coconut oil extraction, such as physical, chemical, and fermentation or enzymatic processes using microbial inoculum as enzymatic starter. Starter with different concentration (1.0; 2.5; 5.0; and 10%) of microbial strains were added into coconut cream and allowed to be fermented for over night. The extracted oil was analyzed for further experiment, especially on its antibacterial activity. The maximum yield of 27.2% was achieved by adding 5.0% starter. Water content, acid value, FFA, and peroxide value of the fermented coconut oil were 0.3%, 0.45%, 0.22% and 2.54% respectively. A gas chromatogram showed that this fermented oil contained high lauric acid (46.82%), and 6.01% caprylic, 7.5% capric, 17.02% miristic, 7.21% palmitic, 3.11% palmitoleic, 5.41% stearic, and 1.3% linoleic acid, respectively. An inhibitory effect of such kind coconut oil which contains potential fatty acid against bacterial growth was further examined. It was found that this edible oil exhibited antibacterial activity to inhibit the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella; however it showed slightly inhibitory effect when it was exposed to Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli.
... Coconut oil has traditionally been used as a medicinal agent for cancer, diabetes, diarrhea, dry skin, and psoriasis and is used as an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agent for the treatment of dermal infections. [1][2][3] Evaluation of Cocosnucifera L. as an anti-infective agent is very important due to the increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant infectious microorganisms, and the dearth of novel antibiotics in the pipeline. Coconut oil contain Median Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA).Fats with a chain length of 6 to 12 carbons are called medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). ...
... Monolaurin is the antiviral, antibacterial and antiprotozoal monoglyceride used by the human or animal to destroy lipid-coated viruses such as HIV, Herpes, various pathogenic bacteria and protozoa. [1][2][3][4][5] ...
... Coconut oil increased HDL-Cholesterol (12) and also reduced heart enzymes level in serum like CK-MB which releases during heart injury (13). Although there was a misconception about coconut oil because of its high level of saturated fat (14), recent studies demonstrated that lauric acid present in coconut oil had antiviral, antiprotozoal, antibacterial properties and also increased body metabolism (15,16). CO also acts as an antioxidant of serum enzymes (17). ...
... The authors also elucidated that SO was better than CO in case of CK-MB while CO was more significant for ALT and AST (Figure 1). Although coconut oil was considered as saturated oil, many researchers recommended its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (15)(16)(17). In our study, we found that coconut oil could be more effective for myocardial lesion and hepatocellular damage. ...
Article
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Purpose: Rapeseed oil contains high percentage of erucic acid which causes cardio-hepatic toxicity. Methods: In this study, different doses of sesame oil (SO) and coconut oil (CO) were mixed with constant dose of rapeseed oil and fed to Wistar rats for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, abdomen aortic blood was collected and serum enzymes level such as CK-MB, SGOT and SGPT were measured. Results: Rapeseed oil not only increased SGPT enzyme level over control diet but also elevated CK-MB and SGOT significantly. Whereas, sesame oil and coconut oil showed protective effect against rapeseed oil induced cardio-hepatic enzymes. Moreover, higher doses of both oils represented better effect against rapeseed oil toxicity. Although CO and SO significantly decreased serum CK-MB, SGOT and SGPT activities, coconut oil had greater effect on cardiac enzymes like CK-MB while sesame oil were more significant for SGPT and SGOT. Conclusion: Therefore, the ameliorating effects of sesame oil and coconut oil trimmed down the toxic effects of rapeseed oil in rats.
... The oil contained high lauric acid (C-12, c.a. 50%) as saturated fatty acid and has known well as medium chain fatty acid (MCFA). MCFAs are burned up immediately after consumption and therefore the body uses it immediately to make energy rather than store it as body fat (Enig, 1996;Kabara, 1984). ...
... For this reason, MCFA are essential in baby formulas, and are routinely used in hospitals for patients with digestive, metabolic and malabsorption problems. Also, the MCFA in VCO are used to improve insulin secretion and the utilization of glucose, and therefore greatly helps relieve the symptoms and reduce the health risks of diabetes (Enig, 1996). ...
