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Constructing Grounded Theory: A

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... This entails a psychosocial process in which the investigation is consistent with the Grounded Theory Method (GTM). We opted for Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory method [32]: the constructivist stance of the method refers to how scientific knowledge is understood (an intersubjective construct influenced by participants, researchers, and the way they collect data [32]). By following this specific constructivist approach, we intended to explore the meaning attributed to phenomena (signified) and the (contextual and social) aspects negotiated by the informants. ...
... This entails a psychosocial process in which the investigation is consistent with the Grounded Theory Method (GTM). We opted for Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory method [32]: the constructivist stance of the method refers to how scientific knowledge is understood (an intersubjective construct influenced by participants, researchers, and the way they collect data [32]). By following this specific constructivist approach, we intended to explore the meaning attributed to phenomena (signified) and the (contextual and social) aspects negotiated by the informants. ...
... The second round of sampling (theoretical sampling) was guided by emerging analysis and aimed to verify, saturate, and expand the conceptual categories generated from the initial sampling dataset [32]. We then involved an additional five HPs; five individuals with ALS and four CGs. ...
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A range of professional figures are needed to preserve the quality of life of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to explore the beginning of the care process as negotiated by people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, their caregivers, and healthcare professionals. We designed the study according to the constructivist Grounded Theory method, collecting data through open-ended, semi-structured interviews, employing theoretical sampling and constant comparison, and performing conceptual coding as data analysis. By naming the core category “off-beat interfacing”, we were able to show how the demands of the professionals concerned did not correspond to the ability of people with ALS and their proxies to process information, deal with requests, and be at ease in making decisions at the beginning of the shared care pathway. Three categories were generated: (i) navigating different paths, (ii) offering and experiencing a standard, non-personalized pathway, and (iii) anticipating decisions. The network of services must be organized according to guidelines, but must also contemplate a patient-family-centered approach that permits more personalized assistance.
... Charmaz (Charmaz, 2014) presented in mid-1990s her Grounded Theory (GT) proposal based on the original ideas from Glaser and Strauss (Birks and Mills, 2011). Her GT was presented as a constructivist focused GT proposal (Charmaz, 2006; Morse et al., 2016, with a greater focus on the voice of participants and their experiences, in the co-construction of data (Breckenridge et al., 2012), and in the relativism of multiple social realities (Charmaz, 2000) (Charmaz, 2006). ...
... This research was based on the original ideas from Glaser and Strauss (Birks and Mills, 2011), that when compared to its original form, was presented as a Constructivist focused GT one (Morse et al., 2016). Thus, in the light of our Constructivist orientation, we adopted the GT school of Charmaz (Charmaz, 2014) in this research. ...
... This process goes on in spiral cycles, that will continue until the theoretical saturation, i.e., when fresh data no longer sparks theoretical insights. We detail the main research activities in GT, according to Charmaz (Charmaz, 2014), as follows: ...
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Communication is one of the leading challenges faced by teams working in a distributed setting; yet, little has been theorized about how communication occurs in such context. Our long-term research goal is to construct a Communication Theory in Distributed Software Development, aiming to propose a theoretical foundation for future academic studies on the topic of communication and a reference for industry practitioners. To achieve this goal, we are using Grounded Theory, including an Exploratory Literature Review before the theory construction, to confirm the research gap. In this paper, we present a further preliminary version of the Communication Theory comprising six theoretical categories and 31 subcategories. The theory brings, up to know, a consolidated body of knowledge and points out the main concepts that define what communication is in distributed software teams.
... In addition, both were descriptive qualitative studies without following specific qualitative methodological frameworks, which hindered full exploration of older adults" decision-making processes and vaccine hesitancy. Grounded theory is a qualitative methodological framework that emphasizes on revealing the "process" of or diverse perspectives surrounding a phenomenon in various contexts, aiming to develop an explanatory theory for the phenomenon of interest (Charmaz, 2006(Charmaz, , 2014. ...
... Guided by Grounded Theory (e.g., Charmaz, 2006Charmaz, , 2014, theoretical purposive sampling was employed to recruit subjects who can provide meaningful information for our research aim. Specifically, we first recruited an initial set of participants who had heterogeneous demographic backgrounds and levels of COVID-19 vaccine confidence for the in-depth interviews. ...
... Coding is the process to break down, define and organize data to generate meaningful concepts. Data analysis began with initial coding to break down the data into meaningful elements by repeatedly reading the transcripts line by line (Charmaz, 2006(Charmaz, , 2014. New codes were allowed to freely emerge during initial coding. ...
Article
OBJECTIVES Older adults have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. While COVID-19 vaccines are effective for reducing mortality and severe complications, vaccine hesitancy remains a substantial concern particularly among older adults. This was a qualitative study to explore how Chinese older adults reached a decision to delay or refuse the COVID-19 vaccines in Hong Kong. METHODS Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 older adults aged ≥60 years who had never received COVID-19 vaccines. Grounded Theory approach guided the selection of informants, data collection, data analysis and report writing. RESULTS Older adults’ vaccine hesitancy and resistance weaved into the context of lacking sufficient decisional support and attitude roots of negative perception of ageing, fatalistic risk attitudes, present-oriented time perspectives, and negative values on western biomedicine. Attitude roots were used as decisional anchors to further shape older adults’ peripheral processing of vaccine-related information, resulting into a spectrum of vaccine-resistant and vaccine-hesitant attitudes. While participants refused or delayed COVID-19 vaccination, they engaged in alternative coping strategies to regain self-control and justify their vaccination disengagement in the pandemic. DISCUSSIONS Interventions to address vaccine hesitancy in older adults should focus on addressing attitude roots and strengthening the connectivity of older adults with family, doctors, and government to engage older adults in the vaccination decision making. Risk communication should shift to provide more personal relevant information in a caring style, meet older adults’ preference for peripheral information processing, and address their existing misperceptions about COVID-19 vaccines.
... A multi-step comparative data analysis process was employed in the study [53] alyzing data involves organizing, reading, describing, classifying, interpreting, and c paring data while taking notes, reflecting on literature, and discussing among th searchers of the project [54]. After all the interviews were transcribed verbatim, we ...
... A multi-step comparative data analysis process was employed in the study [53]. Analyzing data involves organizing, reading, describing, classifying, interpreting, and comparing data while taking notes, reflecting on literature, and discussing among the researchers of the project [54]. ...
... During data analyses, coding plays an essential role where "the researcher develops themes or dimensions through some classification system, and provides an interpretation in light of their views or views of perspectives in literature" [55]. Through the analysis process, we identified core themes [53,56]. ...
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In this exploratory case study, we examined women’s lived experience as leaders and their participation in an in-person leadership development program. More specifically, we studied how women perceived an in-person leadership development program through a lens of authentic leadership. Our method for gathering information included individual interviews, field observation, and archival data. The interviews focused on particular episodes and stories of the participants’ leadership experiences in their professional life and learning experiences through the leadership development program. The findings from this study indicated the importance of self-awareness of leader identity and increased confidence, building their authentically balanced approach, and creating a social network through collective learning. This paper concludes with future research and practical implications for women leaders, senior human resource development professionals, and senior managers who design and develop women leadership training programs.
