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... When learners frame an activity from their socializing environment in the context of the individual values they identify with, an activity which is performed with a feeling of choice and commitment, these autonomous actions refer to an internal perceived locus of causality (similar to intrinsic motivation). In contrast, learners' controlled behaviour (Ryan & Deci, 2017) in class has an external perceived locus of causality -it is regulated by guilt (internal pressure) and threats (external pressure) without learners' having a true choice Ryan & Deci, 2020;Taylor et al., 2014). ...
... Their analyses revealed types of extrinsic motivation associated with different degrees of internalization. That is, unlike other specifications of motivation (dichotomous view: intrinsic versus extrinsic, Harter, 1981;attribution theory, Lepper, 1983), SDT does not conceptualize extrinsically oriented behaviour as a drive from outside the person that forms a contrasting opposite pole to intrinsically motivated behaviour (Ryan & Deci, 2017;Taylor et al., 2014;Vansteenkiste et al., 2018). Instead, in a more sophisticated way, SDT differentiates these regulatory styles so that they fall along a continuum of increasing ownership (internalization). ...
... According to numerous studies of beneficial outcomes, intrinsic motivation can be understood as a desirable form of motivation that fosters students' (mathematics) learning process in the classroom. Emanating from the self, a student's passion for learning (mathematics) is accompanied by spontaneous cognitions and affects about learning that lead to high-quality performance (Ryan & Deci, 2017;Taylor et al., 2014), a high level of concentration (Deci, 1992) and, especially, perseverance when meeting obstacles (Vansteenkiste et al., 2018). The concept of interest (Krapp, 2000(Krapp, , 2002 is closely aligned with intrinsic motivation (Bikner-Ahsbahs, 2005;Deci, 1992;Krapp, 2000Krapp, , 2002, whereas the flow experience (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, p. 36) may reflect the purest version of intrinsic motivation, where the learner joyfully gravitates towards an autotelic learning activity and the experience they associate with the object (mathematics) thereby represents both stimulus and reward simultaneously (Deci, 1992). ...
... Academic achievement has been found to be particularly influenced by academic motivation (Guay & Bureau, 2018;Taylor et al., 2014;Vallerand & Ratelle, 2002), which has commonly been conceptualization within the framework of self-determination theory (SDT). According to SDT, the motivation to engage in behaviours and activities, is described as a multidimensional construct along a continuum encompassing three types of extrinsic motivation, − identified, introjected, and external regulations -and intrinsic motivation (Ryan & Deci, 2000b;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006), all of which vary in the degree to which they are self-determined. ...
... Intrinsic motivation, the most self-determined form of motivation found at the end of the continuum, is described as motivation to perform due to inherent task pleasure and satisfaction (Ryan & Deci, 2000b). Among high school students in the general population, intrinsic motivation has been found to be more protective of one's academic achievement than external forms of motivation (for a review, see Taylor et al., 2014). Individuals who are intrinsically motivated have a natural inclination toward integration, mastery, spontaneous interest, and exploration of concepts, which represent various sources of gratification and vivacity that are crucial to healthy cognitive and social development throughout life (Ryan & Deci, 2002). ...
... compartmentalizing and bicultural identity conflict. While increased levels of identified regulation can lead to academic achievement, intrinsic motivation has been found to be even more protective in the long-term development of academic achievement among high school students from Western countries (e..g, Canada and Sweden; Taylor et al., 2014). Thus, for the vulnerable recently immigrated high school students from this study, academic motivation that stems from identified regulation may not be sufficient to foster long-term academic success in the face of academic cultural mismatch. ...
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Academic motivation represents a psychoeducational construct that is associated with the academic success of youth. For some immigrant youth, however, their academic motivation may be affected by the various challenges that they face during their settlement in a culturally diverse school that promotes different self-construal values and practices. The main goal of this study is to investigate the cultural match or mismatch between non-Western immigrant youth and the self-construal orientation typically promoted in Western schools, as well as how specific challenges associated with migration contribute to the development of different levels of academic motivation during their recent settlement. We hypothesize that non-Western immigrant youth experience cultural mismatch in a Western school, and that greater reports of migration challenges are associated with increases in levels of external motivation and decreases in levels of intrinsic motivation. To test these hypotheses, the present study was conducted among non-Western immigrant youth between 12 and 19 years old in their first year of attending a Dutch academic integration program in The Netherlands. Our findings highlight that non-Western immigrant youth are mismatched with the self-construal orientations typically promoted in Dutch schools, and that there is specificity in the way that migration challenges relate to different levels of academic motivation. These findings should be considered by Western educational stakeholders who aim to foster academic success for immigrant youth early on in their resettlement.