... 7 Hydrogenation increases stability of the oils at room temperature and aids cooking, but results in increased levels of trans-fatty acids which have been linked to adverse lipid profiles and heightened risk for CVD. 8 Thus, past studies may not reflect the effect of naturally occurring oils on cardiovascular risk. ...
Article
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Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5+/-8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.
... Many of these changes involve changes of fats and oils. There has been an increasing supply of the partially hydrogenated trans-containing vegetable oils and a decreasing amount of the lauric acidcontaining oils (Enig, 1996). As a result, there has been an increased consumption of tran's fatty acids and linoleic acid and a decrease in the consumption of lauric acid. ...
Article
Diet for some time now in Nigeria has undergone many changes such aschanges in dietary intake of fats and oils. There has been an increasing consumption of partially hydrogenated trans-vegetable oils and a decreasing intake of lauric acid-containing oils. Although popular literature and people generally, usually attribute an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) to elevated levels of serum cholesterol, which in turn arethought to derive from an increased dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol. The palm oil and palm kernel oil are high in saturated fatty acids, about 50% and 80% respectively and are esterified with glycerol. In developing countries, vegetable oils are replacing animal fats because of the cost and health concerns. It is reassuring to know that the consumption of palm oil as a source of dietary fat does not pose any additional risks forcoronary artery disease when consumed in realistic amounts as part of a healthy diet. However, oxidized palm oil induces reproductive toxicity and organ toxicity particularly of the kidneys, lungs, liver and heart. Therefore, oxidized palm oil should be avoided. © JASEM
... However, in the same time coconut SAFA also increases HDL-chollesterol level, so that the LDL/HDL ratio will be significantly lower, which means is healthy. LDL/HDL ratio among coconut user is significantly lower than the same ratio in MUFA (palm oil) and PUFA (corn oil) consumers (Mensink et.al, 2003;Enig, 1996;Sundram, 1994). ...
... 3 Other studies have also shown the ability of PKO inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. 2 VCO can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus sp and Helicobacter sp. 3,4,5 Fat is converted into fatty acids and monoglyceride by saponification or by enzymatic process. 6 The partial hydrolysis of VCO can increase the inhibition of bacterial, either hydrolysis by the enzyme lipase (lipozyme) or with NaOH (saponification). ...
Article
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Triglycerides and diglycerides do not show antibacterial activity, but free fatty acids and monoglycerides, especially lauric acid and monolaurin do. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of the enzymatic hydrolyzed of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and palm kernel oil (PKO), which produce a combination of lauric acid and monolaurin. Hydrolysis process was done by the enzyme lipase (Lipozym TL IM) which was active at 1.3 position. The hydrolyzed oil then tested for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypi using agar diffusion method with paper disc with diameter of 6 mm (Oxoid, England). Antibacterial activity test carried out on VCO and PKO, hydrolyzed VCO (VCOH) and PKO (PKOH) each at 25% concentration, 50%, 75% and 100%. Antibacterial activity of the test material compared with chloramphenicol (30 μg) and tetracycline (30 μg). The results showed that the optimum hydrolysis time is 14 hours. There is low and similar antibacterial activity of VCO and PKO. VCOH and PKOH show higher antibacterial activity than VCO and PKO. There is an increase of antibacterial activity by increased levels of VCOH and PKOH. Antibacterial activity against S. aureus (Gram positive) was higher than S. thypi and E. coli (Gram negative). Antibacterial activity of the test material is lower than the standard chloramphenicol and tetracycline.
... 3 Other studies have also shown the ability of PKO inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. 2 VCO can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus sp and Helicobacter sp. 3,4,5 Fat is converted into fatty acids and monoglyceride by saponification or by enzymatic process. 6 The partial hydrolysis of VCO can increase the inhibition of bacterial, either hydrolysis by the enzyme lipase (lipozyme) or with NaOH (saponification). ...