... There is no gold standard for LQR methodology but it is important to constantly assess the data and maintain flexibility [43][44][45]. These strategies are reflected in the constructivist grounded theory by Charmaz [46][47][48] which we employ. Our underlying LQR analysis followed the ontological and epistemological position that there are multiple truths and realities about phenomena and that society and humans construct their reality. ...
... Thus, our findings are grounded in the language of our participants [48][49][50][51]. Charmaz's [47] recommends that the analyses must be co-constructed between researcher and participants and aims to develop a theory grounded in the data [46]. The analysis is inductive and iterative, using constant comparison. ...
... In the larger study, there were 287 participants aged 65 and over and we contacted 86 of those, and 33 participants agreed to participate (38.4% participation rate) in the first wave of interviews (Wave 1) (Table 1). Recruitment was halted when theme saturation was reached (for more details see [47,48,54]). The interview team approached potential participants in batches of 5-10 and ceased recruitment once theme saturation had been reached. ...
Article
Objectives The sense of belonging is a fundamental human need. Enacting it through face-to-face social activities was no longer possible during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we investigate how the sense of belonging, and how it is enacted, changed longitudinally amongst older adults in the UK. In addition, we examine the interplay of the sense of belonging and resilience over time. Methods We employed a longitudinal qualitative research design to explore the experiences of older adults during one year of the COVID-19 pandemic (April 2020-April 2021). The analysis was undertaken with constructivist grounded theory. Findings Before the pandemic older adults were free to engage in social relationships with family and friends, often enacted within social activity groups where they felt valued and gained positive experiences. During the pandemic face to face enactment of belongingness was reduced; adjustments needed to be made to maintain the sense of belonging. The experience of older adults was heterogeneous. We examine three themes. First, how belongingness was enacted prior to the pandemic. Examples include: family holidays, visiting each other, sports activities, eating with friends and family, and visiting cultural events. Second, how participants adapted and maintained their social involvement. Examples include: distanced face-to-face activities; and learning new technology. Third, for some, a belongingness gap emerged and persisted. There was an irretrievable loss of family members or friends, the closure of social groups, or withdrawal from groups as priorities changed. As a consequence, of challenged belongingness, participants expressed increased loneliness, anxiety, social isolation, frustration and, feelings of depression. For many, the disrupted sense of belonging no longer fostered resilience, and some previously resilient participants were no longer resilient.
... The interviews from the sector and the interviews, observations, and documents from the fieldwork were analyzed in an analogous way by coding the material in several independent but interrelated steps. I found inspiration in grounded theory (Charmaz, 2014;Glaser & Strauss, 1967), but also in the analytical ideas of Dennis Gioia and colleagues, and their notions of "1 st order concepts", "2 nd order themes", and "aggregate dimensions" (e.g. Corley & Gioia, 2004Gioia et al., 2012;Gioia & Pitre, 1990). ...
... The analysis of the first set of interviews and the material generated through the fieldwork was performed with the same approach but at separate times. By reading and analyzing the interview material from the sector, I first identified codes emerging from the interviewees (the 1 st order concepts) (Corley & Gioia, 2004), similar to "initial coding" as presented by Charmaz (2014). These concepts were then studied and compared to find similarities and differences across the material (axial coding). ...
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My PhD dissertation. Focusing on the institutionally based translations of strategic communication in Swedish universities. An ethnographical work.
... We made extensive memos of possible intersections among themes as they developed, areas to revisit and new themes we probed in subsequent interviews. As well, we identified any gaps in our sample of participants and used theoretical sampling to ensure a diverse sample of family physicians [23]. After we had reached data sufficiency [27], we reviewed a report of all codes, consolidated themes and developed the narrative. ...
... After we had reached data sufficiency [27], we reviewed a report of all codes, consolidated themes and developed the narrative. We enhanced trustworthiness throughout the data collection and analysis by employing reflexivity [23] to consider how we influence the research process, given our own disciplines (BLR-Epidemiology, JBB-Social Work, TF-Family Medicine) and perspectives. ...
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Background The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic necessitated a rapid shift in primary health care from predominantly in-person to high volumes of virtual care. The pandemic afforded the opportunity to conduct a deep regional examination of virtual care by family physicians in London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada that would inform the foundation for virtual care in our region post-pandemic. Objectives: (1) to determine volumes of in-person and virtual family physicians visits and characteristics of the family physicians and patients using them during the early COVID-19 pandemic; (2) to determine how virtual visit volumes changed over the pandemic, compared to in-person; and (3) to explore family physicians’ experience in virtual visit adoption and implementation. Methods We conducted a concurrent mixed-methods study of family physicians from March to October 2020. The quantitative component examined mean weekly number of total, in-person and virtual visits using health administrative data. Differences in outcomes according to physician and practice characteristics for pandemic periods were compared to pre-pandemic. The qualitative study employed Constructivist Grounded Theory, conducting semi-structured family physicians interviews; analyzing data iteratively using constant comparative analysis. We mapped themes from the qualitative analysis to quantitative findings. Results Initial volumes of patients decreased, driven by fewer in-person visits. Virtual visit volumes increased dramatically; family physicians described using telephone almost entirely. Rural family physicians reported video connectivity issues. By early second wave, total family physician visit volume returned to pre-pandemic volumes. In-person visits increased substantially; family physicians reported this happened because previously scarce personal protective equipment became available. Patients seen during the pandemic were older, sicker, and more materially deprived. Conclusion These results can inform the future of virtual family physician care including the importance of continued virtual care compensation, the need for equitable family physician payment models, and the need to attend to equity for vulnerable patients. Given the move to virtual care was primarily a move to telephone care, the modality of care delivery that is acceptable to both family physicians and their patients must be considered.
... First, the three focus groups were assigned to three authors, who each independently coded the entirety of all three focus groups for the different experiences (e.g., with diagnosis, treatment) during women's time with breast cancer. The focus groups were coded using an inductive thematic analysis, based on principles borrowed from the grounded theory approach [37][38][39][40]. An inductive thematic analysis identifies content that emerges from the data from the bottom-up. ...
Article
PurposeOptimal treatment adherence is critical in the management of breast cancer patients/survivors taking hormonal therapy. However, lack of adherence is common. Many technologies have been developed to encourage medication intake, such as reminders on phones or digital pills, with varying degrees of success.Methods To explore the role of technology in medical adherence requires a framework that considers all complexities of technology, from software to the end user’s beliefs. Actor Network Theory (ANT) defines technology based on its technical, social, and abstract components. We conducted three focus groups, which we analyzed using a thematic analysis to determine topics in breast cancer survivors’ discussions of these technologies. We also conducted a deductive content analysis using ANT concepts as codes.ResultsIn discussing the use of technology to improve medical adherence, participants had an empowering view of technology (48.8%) a neutral one (41.5%) or a disempowering view (9.8%). When it comes to their medication adherence, breast cancer survivors taking hormonal therapy perceived technology as something on which they could assert agency while their own agency dictated their adherence behaviors.Conclusions In line with a non-technologically deterministic view of medical technologies, this finding shows that technology can be both constraining and enabling, depending on the specific context of human use. This networked understanding of technology in terms of social dynamics has relevant implications in designing interventions that use technology to improve adherence.