... Introjected regulation refers to a type of controlled motivation where the learner is driven to act by internal or self pressures based on contingent self-esteem, shame, anxiety or guilt about failure (Ryan, 1982). In recent years, several studies have suggested that students who are motivated in a more controlled way (such as external and/or introjected regulation) exert less effort in the classroom, are more easily distracted and have lower grades (Guay et al., 2008;Ryan & Connell, 1989;Taylor et al., 2014). Identified regulation, shown on the continuum as the most autonomous form of extrinsic motivation, occurs when students identify and judge the activity as valuable or important to themselves. ...
... An intrinsically motivated learner feels competent and effective as he/she is interested in the task and self-fulfilled, and may even increase his/her interest at the end of the task. In recent years, several studies have suggested the positive influence of students' intrinsic motivation in the classroom, for example, on goals, effort or persistence in academic tasks (Albrecht & Karabenick, 2018;Vansteenkiste et al., 2009), engagement (Froiland & Worrell, 2016) or academic achievement (Taylor et al., 2014). In addition, several researchers found a systematic decline in academic intrinsic motivation from the age of 9-12 years (Gillet, Vallerand, & Lafreniere, 2012;Gottfried et al., 2001a). ...
... A supportive learning environment addressing those needs and provides "need-supportive instructional behaviours" by teachers will help students feel more autonomous, competent, and connected to all components of the educational community (Cheon et al., 2019(Cheon et al., , 2020Reeve & Cheon, 2021). They will feel more motivated and interested in their learning (Cerasoli et al., 2014;Taylor et al., 2014). ...
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Self-Determination Theory conceptualizes basic psychological needs (BPN) for autonomy, competence and relatedness as essentials for the learner to experience, maintain, and promote well-being, personal growth, and learning. However, the evidence of its influence in the classroom is still limited, especially in basic education (ages six to 14). The aim of the present study was to perform a systematic review of empirical evidence addressing the association of basic psychological needs on motivation, well-being, engagement, and academic achievement in elementary and middle school students. A comprehensive search of studies published in peer-review articles (2000-2021) was conducted on six electronic databases, and from 204 articles retrieved, 32 articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies showed that all psychological needs satisfaction were positively associated with intrinsic motivation and engagement. In contrast, due to the lack of studies that met methodological quality, the hypothesis that need satisfaction positively influences the well-being and academic achievement of elementary school students cannot be fully supported. The findings underscore the role of teachers in supporting pupils' psychological needs, not only for early adolescents, but also for children. However, the strength of the evidence is tempered by the lack of studies for each variable studied. Further experimental research on this topic should elucidate how educators can harness the benefits of need-supportive environment to improve the motivation, well-being, engagement and achievement of children in their communities.
... Academic motivation globally declines from childhood to adolescence (Gnambs & Hanfstingl, 2016;Gottfried et al., 2001), yet it increases at the end of adolescence (Symonds et al., 2019). Studying school motivation during high school is a worthwhile pursuit as it relates to academic achievement (Taylor et al., 2014). Moreover, school motivation is important to foster school persistence among adolescents (Lavigne et al., 2007). ...
... Girls also report more perceived parental solicitation and control than boys (Lionetti et al., 2019). In addition, autonomous school motivation is associated with higher school grades (Affuso et al., 2022;Taylor et al., 2014), and higher maternal and paternal education are related to higher parent-reported parental monitoring (Affuso et al., 2022;Howard Caldwell et al., 2011). Consequently, gender, school grades, and parental education were included as covariates in the current study. ...
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School motivation is key to promoting optimal educational pathways. Some studies suggest that parental monitoring behaviors foster school motivation among adolescents; however, they did not examine the potential role of adolescents’ motivation in shaping parental monitoring behaviors. This longitudinal study aimed to examine the bidirectional associations between three types of school motivation (autonomous, controlled, and amotivation) and two types of perceived parental monitoring behaviors (solicitation and control). The sample consisted of 328 adolescents (212 girls, 116 boys; M = 15.78 years), assessed at the end of their third or fourth year of secondary school, and again, 1 year later. Path analyses revealed that over a 1-year period, bidirectional associations were found between autonomous motivation and perceived parental solicitation. Moreover, parental solicitation as perceived by the adolescents was associated with a decrease in amotivation during the following year. Findings provide support for the dynamic nature of the parent–child relationships and highlight the need to consider child-to-parent effects to promote positive school-related outcomes.
... Understanding the autonomous motivation for human interaction in collaborative learning is important for guiding engagement in collaborative activities in the classroom, leading to superior performance. To date, a vast body of research in the educational context has demonstrated that intrinsic motivation is a strong and positive predictor of academic achievement and performance [1][2][3][4]. In addition, a number of theoretical and empirical examinations have been accumulated in research on motivation in academic learning, and, as a result, these research findings [5][6][7] have revealed that intrinsic motivation for learning positively predicts academic engagement and that engagement is a key factor mediating intrinsic motivation and academic performance. ...