Article
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Garlic and Virgin Coconut Oil are part of foods containing components found to haveantibacterial activity. The allicin in garlic and medium chain fatty acid in its monoglyceride form (especially monolaurin) in VCO are responsible for their antimicrobial effect by different mechanism. The mixture of free fatty acids and their monoglycerides can be generated by enzymatic hydrolysis of VCO. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of un-hydrolyzed VCO (NVCO), enzymatic hydrolyzed VCO (HVCO), aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) and their combination against pathogenic bacteria causing diarrhea. The garlic used in this study obtained from traditional the market in Padang Bulan, Medan and VCO from Palem Mustika VCO, produced by Siti Nurbaya, West Sumatra. Garlic extracted with bidistilled water and VCO was hydrolyzed by LIPOZIME® TL IM enzyme. Antibacterial activity test carried out on NVCO, HVCO, AGE, and their combination. Tetracycline HCl used as positive control. The test was conducted by diffusion agar method using the paper disc with diameter of 6 mm by observing the zone of inhibition toward Gram positive bacteria: Bacillus cereus (ATCC 14579) and Gram negative one: Escherichia coli (ATCC 8939). Zone of inhibition data was analyzed by ANOVA method (α ≤ 0.05), then by Tukey HSD to evaluate the significant difference between the means among the variables. The results of this study showed that NVCO is not effective but antibacterial activity increased by hydrolysis (HVCO) which is more effective on Gram positive bacteria. AGE is found to have the most effective effect than NVCO and HVCO against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. However, the combination of NVCO and HVCO with AGE did not show to be synergisticas antibacterial.
... The shorter chains of C6 to C10 (about 11 % of VCO) are easily digested and absorbed in to the metabolic activities of the human body and hence these fatty acids are responsible for the fast metabolic property of VCO (Kaunitz et al., 1958;Kaunitz, 2001). These medium chain triacyl glycerides are directly absorbed by the intestinal cells and carried by portal circulation to liver for further oxidation and hence quick release of energy (Kaunitz and Dayrit, 1992;Enig, 1996;Blackburn et al., 2001). VCO, among all the other vegetable and animal oils and fats, has one of the lowest content of C14 to C18 (long chain saturated fatty acid, which is considered to be bad saturated fat) at about 30 %. VCO has the long chain unsaturated fatty acid concentration only about 8 %, of this 6 % is the good mono unsaturated long chain fatty acid of oleic acid (C18:1), which has been found to be very beneficial to the heart, anti-inflammatory and a host of other health benefits. ...
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Coconut oil is used for various purposes i.e. edible (39.4 %), toiletry (46.5 %) and other industrial (14.1 %) uses (Naresh Kumar, 2007). In the recent past, the coconut oil has been used as a food ingredient in functional foods, besides being used in pharmaceuticals, nutriceuticals, cosmetics and industrial uses including biofuel. Coconut oil is a rich source of medium-chain-triglyserides (MCT) which are beneficial for human health and nutrition. Sixty three percent of coconut oil is composed of antimicrobial medium-chain fatty acids and therefore can assists the immune system in fighting against microscopic invades. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is the purest form of coconut oil, water white in colour, contains natural vitamin E, and has not undergone any hydrolytic or atmospheric oxidation as attested by its very low free fatty acid content and peroxide values. It has a mild to intense fresh coconut scent depending on the type of process used for its production. VCO is obtained from the fresh and mature kernel of coconut by mechanical or natural means with or without the application of heat which does not lead to alteration of the oil and its properties. It is suitable for human consumption in its natural state immediately after extraction and filtration (Bawalan, 2006). VCO greatly differs from the traditionally produced coconut oil from copra which generally undergoes chemical refining, bleaching and deodorization process to make it suitable for human consumption. RBD (refined, bleached and deodorized) coconut oil is yellow in colour and does not contain natural Vitamin E since this is removed when the oil is subjected to high temperature and various chemical processes (Bawalan, 2006). VCO is unique among all the other vegetable oils because of its high lauric acid content. It is reported that lauric acid in coconut oil is used by the body to make the same disease fighting fatty acid derivative monolaurin that babies make from the lauric acid they get from
... Canola oil; obtained from rapeseeds, flaxed seed oil and soybean oil contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acid which lowers the risk and predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (Arterburn et al., 2008). But it has been generally agreed among nutritionists that edible oils such as coconut and peanut oils should be avoided due to high content of saturated fatty acids (Enig, 1996). Excessive intake of any fat is undesirable. ...