... The second part of the research was based on grounded theory [41][42][43]. The results of the user interviews were qualitatively analyzed, and the texts were coded and categorized. ...
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With the introduction of “carbon neutrality”, promoting carbon peaking and carbon neutrality has become contingent upon the vigorous development of pure electric vehicles. The development of electric minivans is receiving substantial backing from the government as China’s logistics vehicle market undergoes a transformation. The drivers of electric minivans in China’s Shanxi Province are the objects of this research, whose purpose was to establish a service model based on the four elements of service design and grounded theory to clarify the key factors of user guarantee for electric minivans. We conducted a pilot study using questionnaires, user patterns, user interviews, and a user journey map to determine the user needs for electric minivan user service guarantees. NVivo was used to analyze and code the user interview data qualitatively. The research findings can serve as a resource for entrepreneurs, service providers, managers, and designers of electric minivans.
... El análisis de datos se realizó mediante el procedimiento de codificación correspondiente a la Teoría Fundamentada, según los lineamientos expuestos por Charmaz (2006), con el fin de identificar las representaciones sociales y los sistemas de relaciones que se establecen a partir del discurso de los alumnos. El método supone la elaboración de códigos o categorías a partir de los datos, mediante tres tipos de codificaciones: abierta, focalizada y axial, cada una con mayor nivel de generalidad o abstracción. ...
Article
Este estudio busca dar cuenta del significado que los estudiantes asignan al plagio, mediante el abordaje de las representaciones sociales. El diseño de investigación respondió a un estudio mixto, centrándose este artículo en el análisis de datos cualitativos, efectuado a través del procedimiento de la Teoría Fundamentada. Los resultados permitieron identificar las diferentes categorías que conforman la representación de plagio que poseen los estudiantes. Cabe destacar, que predomina una valoración negativa de este fenómeno, que lo configura como un obstaculizador del desarrollo académico y profesional. No obstante, los alumnos reconocen que no siempre cuentan con los mecanismos para evitarlo.
... Through cluster analysis, the categories developed in the first-level coding stage were organically combined, the generic relationship between them was gradually determined, and each main category and corresponding categories were summarized. The third step, axial and theoretical coding, refers to the phase where we identified relationships between the constructed categories [27]. We conducted data analysis using a collaborative team coding process and held meetings to discuss the data analysis every 2 weeks, with 4 meetings in total. ...
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Background Sports and recreational facilities provide an important community resource where physical activity can be promoted among local residents. However, in China, many sports facilities are not fully open to the public and are often underutilized as essential public services. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to public entry from the facility management point of view. Methods A qualitative study informed by constructivist grounded theory. Individual interviews were conducted with executive managers, marketing staff, and facilities management personnel ( n = 15). We took an inductive approach to data synthesis utilizing procedural three-level coding, and used the electronic data management program (NVivo12) to organize the data analysis process. Results The 15 participants discussed factors that impacted the sports facilities’ capacity to serve the public. Four key themes emerged from data synthesis: (a) Policy-related restrictions, (b) Management-related factors, (c) Service-related factors, and (d) Supervision factors. Specific barriers affecting facilities’ availability and accessibility involved policies and regulations, administrative pressure, institutional mechanisms, ideas, a professional team, practical ways, content development, schedule setting, spirit building, assessment and supervision, crisis management, and public evaluation. Conclusion Findings from this qualitative study provided theoretical ground and empirical support for future research aimed at making sports facilities more accessible to the public in order to maximize physical activity and meet the objectives of the national fitness blueprint in China.
... Data Analysis The diverse answers provided by students were analyzed via axial coding, which helped to examine one particular issue by integrating other categories [24] as in this study, key ideas were merged into categories and aligned to explore students' experiences of constructing knowledge. Another approach used in the analysis was the constant comparison of data [25], which leads to the interpretation of data to build a theory. However, due to experience of these students insufficient to generate overarching theory, this study employed the constructivist approach of grounded theory [26]. ...
Article
В 2019 году один из вузов г. Караганды изменил свой статус с государственного на статус автономной научной организации с наименованием «Некоммерческая акционерная организация». При этом университет стал исследовательским университетом, что означает, что университет выделяет значительную часть образовательных программ, предлагая курсы, которые прививают и развивают у учащихся исследовательские навыки. В результате этой реформы в программу бакалавриата были введены новые курсы, связанные с исследованиями. Цель данной работы направлена на исследование изучения нового курса иностранными студентами через призму когнитивного обучения. Методы. Настоящее исследование было разработано как анкетное исследование, основанное на анализе обоснованной теории. В качестве респондентов в исследовании приняли участие 198 иностранных студентов первого курса из 252. Всего 117 респондентов прошли опрос с открытыми вопросами офлайн, а 81 — онлайн после защиты своего проекта. Анализ данных, выявил четыре категорий, которые возникли согласно открытому, аксиальному и выборочному кодированию, и обсуждались через призму таксономии Блума, пересмотренная Андерсоном и Кратволь (2001). Результаты. Согласно результатам исследования, подготовка проектов на первом курсе вооружает студентов мета-когнитивными знаниями и навыками познания. Появилось четыре категорий «новые знания по теме», «процесс погружения», «обнаружение проблем», «открытие нового горизонта». Эти категорий обозначали накопление знаний и опыта посредством ведения проектов. Кроме того, студенты научились размышлять над изучением вопросов, связанных с их студенческой жизнью. Таким образом, исследование свидетельствует о переходе уровня познания студентов с процессуального на уровень мета-познания. In 2019, one of the universities of Karaganda shifted its status from that of a state to an autonomous research organization entitled as Noncommercial Joint-Stock Organization. Herewith, the university became a research university, which implies that the university allocates significant portion of education programs offer courses that nurture learners’ researcher skills. As a result of this reform, in the program of the undergraduate students were introduced new courses related to research. Purpose: This study aims to provide insights of the first-year international students of a new course via prism of the cognitive learning. Methods. The current study was designed as a survey study based on grounded theory analysis. As study respondents, 198 first-year international students out of 252 took part in the study. A total of 117 respondents completed a survey with open-ended questions offline, while 81 completed it online after the defense of their project. Data analysis on open, axial and selective coding, four categories that emerged through the prism of Bloom’s taxonomy revised by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) were discussed. Results. According to research results, designing projects in the first-year of study equips students with the metacognitive knowledge and the cognition skills. There emerged five categories ‘new knowledge about the topic,’ ‘an immersion process,’ ‘discovery of issues,’ ‘opening a new Horizon.’ These categories indicated accumulation of knowledge and experience through conducting projects. In addition, students’ have learned to reflect on examining issues related to their student life. Thus, the study indicates that students’ level of cognition transitioned from the procedural to metacognition level. 2019 жылы Қарағанды университеттерінің бірі өзінің мәртебесін мемлекеттік статустан Коммерциялық емес акционерлік ұйым деп аталатын автономды ғылыми ұйымға ауыстырды. Сонымен, университет зерттеу университетіне айналды, бұл университет білім беру бағдарламаларының маңызды бөлігін студенттердің зерттеушілік дағдыларын қалыптастыратын курстарды ұсынатынын білдіреді. Осы реформаның нәтижесінде бакалавриат бағдарламасына ғылыми зерттеулермен байланысты жаңа курстар енгізілді. Мақсаты. Бұл жұмыстың мақсаты когнитивті оқыту призмасы арқылы, жаңа курстың халықаралық студенттерімен қалай оқығандығын зерттеуге бағытталған. Әдістер. Аталған зерттеу, негізделген теориялық талдау арқылы сауалнамалық зерттеу ретінде жасалған. Зерттеу респонденттері ретінде, барлығы 252 бірінші курстың 198-і студенті қатысты. Оның ішінде 117 респондент офлайн режимінде ашық сұрақтары бар сауалнаманы толтырса, 81-і өз жобаларын қорғағаннан кейін оны онлайн режимінде толтырды. Ашық, аксиалды және селективті кодтау бойынша деректерді талдау, Андерсон мен Кратволь (2001) өңдеген Блум таксономиясының призмасы арқылы пайда болған төрт категория талқыланды.
