This chapter presents key concepts of economics relevant to the financing and delivery of long term care services. It first examines the magnitude of population aging in developed economies, and the associated implications for long term care. Key economic concepts relating to the demand, supply and financing of long term care services are then discussed. Policies, practices and major models of ... [Show full abstract] financing of long term care are further explored followed by a presentation of the conceptual framework for reform. It concludes that in view of the magnitude of the problem, incremental changes in the existing systems are unlikely to be adequate. A clear understanding of the economic concepts to underpin major transformation of existing systems and policies that do not align with populations trends is urgently needed.