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This aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of soybean oil supplemented diet on the fatty acid level and lipid profile of male albino rats. Forty healthy male albino rats weighing between 96-110 g and aged 6 weeks were used. The rats were placed randomly into four groups of ten animals each. Group 1 served as control and had no soybean oil in their feed. Group 2-4 was placed on soybean oil supplemented diet 10, 20 and 30% respectively. The experiment lasted for 14 days. The results showed that the animals had significant (p<0.05) increase in body weight compared with the control. Triacylglycerol, phospholipid and total cholesterol level were also significantly (p<0.05) decreased, 80.46±3.76 to 78.46±3.22; 15.36±0.34 to 10.12±0.75; and 116.65±6.38 to 110.95±6.36 mg/dL respectively. Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) were also significantly decreased, 15.56±2.56 to 13.45±2.76; 68.88±2.54 to 56.59±2.14 mg/dL respectively. However High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) showed significant (p<0.05) increase 60.37±1.36 to 65.75±1.89 mg/dL. Cholesterol, triacylglycerol and fatty acids are significant and independent risk factors of adverse cardiovascular events. The clinical and nutritional implication of these results is discussed.
... Chitosan and lauric acid adds antimicrobial property to starch-based films (Salleh, Muhamad, & Khairuddin, 2009). Approximately, half of the fatty acids in coconut fat are lauric acid (Enig, 1996). Glycerol imparts pliability and flexibility for improved handling and is a widely used plasticizer for making starch-based films and coatings (Chang, Jian, Zheng, Yu, & Ma, 2010;Lawton & Fanta, 1994). ...
... Many of these changes involve changes of fats and oils. There has been an increasing supply of the partially hydrogenated trans-containing vegetable oils and a decreasing amount of the lauric acid-containing oils (Enig 1996). As a result, there has been an increased consumption of Tran's fatty acids and linoleic acid and a decrease in the consumption of lauric acid. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasingly, over the past 40 years, the conception of diet has undergone major changes. Many of these changes involve changes in dietary intake of fats and oils. There has been an increasing consumption of partially hydrogenated trans-vegetable oils and a decreasing intake of lauric acid-containing oils. Although popular literature usually attribute an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) to elevated levels of serum cholesterol, which in turn are thought to derive from an increased dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol. The palm oil and palm kernel oil are high in saturated fatty acids, about 50% and 80% respectively and are esterified with glycerol. In developing countries, vegetable oils are replacing animal fats because of the cost and health concerns. It is reassuring to know that the consumption of palm oil as a source of dietary fat does not pose any additional risks for coronary artery disease when consumed in realistic amounts as part of a healthy diet.
... On the other hand, animal fats consist of long-chain saturated fatty acid [3]. MCFAs are burned up immediately after consumption and therefore the body uses them immediately to make energy, instead of storing them as body fat [4]. ...
Article
Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was extracted from coconut milk with the aid of crude protease extract (CPE) from hepatopancrease of Pacific white shrimp at different levels (5-15 unit/g protein) for various hydrolysis times (0-24 h). Yield of VCO increased within the first 6 h. The use of CPE exhibited similar extraction efficiency to the typical fermentation process. However, lipids extracted with fermentation process underwent oxidation to a higher extent, compared with those extracted using CPE. CPE increased the creaming index and induced the collapse of oil droplets in coconut milk, as determined by the phase contrast microscope. VCO contained medium chain fatty acid (MCFA), especially lauric acid (C12:0), as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by myristic acid (C14:0).Therefore, VCO could be extracted using CPE at room temperature for 6 h, in which the extraction yield was increased and lipid oxidation was negligible.Practical applications: Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas can be a major source of proteases, especially trypsin, that can be used for hydrolysis of lipoprotein or destabilize emulsion. Proteases from shrimp hepatopancreas could be used as the promising processing aid for virgin coconut oil extraction, in which the cost associated with commercial enzymes could be reduced and the proteases from shrimp processing byproducts was better exploited. The proteases from shrimp proteases can therefore be of benefit for virgin coconut oil processing enterprise or industry by increasing extraction efficacy via destabilsation of coconut milk emulsion.