... CJC's outsider perspective helped the team to explore multiple interpretations of the data. MB and CJC were also careful to keep a written audit trail [32] of the codes as they were combined and refined. ...
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IntroductionResearch shows active learning is an effective teaching method. However, few qualitative studies explore medical student perceptions of the active learning process. The present study explored what students thought about while completing paper puzzles, an active learning tool used at the University of Utah School of Medicine, to understand what and how medical students think while engaged in active learning.Materials and Methods To investigate second-year medical students’ attitudes toward these active learning exercises, three Zoom-based focused groups were held and recorded throughout the course. Recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis.ResultsStudents reported that peer interactions were of high value, and that while some interactions and thought processes were action-oriented, others were more metacognitive. Other benefits of the activity included promotion of learning, provision of structure, and designation of high-yield concepts. Challenges included feelings of confusion, problems with timing or difficulty of the tasks, and low utility without adequate preparation.DiscussionThese findings reflect student-acknowledged pros and cons of active learning described in education literature and add further insight into the thoughts and conversations students have during active learning activities. These include practicing metacognitive skills, triaging information, and learning from peers.Conclusions These data further elucidate student perceptions of active learning activities in medical education. Though focused on a specific activity, the data can help medical educators understand what students appreciate about active learning and what they think about while engaged in such activities.
... Indigenous research methodologies often draw attention to the influence one's worldview has on the ways we experience and understand the world (Chilisa, 2012;Kovach, 2009;Wilson, 2008). Many non-Indigenous scholars similarly assert that we construct or co-create the world around us in a way that is informed by our personal history and cultural context (Charmaz, 2014). In order to be transparent and accountable, it is important for us to position or locate ourselves in relation to the claims and arguments we make (Absolon & Willett, 2004). ...
... The data was coded thematically using nVivo software. Coding and analysis approximated the grounded theory approach set out by Kathy Charmaz (Charmaz, 2014), but with attention to theoretical refinement as well as discovery (Snow et al., 2003). ...
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This article examines the unsanctioned installation of infrastructure for walking and cycling as a site of possibility. In contrast to accounts of everyday urbanism that see in these kinds of interventions possibilities for a politics in which the state subsides, I find instead an effort to reclaim the state for more progressive purposes. I focus on groups calling themselves Transformation Agencies and Departments of Transformation to argue that DIY infrastructure is deployed on city streets not as an effort to subvert or supplant city authorities, but instead as prefigurative performances of city/citizen relationships 'as if' they were otherwise. Exploiting the plurality and contingency of the state and its legal forms, objects are installed to show how quickly things could be different, and sometimes they succeed in prompting significant shifts. Through guerrilla paint and pop-up posts, transformation agencies work prefiguratively to imagine and enact forms of citizenship that are not oriented around automobility.
... The framework laid out above stems from two years devoted to collecting, discussing, coding, and analyzing a representative sample of forty episodes of Mas-terChef USA across nine seasons. We employed a qualitative approach to textual analysis that was inductive, iterative, and interpretive, loosely guided by the tenets of grounded theory methods (see Strauss and Corbin 1990;Charmaz 2001Charmaz , 2014. This method encourages researchers to be flexible and open-minded. ...
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Competition is fundamental to American life, and sport is the cultural institution most closely linked to organized competition in the U.S. Historically, sport has been a male preserve. At the same time, the structures, practices, and iconography of sports have infiltrated a variety of social fields and institutions less obviously dominated by men—a process known as “sportification.” Reality programing is one such field. In this paper, we analyze forty episodes spanning nine seasons of the reality show MasterChef USA to explore the gendered implications of the sportification of cooking. MasterChef USA harnesses competition, metaphorized as sport, to transform (feminine) cooks into (masculine) chefs. In the language of Greek mythology, the heroism of the agon meets the mundanity of the apron. The show not only effectively “softens” sport and “hardens” cooking, it also hybridizes traditional gender difference itself as the cook-chef distinction animates and destabilizes boundaries between home and work, amateurs and professionals, the ordinary and the elevated. However, the hybridization of gender has limits and is not equally balanced between masculine and feminine poles—and the imbalance is where gender inequality resides.
... Next, the interviews were translated into English, independently coded by the lead author, and checked by the second author using an open-coding approach, thereby creating an initial code list from the data. Through the coding process, the researchers primarily responsible for the analysis developed theoretical sensitivity (sensitivity is attained through stopping and thinking anew, by considering multiple vantage points, comparing, and building on ideas and themes) [56] during the analytical process, increasing insight and understanding about the participants' beliefs and teaching practices through interaction with the data [52]. After completing the opencoding process, axial coding was conducted to discern relationships between the codes. ...
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Physical education (PE) is beneficial for the development of elementary school-age children through its promotion of different educational learning outcomes, which in turn affects the long-term development of physically active lifestyles. In many countries, PE is taught by classroom teachers (CTs), who are thought to be in a unique position to positively impact students’ learning. While a substantial body of studies examines the challenges that CTs encounter when teaching PE, less research has been directed towards gaining a comprehensive understanding of how CTs visualize PE and, in turn, how to promote various types of PE. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore elementary school CTs’ beliefs about and practices in PE in South Korea. To achieve the research goal, a semi-structured face-to face interview with six CTs was performed to collect the qualitative data source, using the ground theory as an analysis method. Three themes emerged from these interviews concerning the CTs’ beliefs in PE: (a) the importance of understanding students’ characteristics, (b) the importance of centering internal perceptions in PE method, and (c) the importance of meaningful experiences. The results also identified two themes for teaching practices in PE that corresponded to CTs’ beliefs: (a) crafting personalized instructional methods and (b) connecting PE experiences. This study lends important insights to future practices and research recommendations for CTs’ PE teaching and teacher education programs.