... In other words, intrinsic motivation has the highest level of self-determination, while external regulation has the lowest. Previous research [4,8] based on the self-determination theory has often examined motivation for learning in the academic domain. As research has progressed, studies have been conducted to examine motivation not only in the academic domain, but also in the human relations domain. ...
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This study investigates the validity of path models in which interpersonal motivation positively predicts behavioral, emotional, and cognitive engagement, and behavioral engagement positively predicts superior performance in collaborative learning in university classes. The path model was tested using structural equation modeling. The results of the analyses showed that weak positive paths from identified regulation to all three aspects of engagement were substantial. In addition, a weak positive path from intrinsic motivation was significant for emotional engagement. For performance, the weak positive path from behavioral engagement was statistically significant. Based on these results, the implications of the motivation theory and practice in higher education are discussed.
... However, other studies found no significant relations between achievement and CM (Kusurkar et al., 2013). For studies considering each regulation type separately, results confirmed that academic achievement was positively associated with intrinsic and identified regulations at both levels (Noels et al., 2001;Taylor et al., 2014;Leroy and Bressoux, 2016;Lohbeck, 2018;Orsini et al., 2019;Howard et al., 2021, study 1). Concerning CM types, results were more mixed and showed that achievement was negatively associated with introjected and external regulations in some studies (Taylor et al., 2014;Leroy and Bressoux, 2016;Lohbeck, 2018, study 1), while in others (Noels et al., 1999;McEown et al., 2014;Orsini et al., 2019;Howard et al., 2021) no significant relations were found for these two regulations. ...
... For studies considering each regulation type separately, results confirmed that academic achievement was positively associated with intrinsic and identified regulations at both levels (Noels et al., 2001;Taylor et al., 2014;Leroy and Bressoux, 2016;Lohbeck, 2018;Orsini et al., 2019;Howard et al., 2021, study 1). Concerning CM types, results were more mixed and showed that achievement was negatively associated with introjected and external regulations in some studies (Taylor et al., 2014;Leroy and Bressoux, 2016;Lohbeck, 2018, study 1), while in others (Noels et al., 1999;McEown et al., 2014;Orsini et al., 2019;Howard et al., 2021) no significant relations were found for these two regulations. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the level of specificity of the different regulation types described by Self-Determination Theory, and to evaluate its impact on the links with its antecedents and consequences, in an academic context. In line with the school-subject-specificity hypothesis, we postulated that autonomous motivation regulations (AM regulations) would be more specific to the situational level than controlled motivation regulations (CM regulations). Moreover, we hypothesized that AM regulations would be, at this level, more strongly associated with its antecedents and consequences than CM regulations. Three hundred fourteen university students were asked to complete online questionnaires assessing their motivation, motivational antecedents (i.e., autonomy-supportive climate and self-concept) and consequences (i.e., emotions and grades) in various courses. As expected, results from structural equation modeling confirmed that AM regulations were more specific to the situational level than CM regulations. Moreover, a higher number of significant correlations were found between motivation and its antecedents and consequences in the corresponding course for AM than for CM regulations. Educational implications and directions for future research are discussed.
... Obviously, motivation had a significant predictive effect on academic achievement. Previous studies found that intrinsic interest motivation had a significant predictive effect on students' English learning performance [44,45]. This suggested that intrinsic interest played a positive role in improving academic achievement [17]. ...
... Intrinsic interest motivation had significant predictive effects on the English academic performance of ethnic undergraduates. This study validated the findings of Almulla and Alamri [44], Taylor, Jungert, Mageau, Schattke, Dedic, Rosenfield, and Koestner [45], and Ryan and Deci [31] that intrinsic interest had a significant positive impact on academic achievement. A recent study indicated that intrinsic motivation could positively predict course satisfaction [73]. ...
Article
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This study examined the English learning motivation of Chinese ethnic university students. A sample of 776 undergraduates from three representative ethnic universities participated in this research. The findings indicated four types of English learning motivation: intrinsic interest, learning situation, personal development, and international communication. There were statistically significant differences between ethnic minority and Han students, and between male and female students. Moreover, the intrinsic interest motivation of Han students was significantly higher than that of ethnic minority students, and female students’ overall motivation and personal development motivation were significantly higher than those of male students. Intrinsic interest motivation had a significantly positive impact on English achievement, whereas learning situation motivation had a significantly negative impact. These findings highlight the improvement of the learning situation and encouragement of intrinsic interest to enhance minority students’ second language learning and sustainable development. Further research on English as a second language should consider the influence of family and ethnic background.