... Coconut oil has been used in health promotion, diseases prevention, and medication [3,4]. Coconut oil composed of medium chain fatty acids, it is hydrolyzed by lingual and gastric lipase into free fatty acids and directly delivered into the liver through the portal vein and quickly oxidized to produce energy and increases metabolism and was demonstrated to enhance stamina [5]. ...
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of chitosan, hydrolyzed coconut oil and their combination against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli. Methods: The materials used in this study were powder of chitosan (obtained from prawn shell produced by Laboratory of Research Centre FMIPA University of Sumatera Utara) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) product of Siti Nurbaya-Indonesia. VCO was partially hydrolyzed by Lipozyme TL® IM (active at sn-1,3 position) and the result called hydrolyzed virgin coconut oil (HVCO). The bacteria used in this study were B. cereus and E. coli. The antibacterial activity of chitosan in 1% acetic acid and HVCO in dimethylsulfoxide was tested by Kirby–Bauer agar diffusion method using paper disc with diameter of 6 mm. Results: The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration of chitosan against B. cereus and E. coli is at concentration of 0.05% with inhibition zone diameter of 6.86 mm and 7.56 mm, respectively. MIC of HVCO against B. cereus is at concentration of 0.25% with inhibition zone diameter of 6.40 mm, and against E. coli is at a concentration of 0.50% with inhibition zone diameter of 6.20 mm. The inhibition zone diameter of chitosan 0.05% and HVCO 0.25% in combination against B. cereus is 8.33 mm which is higher than half the sum of chitosan 0.05% and HVCO 0.25% (6.63 mm). The inhibition zone diameter of chitosan 0.05% and 0.5% HVCO in combination against E. coli is 8.53 mm which is higher than half the sum of chitosan 0.05% and HVCO 0.5% (6.53 mm). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that chitosan is more antibacterial than HVCO, and the interaction between chitosan and HVCO in combination demonstrated to be synergistic against B. cereus and E. coli. © 2016, Innovare Academics Sciences Pvt. Ltd. All rights reserved.
... The saturated fatty acids in VCO are distinct from animal fats, consisting mainly of long-chain saturated fatty acids (Handayani et al. 2009;Marina et al. 2009). MCFAs are readily utilized by the liver, which leads to greater energy expenditure and enhancement of thermogenesis (Enig 1996). ...
Article
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Virgin coconut oil (VCO) was extracted from coconut milk with the aid of crude protease extract (CPE) from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp at different levels (5-15 unit/g protein) at 60C for various hydrolysis times (0-180 min). Yield of VCO increased within the first 90 min (P<0.05). However, Alcalase showed higher efficacy in VCO extraction, compared with CPE and the control (without enzyme) (P<0.05). No differences in lipid oxidation of all VCOs extracted by different proteases were observed (P>0.05). Alcalase and CPE increased the creaming index and induced the collapse of oil droplets in coconut milk, as determined by the confocal laser scanning microscopy and the phase contrast microscopy. VCOs contained medium chain fatty acid, especially lauric acid (C12:0), as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by myristic acid (C14:0). Therefore, VCO could be extracted using CPE or Alcalase at the optimal temperature (60C) for 90 min. Practical Applications: Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas has been known as a potential source of trypsin that can be used to hydrolyze proteins stabilizing emulsion in coconut milk. Trypsin from Pacific white shrimp hepatopancreas could therefore serve as a potential aid for virgin coconut oil extraction with the shorter processing time, particularly when applied under the optimal condition. As a consequence, the cost associated with commercial enzymes could be reduced and the prime quality of virgin coconut oil was still obtained.