... Сәйкесінше, зерттеліп отырған құбылыстың теориялық анықтамасын жасау сапалық зерттеудің соңғы кезеңі болып табылады. Индуктивті тәсілдің көмегімен қалыптасқан теорияны қолдану әдісі «негізделген теория» деп аталатын стратегияға жатады (Strauss & Corbin, 2015;Charmaz, 2014). «Негізделген теория» сапалық зерттеудің әдісі болып табылады, онда теория «зерттелетін құбылысқа қатысты деректерді жүйелі түрде жинап, талдау арқылы әртүрлі жағдайда жасалады, дамытылып, тексеріледі» (Дембицкий, 2010, 66-б.). ...
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Аталмыш монография өз оқырманына зерттеу материалын зерделеудің нақты мақсатын айқындау арқылы, теориялық ережелерді талдап, кейстердің негізінде нақты ұғым-түсініктерді қолдану арқылы білім беру зерттеулерінің әдіснамасын бағдарлауға көмек береді. Монографияда оқытудың рефлексиялық бірлігі ескерілген: әр тараудың соңында оқырманға тақырып бойынша бірқатар сұрақ ұсынылады.
... Соответственно, разработка теоретических объяснений изучаемого явления является заключительным этапом качественного исследования. Основанный на индуктивном подходе, такой способ использования теории принадлежит к стратегии так называемой «обоснованной теории» (Strauss & Corbin, 2015;Charmaz, 2014). «Обоснованная теория» является качественным методом исследования, при котором теория «создается, развивается и верифицируется в разных усло-виях путем систематического сбора и анализа данных, относящихся к изучаемому феномену» (Дембицкий, 2010, с. 66). ...
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Данная коллективная монография поможет читателю сориентироваться в методологии образовательных исследований посредством постановки конкретных целей изучения исследовательского материала, визуального представления теоретических положений, примеров применения конкретных понятий на основе кейсов. В монографии учтен рефлексивный компонент обучения: в конце каждой главы читателю предлагается ряд вопросов по теме.
... I independently coded and analyzed each interview using NVivo 12 software. I divided the interview transcripts into different sections, carefully analyzing and identifying various themes and categories (Charmaz 2014;Strauss and Corbin 1998). Through "open coding" (Saldana 2016: 115-119), I identified 13 broad categories, including: "Barriers Women Face in Policing," "Barriers Women of Colour Face in Policing," "Diversity," "Homophobia," "Racism," ...
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Despite the plethora of research on police culture, few studies have examined police culture from an intersectional approach. To provide more intersectional research on police culture, I conducted 16 semi-structured interviews with women police officers from a police organization in Alberta to explore how they perceive and experience police culture. I find that women police officers witness and/or experience three types of workplace violence: physical violence; bullying, harassment, and intimidation; and lateral violence. Black women, Biracial (Indigenous/white) women, white women and LBGTQ2SIA+ white women report having to deescalate violent situations whenever police officers, predominantly men, commit acts of physical violence on members of the public. Black women, Biracial (Indigenous/white) women, white women and white LGBTQ2SIA+ women police officers reported experiencing various forms of bullying, harassment, and intimidation, including misogynoir, race and gender-based harassment, sexual harassment, and homophobia. Women also report women partaking in lateral violence by competing and sabotaging other women to advance their career. I also found that anti-Indigenous racism, anti-Black racism, and xenophobia is major problem in police culture. Many examples of racism in police culture included police officers saying racist jokes on-duty and in the office; physically abusing, racially profiling, and harassing Indigenous peoples, including those experiencing homelessness; anti-Black racism in homicide investigations and officers shouting racist and xenophobic slurs at refugees. Although white women were more likely than women of colour to acknowledge systemic racism in policing, they often used colourblind interpretations to underestimate the existence of racism in police culture.
... Data analysis was done inductively using grounded theory techniques through the constant comparative technique. 30 Finally, the quality assurance of the study was established through: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. 31 Specifically, techniques such as; member checking, triangulation and peer debriefing were used to establish credibility while transferability was attained through thick description of the phenomenon. ...
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Parental engagement in learner’s learning process is credited with benefits of improving children behaviour and development of moral values. This study explored parental engagement in the development of values in pupils through grade four social studies curriculum. Through the application of grounded theory research design, 25 parents were interviewed for this study. Data analysis was done inductively using grounded theory techniques through the constant comparative technique. The study revealed that parents engaged in a wide range of activities while developing children’s values through grade four social studies curriculum. These activities included: Assigning duties to their children; Setting moral standards; Role modelling; conducting moral conversations; Provision of basic needs to deter social crimes; Correcting bad behaviour through punishment; and Offering praises for good behaviour. Further, parents utilised the institutions of: family, peer group, religious organisations and media in the development of children values. The study recommends for parental sensitization programs on their roles in the development of their children values. it also recommends for closer collaboration between parents and the institutions of: family, peer group, religious organisations and media in the development of children’s values.
... The epistemological underpinnings to practice have been contested (Burnham, 2013;Gulliford, 2015) but here are judged to primarily be constructivist. Constructivist educational psychology researchers make clear their role in the construction of the research findings (Charmaz, 2014). Further, the transformative paradigm intentionally creates a change in those involved in the research paradigm, through an acknowledgement that reality is subjective, but also governed by power and social positioning (Mertens, 2010). ...
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Aim(s): Educational psychology, whilst a helping profession, was heavily influenced by oppressive and racist ideas during its infancy. Over the last several decades, EPs have been invited to hold a mirror up to the profession with regard to racial justice. The aim of this paper is to offer a critical exploration of epistemic issues within educational psychology, to provide an alternative and potentially impactful way of understanding the current moment of racial 'reckoning' that we find ourselves in. Rationale: Educational psychologists use a range of tools and approaches within research and practice. The emergence of intelligence testing marked the spearheading of oppressive social policy worldwide. Viewing these phenomena epistemologically invites us to explore where we have committed epistemic violence, particularly in the case of black children, how blind spots may emerge again and how to build frameworks that will avoid this. The current paper presents black feminist epistemology as a framework that is inclusive, requires an interrogation of power in knowledge systems and requires practitioners to question and challenge taken for granted knowledge. Implications: A key implication of adopting a black feminist epistemology is that educational psychologists explicitly locate the historical racial and political context of educational psychology praxis to better serve children and families. Conclusions: At the centre of this paper, is the fallacy of objectivity. The paper attempts to unpack the 'neutrality myth' and how this has impacted the tools and perspectives within educational psychology. EPs are invited to explore the basic tenets of a black feminist epistemology, which enables us to ask incisive questions about our identity, our relationship to knowledge and therefore our effectiveness as relevant practitioners in an increasingly complex social world.