... 3 Other studies have also shown the ability of PKO inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus sp. 2 VCO can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus sp and Helicobacter sp. 3,4,5 Fat is converted into fatty acids and monoglyceride by saponification or by enzymatic process. 6 The partial hydrolysis of VCO can increase the inhibition of bacterial, either hydrolysis by the enzyme lipase (lipozyme) or with NaOH (saponification). ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of boiling using demineral and mineral water on the contents of nitrate and nitrite in celery. Celery used in this study was purchased from a local market at Pajak Sore Padang Bulan Medan. Celery was boiled with varying boiling time, 2, 4 and 6 minutes using demineral water (distilled water) and mineral water (tap water). Nitrite was identified with sulfanilic acid reagent and N-(1-naphthyl) ethylenediamine dihydrochloride (NED). Identification of nitrate was done by ferrous sulfate solution and concentrated sulfuric acid. Determination of nitrite was conducted by visible spectrophotometer using a coloring reagent NED at maximum wavelength of 540 nm. Nitrate was determined after reduction into nitrite and then analyzed as nitrite. The results showed that the boiling time and the type of water used affecting levels of nitrate and nitrite in celery. Levels of nitrate and nitrite in fresh celery were 52. 17 mg/kg and 25. 57 mg/kg respectively. Levels of nitrate and nitrite were changed during boiling process; and the type of water was also influential. Levels of nitrite after boiling process for 6 minutes using demineral water decreased from initial level (25. 57 mg/kg) to 11. 86 mg/kg; while nitrate level decreased from 52. 17 to 16. 35 mg/kg. Levels of nitrite after boiling process for 6 minutes using tap water decreased from initial level (25. 57 mg/kg) to 13. 39 mg/kg; while nitrate level decreased from 52. 17 to 22. 20 mg/kg. The nitrite and nitrate contents in celery which boiled with demineral water differently affected; nitrate decreased from 52. 17 mg/kg to 16. 34 mg/kg (68. 6%) and nitrite from 25. 57 mg /kg to 11. 85 mg /kg (54. 2%), while boiling with mineral water on nitrate decreased from 52. 17 mg/kg to 22. 20 mg/kg (57%) and the nitrite from 25. 57 mg/kg to 13. 39 mg/kg (48%). The effect of boiling using demineral water was more effective to decrease nitrate and nitrite than using mineral water.
... Some studies have also shown some antimicrobial effects of the free lauric acid. [11,12] Tween 80 and Span 80 were used as surfactants. Tween 80 is a non-ionic surfactant with HLB value of 16.7. ...
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The present aim of this study is to monitor the effect of concentration of lipid and surfactant on particle size and zeta potential of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). Coconut oil has been selected as a lipid and a mixture of tween and span has been selected as a surfactant for formulation of an antibiotic tablet. 32 factorial design were applied and different concentration of oil and surfactant were analyzed. SLN were further examined for electron microscopy to confirm its morphology.
... Some edible oils such as almond and avocado oil are good sources of vitamin A and E; canola oil obtained from rapeseeds, flax seed oil and soybean oil contain high levels of omega-3 fatty acid which lowers the risk and predisposition to cardiovascular diseases [5]. It has been generally agreed among nutritionist that edible oils such as coconut oil and peanut oils should be avoided due to high content of saturated fatty acids [6]. Many researchers had carried out in-vitro analysis (proximate, mineral contents) on Afzelia africana seeds but few researches had been done on the physicochemical properties of Afzelia africana oil and its plasma lipid profile. ...
... The Lauric acid of VCO, as bioactive compound, will be metabolized into monolaurin in the body which is effective to kill germs of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (Enig, 1996). The VCO reduce the levels of HIV / AIDS in the blood of patients (Dayrit 2005). ...
... Sesame and coconut that have decreased the SGPT level, possible it might be sesame oil contains lignan: sesamin, sesamolin and high percentage of natural antioxidant linolenic acid [38], those were active ingredient of sesame. Although coconut oil was considered as saturated oil, many researchers recommended its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [39,40,41]. In our study, we found that coconut oil could be more effective for prevention of myocardial lesion and hepatocellular damage. ...