... Open codes were listed and shared with the research team for peer review. Then, axial 257coding began as open codes were reviewed, interpreted, and reflected upon for each data source; 258 similar codes were grouped into categories using appraisal theory(Charmaz, 2014). As patterns 259 continued, the categories became concrete and resulted in themes and subthemes encompassing 260 all data. ...
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Research shows that teaching can be emotionally demanding and can result in stress and anxiety prompting reduced motivation and attrition. These experiences may be exacerbated in Physical Education (PE) teaching as this position holds a marginal status in most school settings. Teacher emotions are suggested for investigation to understand teacher experiences as they are integral in understanding teaching beliefs, practices, well-being and student-teacher relationships. In addition, emotions are used to express teaching experiences which serves as a starting point for dissecting what caused a teachers’ emotions and what was the resulting action. The purpose of this study was to explore how PE teachers interpret their emotions while teaching and what internal and external factors may impact their perceived ability to control and cope with their positive and negative emotional situations. A cross-sectional qualitative design was used to gain in-depth understanding of current secondary in-service PE teachers (N=10; 5=Female, 5=Male; 50% Middle School; 50% High School). Semi-structed interviews and scenario-based questioning were used to explore tenants of emotions, guided by the Appraisal Theory, which included participants describing cause and effect of each emotion. Inductive and deductive qualitative analysis resulted in two themes: positive and negative emotion experiences with subthemes. Subthemes described with positive emotions included student learning and relationships, program development and maintenance, and colleague relationships. Negative emotions included marginalization of the subject, student behavior, and shame driven reactions. In conclusion, appraisals are highly aligned with teacher emotions and interconnection exists between teaching ability, psychosocial beliefs/experiences, and the emotions teachers feel. Teaching behaviors and well-being are likely dictated by this relationship.
... This qualitative study was conducted through interviews and participatory observation. 27 The literature reviewed and the information obtained from the participants (n=16) provided abundant data for the development of the item pool and the initial questionnaire. The PSA of women with BC treated with AET was closely related to emotional response, selfcognition, self-image and social situation. ...
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Objective To develop and evaluate a psychosocial adaptation (PSA) questionnaire of women with breast cancer treated with adjuvant endocrine therapy (AET). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Conducted study in a tertiary care centre in China from March to June 2021. Participants Women with breast cancer who have received AET. Methods Item development and extraction were based on literature, qualitative interviews (n=16) and assessment of content validity. 300 participants were recruited to perform item analysis, internal consistency reliability and exploratory factor analysis by cross-sectional studies. Finally, test–retest, criterion validity and confirmatory factor analysis of the questionnaire were performed with 96 respondents. Results An initial questionnaire was devised. The exploratory factor analysis demonstrated four factors: emotional response (six items), self-worth (five items), physical impacts (three items) and social communication (two items). The cumulative contribution of the factors was 65.057%. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of the questionnaire was 0.876. The correlation coefficient between the questionnaire and General Self-Efficacy Scale was 0.565 (p<0.01). A 16-item questionnaire and its factorial structure were confirmed. Conclusions The 16-item questionnaire had good reliability and validity. This could be a useful tool to assess the PSA levels among women with breast cancer treated with AET and provide a basis for further research.
... We then proceeded using theme-based categories in our analysis (Kvale and Brinkman 2009), exploring categories and themes related to bodily experiences in the material aided by the theoretical perspective. Each interview was analysed and coded individually by the researchers and were then jointly compared, categorized and coded through discussions, validating the coding and interpretations in a hermeneutic and abductive process (Charmaz 2014). We oscillated between surprising findings in the material and theory/previous research on embodied intersectionality, theory of the phenomenology of the body and theory of professions. ...
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The workforce in early childhood education and care (ECEC) is highly gender-segregated with a majority of women. Gender-sensitive professionalization is regarded a way to recruit more men, but there is a call for more empirical research into perspectives that combines bodily aspects of gender, professionalization and men`s career choices. Applying the notion of embodied intersectionality, this article analyses narrative data from Nordic men with varying experience with formal ECEC education and work. It explores how embodied and intersectional experiences of ECEC work and professionalism emerge in the narratives and how embodied and intersectional experiences link to the men’s choices of entering, staying, or leaving ECEC. Such experiences appear in the narratives related to entry to and exit from formal ECEC education to parental cooperation and to professional play practices. The findings are discussed in relation to the professionalization of ECEC, professional exclusionary and inclusionary mechanisms and debates about ECEC professionalization.
... Exit interview data were analyzed 1) to identify barriers, grouped according to the PrEP continuum and 2) feedback linking the intervention to PrEP behaviors or related factors. Any differences between the two team members' categorizations were resolved through discussion until agreement was reached (34). ...
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HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake among cisgender women in the United States is low. Just4Us, a theory-based counseling and navigation intervention, was evaluated for preliminary efficacy in a pilot randomized controlled trial with PrEP-eligible women (n = 83). The comparison arm was a brief information session. Surveys were completed at baseline, post-intervention and at 3 months. In the study sample, 79% were Black and 26% were Latina. At 3 months follow-up, 45% made an appointment to see a provider about PrEP; only 13% received a PrEP prescription. There were no differences in PrEP initiation by study arm (9% Info vs 11% Just4Us; CI 1.07). Knowledge was significantly higher in the Just4Us group at post-intervention. Analysis revealed high PrEP interest with many personal and structural barriers along the PrEP continuum. Just4Us is a promising PrEP uptake intervention for cisgender women. Further research is needed to tailor intervention strategies on individual circumstances and barriers. Clinicaltrials.gov registration: NCT03699722: A Women-Focused PrEP Intervention (Just4Us)
... We analyzed our interview data via a grounded theory approach [17]. Following grounded theory, we simultaneously performed data analysis and collection, iteratively refining our analytic frame while also updating the questions for future interviews as we identified emerging themes. ...
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Navigation assistance systems (NASs) aim to help visually impaired people (VIPs) navigate unfamiliar environments. Most of today's NASs support VIPs via turn-by-turn navigation, but a growing body of work highlights the importance of exploration as well. It is unclear, however, how NASs should be designed to help VIPs explore unfamiliar environments. In this paper, we perform a qualitative study to understand VIPs' information needs and challenges with respect to exploring unfamiliar environments, with the aim of informing the design of NASs that support exploration. Our findings reveal the types of spatial information that VIPs need as well as factors that affect VIPs' information preferences. We also discover specific challenges that VIPs face that future NASs can address such as orientation and mobility education and collaborating effectively with others. We present design implications for NASs that support exploration, and we identify specific research opportunities and discuss open socio-technical challenges for making such NASs possible. We conclude by reflecting on our study procedure to inform future approaches in research on ethical considerations that may be adopted while interacting with the broader VIP community.
... After interviews and transcription, all interview transcripts were uploaded in the computer program Atlas.ti. In Atlas.ti, the author conducted open coding, a procedure commonly used as the first step in the grounded theory approach (Braun and Clarke 2013;Charmaz 2014). This step was explicitly guided by the sensitizing concepts, but was open in the sense that the author read the interviews closely, line-by-line, and added detailed codes to find as much nuance and input as possible per concept. ...
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Source orientation, anthropomorphism, and social presence are three concepts that play a pivotal role in present-day research on users’ responses to communication with chatbots. However, there are also problems regarding the three conceptualizations and the related measurements. Therefore, the present qualitative interview study analyzes users’ perceptions of their interactions with chatbots through the lens of source orientation, anthropomorphism as well as social presence, in order to unravel how these three concepts can help to understand human-chatbot communication—each in their unique ways. Interviews were conducted with a sample ( N = 24) that was varied in terms of gender, age, educational level and household composition. Findings are presented for source orientation, anthropomorphism, and social presence, and the discussion elaborates on the theoretical and methodological implications.
... Transcripts were imported into NVIVO (version 12 March 2020) for coding and analysis, using content analysis. 22,23 Transcripts were coded in an iterative process and themes were developed based on responses. Inductive and deductive coding were used to establish a codebook based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research model. ...
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Healthcare workers are a trusted health information source and are uniquely positioned to reduce the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this sequential exploratory mixed methods study was to understand attitudes of healthcare workers working in Massachusetts during the COVID-19 pandemic regarding strategies to improve COVID-19 vaccine utilization, including vaccine mandates and incentives. Fifty-two individuals completed one-on-one interviews between April 22nd and September 7th, 2021. The survey was developed based on findings from the interviews; 209 individuals completed the online survey between February 17th and March 23rd, 2022. Both the interview and survey asked about attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccine and booster mandates, incentives, and strategies to improve vaccination rates. Most participants were female (79%-interview, 81%-survey), Caucasian (56%, 73%), and worked as physicians (37%, 34%) or nurses (10%, 18%). Overall, nuanced attitudes regarding vaccine and booster mandates were expressed; many supported mandates to protect their patients’ health, others emphasized personal autonomy, while some were against mandates if job termination was the consequence of declining vaccines. Similarly, views regarding vaccine incentives differed; some considered incentives helpful, yet many viewed them as coercive. Strategies believed to be most effective to encourage vaccination included improving accessibility to vaccination sites, addressing misinformation, discussing vaccine safety, tailored community outreach via trusted messengers, and one-on-one conversations between patients and healthcare workers. Healthcare workers’ experiences with strategies to improve utilization of COVID-19 vaccines and boosters have implications for public health policies. Generally, efforts to improve access and education were viewed more favorably than incentives and mandates.
... Data were compared to the initial coding framework, with adaptations discussed, agreed, and made as required. The constant comparison between data and analysis allowed the development of codes, categories, and theories to be tested across transcripts, using a grounded theory approach to identify key themes [29]. ...
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Background The national shielding programme was introduced by UK Government at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, with individuals identified as clinically extremely vulnerable (CEV) offered advice and support to stay at home and avoid all non-essential contact. This study aimed to explore the impact and responses of “shielding” on the health and wellbeing of CEV individuals in Southwest England during the first COVID-19 lockdown. Methods A two-stage mixed methods study, including a structured survey (7 August—23 October 2020) and semi-structured telephone interviews (26 August—30 September 2020) with a sample of individuals who had been identified as CEV and advised to “shield” by Bristol, North Somerset & South Gloucestershire (BNSSG) Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG). Results The survey was completed by 203 people (57% female, 54% > 69 years, 94% White British, 64% retired) in Southwest England identified as CEV by BNSSG CCG. Thirteen survey respondents participated in follow-up interviews (53% female, 40% > 69 years, 100% White British, 61% retired). Receipt of ‘official’ communication from NHS England or General Practitioner (GP) was considered by participants as the legitimate start of shielding. 80% of survey responders felt they received all relevant advice needed to shield, yet interviewees criticised the timing of advice and often sought supplementary information. Shielding behaviours were nuanced, adapted to suit personal circumstances, and waned over time. Few interviewees received community support, although food boxes and informal social support were obtained by some. Worrying about COVID-19 was common for survey responders (90%). Since shielding had begun, physical and mental health reportedly worsened for 35% and 42% of survey responders respectively. 21% of survey responders scored ≥ 10 on the PHQ-9 questionnaire indicating possible depression and 15% scored ≥ 10 on the GAD-7 questionnaire indicating possible anxiety. Conclusions This research highlights the difficulties in providing generic messaging that is applicable and appropriate given the diversity of individuals identified as CEV and the importance of sharing tailored and timely advice to inform shielding decisions. Providing messages that reinforce self-determined action and assistance from support services could reduce the negative impact of shielding on mental health and feelings of social isolation.
... The analysis process was systematic since it went from a descriptive level to an analytical one and then an interpretative one. It was iterative to the extent that it allowed the transition from data to codes, from there to the categories in inductive and deductive logic, but it was also interactive to coordinate the voices of the interviewees, with the analysis of the researchers and the references reviewed in the process (Charmaz, 2006). ...
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The objective of this study is to understand the meaning of the stigma about illegal drug consumption and its contribution to public policymaking in Colombia from the perspective of experts on this topic. Research was carried out based on the methodological perspective of the grounded theory. Twenty participants with extensive experience in the design of regulations, plans, or programs about demand reduction in Colombia were interviewed, using tools such as in-depth interviews and analytical memos. The analysis was performed by means of open, axial, and selective coding techniques and the development of a conditional/consequential matrix. The findings are presented according to the structure of the pattern matrix to show the social process found and include (a) the phenomenon, the fear of being stigmatized as a promoter of more liberal public policies; (b) the context, the Colombia’s history and the policymaking to reduce drug consumption; (c) the conditions, control of governance by influential groups in power; and (d) the strategies to address it, prioritize less sensitive issues, and the consequences, formulation of repressive public policies with the impact on the rights of people who use drugs. From the perspective of the interviewees, the fear of being stigmatized as promoters of more liberal public policies and contrary to the expectations of the social and power classes leads the rulers to have a low-profile discourse on this subject so as not to assume the costs politicians that this fact would imply.
... This research was a qualitative constructivist grounded theory study utilising in-depth interviews [45,46]. Constructivist grounded theory was well suited to the research as it provides the opportunity to capture the contextualised lived experience of a social process (i.e., support provision) about which little is known. ...