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Mustard oil is popular edible oil in Bangladesh. It contains about more than fifty percent erucic acid which is toxic to human beings. This study evaluated the determination of biochemical properties (acid value, iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter %) of mustard oil, virgin coconut and sesame oil and toxicity determination of these oils through blood indices targeting of these oil by mixing with normal diet as a dietary supplementation. This study found acid value of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 0.92, 0.312, 0.52 respectively. Iodine value of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil were 110.2, 105.2, and 11 respectively. Saponification value of wild Original Research Article Rahman et al.; JPRI, 25(5): 1-10, 2018; Article no.JPRI.46897 2 mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 171.1, 187.2 and 240 respectively and unsaponifiable matter % of mustard, sesame and virgin coconut oil was 1.19, 0.31 and 0.92 respectively. Also in vivo experiment we divided wistar male rats were 4 groups such as normal diet 12 g/day/rat, mustard oil (MO) 0.6 g/day/rat, virgin coconut oil (VCO) 0.6g/day/rat and sesame oil (SO) 0.6 g/day/rat. In this study the vegetable oil causes the effect on average body weight gain, Food Efficiency Ratio (FER), and lipid profiles [Total cholesterol (Tch), HDL-Cholesterol LDL-Cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG)] and serum enzymes [SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT)] of different groups of rat also been estimated. The study found that mustard oil significantly (p<0.05) increase lipid profile and enzymes SGOT, SGPT level in blood serum which is an indication of heart and liver disorder. The study found that coconut and sesame oil consumption in rat significantly (p<0.05) decrease of these parameters.
... Virgin coconut oil (VCO) dominantly consists of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), mainly lauric acid (Dayrit, 2014). MCFAs are digested instantly after consumption and thus the body consumes it promptly to produce energy, rather than body fat deposition (Enig, 1996). ...
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Coconut milk was hydrolyzed by partially purified protease from seabass pyloric caeca (PPSP) and commercial trypsin (CT) at various levels (5 and 10 unit/g protein) at 60°C for different hydrolysis times (0–150 min). At the same protease level and hydrolysis time, higher degrees of hydrolysis and larger droplet size were found in coconut milk hydrolyzed by PPSP, compared to CT. The highest virgin coconut oil (VCO) yield (77.34%) was observed after the sample was hydrolyzed for 150 min by PPSP (10 units/g protein). Protein patterns indicated that coconut milk proteins were more prone to hydrolysis by PPSP, compared to CT. A marked difference was not found in physicochemical properties of commercial VCO and VCO separated from coconut milk using PPSP. Therefore, VCO could be extracted using PPSP under optimal condition, wherein the extraction could be accomplished within a short time with high yield. Practical applications In virgin coconut oil (VCO) manufacture, the yield of VCO and cost of the commercial enzyme are of main concern. Therefore, cheap source of proteases, particularly proteases from seabass pyloric caeca, can be a promising alternative for the manufacture of VCO. Therefore, the cost associated with commercial enzymes could be reduced and the proteases from seabass processing byproducts were better exploited.
... Lauric acid extracted from coconut oil contains monolaurin. Monolaurin is an antimicrobial agent that is able to fight bacteria, viruses, yeasts, and other pathogens (Enig, 1996). Lauric acid is also employed in various cosmetic preparations. ...
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Lauric acid is the chief constituent of Cocos nucifera (coconut oil). The main objective of the study was to develop a simple, robust and derivatization free GC-FID method that is suitable for routine analysis of lauric acid in the pure and commercial coconut oil. The sample was dissolved in methanol and diluted. The solution was then injected in split mode to ZB-WAX plus column of length 30 m, internal diameter of 0.25 mm ID and film thickness of 0.5 µm. The retention time of lauric acid was found to be 6.42 min.The method showed possibility to detect the standard solutions of lauric acid with a linear determination in the range of 100-500 mcg/mL with correlation coefficient (r) 0.9996. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.385 and 1.168 respectively. The method showed good accuracy and precision for both interday and intraday with % RSD <2%. This method can be employed for the estimation of lauric acid in various commercial oils present in the market.
... including Listeria monocytogenes and Helicobacter pylori, and protozoa such as Giardia lamblia (Holland et al., 1994 andEnig, 1996). ...