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Purpose Quality disability support is fundamental to the lives of many adults with acquired neurological disability. However, little is known about the factors that influence the quality of paid support. This study is part of a larger project to develop a holistic understanding of quality support, grounded in the experience of people with acquired neurological disability, close others, and disability support workers. The current study focuses on the support worker perspective. Methods Following constructivist grounded theory methodology, interviews were conducted with 12 support workers. Grounded theory analysis was followed to develop themes and subthemes and build a model of quality support. Results Five key themes, with fifteen subthemes emerged to depict factors influencing the quality of support. The five themes are: being the right person for the role, delivering quality support in practice, working well together, maintaining and improving quality support, and considering the broader context. Findings emphasise the importance of the support worker recognising the person as an individual and respecting their autonomy. Conclusions Critical to quality support is centring the needs and preferences of people with disability, improving support worker working conditions and supporting people with disability and support workers to build effective, balanced working relationships. • IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION • Delivering quality support in practice relies upon the support worker recognising, centring, and respecting the autonomy of the person with disability. • To deliver quality support, support workers need to feel valued, be committed to the role and actively work to maintain and improve the quality of support provision. • Quality support provision is facilitated by the support worker and the person with disability effectively balancing boundaries and friendship, and in turn building a quality working relationship.
... The first author reviewed all text coded as relevant to this topic (a total of 227 pages of text) and inductively generated a thematic codebook using a constant comparison method (Charmaz 2014) to identify salient themes in students' responses. An early emergent theme from this analysis was the importance of social interactions in shaping students' sense of calling. ...
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This research examines the social actors and interactions that facilitate seminary students' sense of calling. Drawing from 36 in-depth interviews with first year Masters of Divinity students, we introduce six ideal typical social others who play a formative role in the early stages of a call to ministry: instigators, exemplars, interpreters, affirmers, challengers, and codiscerners. Together, these findings demonstrate that the call to ministry, while deeply personal, emerges through social interactions that facilitate and make plausible a person's sense of calling and that sustain it over time. Extending Richard Pitt's conceptualization of the “horizontal call,” this paper argues that social others help evoke and solidify—not merely legitimate—a personal sense of call. This research also highlights differences in the social structuring of call by gender. Despite considerable gains in the ordination of women, we find that many still face obstacles to experiencing and embracing a call to ministry.
... The data analysis followed a grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2014) that moves iteratively between data and analytical categories. Unlike the classic statements by Glaser and Strauss suggested, contemporary versions of grounded theory are not purely inductive. ...
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This article shows how the proliferation of economic language can undermine the political authority of economists. The argument emerges from a comparative case study of two early experiments with electricity market design. Relying on archival materials and 30 in-depth interviews, I examine why political actors ignored the advice of economists in California, while they deferred to the experts in the Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland (PJM) region. The debates were framed in economic language, but stakeholders interpreted central concepts differently without recognizing the resulting ambiguities. This ‘discursive multivocality’ undermined economists’ authority as experts. It challenged economists’ monopoly on the interpretation of economic concepts and undercut rhetorical strategies to reassert the superiority of their understanding. At the PJM Interconnect, the experts overcame this problem by switching to a different conceptual apparatus. Ironically, economists could establish their authoritative understanding of economics by appealing to a shared understanding of engineering problems.
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Background: The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a sudden increase in the need for mental health services and a rapid escalation in the delivery of these services via telehealth. Little is known about how people experience telehealth as part of a new mental health service, where relationships with service providers have not yet been established. In this paper, we present data from a qualitative service evaluation relating to people’s experiences of telehealth and their preferences regarding future use. Methods: Data are drawn from semi-structured interviews with 45 participants (32 people who accessed mental health services, 7 informal support people, and 6 people who had accessed services themselves as well as identifying as informal supports). Data relating to experiences of telehealth, comparisons with in-person services, and preferences were coded inductively and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Results: Just over half of the people in our sample preferred telehealth or at least regarded it as a suitable option. Those who preferred telehealth were more likely to have had direct experience with it, particularly via videoconferencing, as part of their access to this new mental health service. Reasons for preferring in-person services included the belief that interpersonal communication was superior in these settings, compatibility with personal communication style, and discomfort with technology. Those who preferred telehealth modalities cited its convenience, elimination of the need to travel for services, the comfort and safety afforded by being able to access services at home, and the ability to communicate more openly online. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that telehealth services have a legitimate place in future models of mental health care outside of pandemic situations. Many people who accessed services expressed a preference for participating in at least some of their mental health services remotely as it enhances choice and accessibility. Hybrid models of care may harness the unique benefits of both in-person and remote service modalities. These findings help to illuminate the potential of telehealth services when engaging with people seeking mental health help for the first time and in situations where existing relationships with those who provide services have not yet been established.
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A descriptive overview of the Turkish context relying on a synthesis of the literature to identify ad hoc educational policy changes that progress towards mainstreaming forced immigrants into public education. As a transit but also high-receiving country, Turkey has had to go through several changes at the policy and practice levels. This chapter provides us with a picture of measures taken to ensure the continuation of education for refugee children.
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This paper explores the nature of reflection that qualified physiotherapists use in their day-to-day practice. This is an area in which there is a dearth of research. With a grounded theory approach purposive sampling was used to recruit seven qualified physiotherapists for photo-elicitation interviews exploring whether they did reflect and if so, what their reflection was like. The findings were that they did reflect but that it occurred outside of working hours. Four conceptual categories were identified: Personal Concept, Personal Process, Time and Head-Space. Practitioners had their own ideas of what reflection was, own ways of reflecting and personal strategies for making the head space to reflect in. Typically, they used thinking modes of reflection, with occasional dialogical modes; written reflection was rare. Of novel significance was the use of strategies to complete reflection to their satisfaction, most frequently walking but also preparing vegetables, driving and showering, typically outside of work hours. The use of such cognitively non-demanding, routinised activities to aid reflection has not been widely explored in the literature on reflection and may suggest a need to rethink approaches to support the teaching of reflection which would have high validity for its place in the real world of practice.
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This article presents and discusses a theoretical model grounded in data regarding sibling dynamics in the context of parental child maltreatment. The model aimed to explain the process by which parental maltreatment shaped the siblings' dynamics while following the process from childhood to adulthood. The model is based on the triangulated analysis of three samples: 120 forensic interviews with maltreated children, 83 interviews with adults who experienced maltreatment in childhood, and 48 interviews with professionals. The theoretical model presents key concepts for sibling dynamics: sibling camaraderie, sibling abuse, parentified sibling, and sibling cut‐off. In addition, the overlap and movements within and between these concepts are discussed, as well as contexts that might explain the model.
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The question of how software development needs are channeled into different parts of a platform ecosystem has been addressed by separating owners and complementors and by separating the core and the periphery. This is not necessarily sufficient in business-to-business ecosystems due to their characteristics. Our grounded theory study observes a B2B platform that brings together multiple stakeholders and their software development. This paper describes the location aspect in decision making, what feature gets implemented in which part of the ecosystem and on what grounds. We refer to this decision of implementation location as feature demarcation. We describe the related structures and discuss why the location matters. Our work complements the existing research with an addition to the core-periphery view. In the process of situating a new feature we observe the architectural elements together instead of focusing on distinct entities.KeywordsDigital platformsCore-peripheryFeature demarcation
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