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One hundred swabs were collected from patients suffering from burn wound infections admitted to Emergency Management Centre in Erbil city in Kurdistan-Iraq. In this study, 60 isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, representing 39.21%, while Staphylococcus aureus. The more resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were screened for in vitro antimicrobial effect of virgin olive, cocconut, bitter almond oil and Simvastatin
... Past studies with coconut oil further supported the hypothesis by showing that coconut oil elevated serum total cholesterol levels and triggered the formation of an atherosclerotic lesion in in vivo models (Soma et al., 1985;Mangiapane et al., 1999). However, this claim has been rebutted by other studies which proved that the coconut oil used in those studies was hydrogenateda modification that would strip coconut oil off its original properties (Enig, 1996;Foale, 2003;Amarasiri and Dissanayake, 2006). ...
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The consumption of coconut milk has long been regarded as detrimental to cardiovascular health due to its high saturated fatty acid content. Contradictorily, emerging evidences have highlighted that the fatty acids in coconut lipids, which comprise mostly of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), may be beneficial to the regulation of serum cholesterol. To identify the potential health effect of coconut milk on lipid metabolism, this current study employed an intragastric gavage method on C57BL/6 mice to investigate the physiological and molecular alteration in the mice subject after 8 weeks of gavage intervention. The supplementation of coconut milk did not affect the levels of serum triglyceride, but it induced the total serum cholesterol after 2 weeks of treatment. The serum cholesterol level subsequently plateaued, but an increase in bile acid excretion was observed, most likely through the modulation of bile regulating genes, i.e. farnesoid X receptor ( Fxr ) and Cyp7a1 . Despite that, the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio of coconut milk group was comparable to that of the light cream group. In short, coconut milk supplementation promoted cholesterol excretion through the fecal bile route but did not significantly improve the serum cholesterol profile of C57BL/6 mice.
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The Indian dietary pattern has undergone major changes over the past 40 years. Many of these changes involve modification in dietary intake of fats and oils. In developing countries like India, vegetable oils are replacing animal fats because of the cost and health concerns. A wide range of vegetable oils are available in the market but the choice of healthy cooking oil has been a controversial subject since ideas keep on changing as new evidence accumulates. One of the factors holding back the increased use of value-added healthy oils in India is that most potential consumers are genuinely not aware of their health benefits. Edible oil consumption is primarily a community-driven phenomenon in India. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the current scenario of edible oils in India, their composition, health benefits, food applications, stability issues and future aspects as buying the right oil for health has become of great importance.
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The present study investigates the effect of consumption of coconut oil (CO) mixed with erucic acid rich rapeseeds which induced a significant change of blood serum lipids in rats. After 6 weeks of feeding to Wistar rats, body weight gain, food efficiency ratio (FER) and serum lipid profile such as Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. Rapeseed reduced the body weight and FER whereas TC, TG, and LDL were increased. But coconut oil causes significant increase in body weight gain, FER and decreased serum TC, TG and LDL activities. In addition, the mixture of both oil supplements decreased body weight gain, FER and serum TC, TG and LDL activities, the results demonstrated the effects of coconut oil in lowering lipids levels in serum and it also protects the toxic effect of rapeseed.
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There is a growing demand for fats that confer structure, control the crystallization behavior, and maintain the polymorphic stability of lipid matrices in foods. In this context, milk fat has the potential to meet this demand due to its unique physicochemical properties. However, its use is limited at temperatures above 34 °C when thermal and mechanical resistance are desired. The addition of vegetable oil hard fats to milk fat can alter its physicochemical properties and increase its technological potential. This study evaluated the chemical composition and the physical properties of lipid bases made with anhydrous milk fat (AMF) and fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSBO) at the proportions of 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; and 50:50 (% w/w). The increased in FHSBO concentration resulted in blends with higher melting point, which the addition of 10% of FHSBO increase the melting point in 12 °C of the lipid base. Also, FHSBO contributed for a higher thermal resistance conferred by the coexistence of polymorphs β' and β, which remained stable for 90 days. Co-crystallization was observed for all blends due to the total compatibility of milk fat with the fully hydrogenated soybean oil. The results suggest a potential of all blends for various technological applications, makes milk fat more appropriate to confer structure, and improve the polymorph stability in foods. The blends presenting singular characteristics according to the desired thermal stability, melting point, and polymorphic habit.
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