... Similarly, Taylor et al.'s (2014) finding regarding the positive association between intrinsic motivation and student achievement from a self-determination theory approach aligns with Brooker and Vu's (2020) view that students may also feel motivated and rewarding when they approach difficult situations as overcoming challenges. Viewing either from a prevention or intervention perspective in addressing the mental health and wellbeing issues of university students, the above literature findings all highlight the urgent need for universities to place the concern of student wellbeing at the forefront to the same level as promoting professional success (Beiter et al., 2014). ...
Research Proposal
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This research aims to address the population-level wellbeing issues of Chinese international students with a particular focus on the psychological health and wellbeing needs of Chinese international students studying in Australian tertiary institutions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The underlying problem of this research proposal is the existence of a wellbeing disparity between different student populations in the higher education sector in Australia (Huang et al., 2020). Namely, the wellbeing disparity between those of Australian domestic and international students as the latter population face greater challenges and complexities in their overall experience at the university (Rosenthal et al., 2008). Considering the current context of an unprecedented global health crisis, international students are at a greater risk of experiencing mental health difficulties and psychological distress (Dodd et al., 2021; Saltzman et al., 2020). Chinese international students as a sub-population of the Australian international student group, their wellbeing is of urgent concern and requires adequate support from universities and Australian government bodies (King et al., 2020; Zhai & Du, 2020). This research focuses on the psychological health and wellbeing of Chinese international students and proposes the research question as: How does Chinese international students’ experience of participating in Australian universities affect their wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic?
... Autonomous motivation was found to have a significant association with desirable learning outcomes such as self-regulation, academic achievement, perseverance, and quality of learning, study strategy, and effort (Burton et al., 2006;Chirkov et al., 2007;Kusurkar et al., 2013;Thøgersen-Ntoumani & Ntoumanis, 2006). Intrinsic motivation and identification were significant predictors of students' academic achievement (e.g., Burton et al., 2006;Taylor et al., 2014). Identification especially was found to promote individuals' engagement and conceptual learning, and the long-term orientation toward tasks (Jang, 2008;Thøgersen-Ntoumani & Ntoumanis, 2006). ...
Article
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Background Applied Calculus courses serve hundreds of thousands of undergraduates as quantitative preparation and gatekeepers across diverse fields of study. The current study investigated how motivational factors are associated with students’ learning outcomes in Applied Calculus courses from the perspective of self-determination theory—a sound comprehensive motivation theory that has been supported by considerable research in psychology and education. In order to have a nuanced understanding of students’ motivation and learning in Applied Calculus courses, we used three different types of learning measures to investigate students’ mathematics achievement, including course grades, a standardized knowledge exam, and students’ perceived knowledge transferability. Results We tested the relationships between motivational factors and learning outcomes with a multi-semester sample of 3226 undergraduates from 188 Applied Calculus classrooms. To increase the precision of our analysis, we controlled for three demographic variables that are suggested to be relevant to mathematics achievement: gender, minority group status, and socioeconomic status. With a series of multilevel modeling analyses, the results reveal that: (1) competence satisfaction predicts college students’ mathematics achievement over and above the satisfaction of needs for autonomy and relatedness; and (2) autonomous motivation is a more powerful predictor of college students’ mathematics achievement than controlled motivation and amotivation. These findings are consistent across different types of learning outcomes. Conclusions Self-determination theory provides an effective framework for understanding college students’ motivation and learning in Applied Calculus courses. This study extends self-determination theory in the field of mathematics education and contributes to the dialogue on advancing undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education by providing evidence to understand how motivational factors are associated with students’ learning outcomes in undergraduate mathematics courses.
... Ryan and Deci (2020) on the importance of intrinsic motivation shared the following idea: the benefits of intrinsic motivation are also obvious within formal education. For example, a meta-analysis by Taylor et al. (2014) pointed to a significant role of intrinsic motivation in school achievement. Taylor et al. followed this meta-analysis with additional studies of high school and college students in Canada and Sweden, showing that intrinsic motivation was consistently associated with higher performance, controlling for baseline achievement. ...
Article
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Since acquiring writing skills in the English language is a multiplex task as it includes several complex cognitive activities (Tillema, 2012), it is a challenging skill to master for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. The acquisition of this skill is also affected by motivation, which has a great impact on the success or failure of learning the target language (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), and significantly influences the learner's academic and professional performance (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005). Lack of research focusing on investigating the motivating effect of different aspects of English writing in the Myanmar context provided inspiration to conduct the present pilot study, which focused on mapping the motivational profile of 54 EFL pre-service teachers in English writing in Myanmar. The questionnaire developed by the authors was piloted in September 2020. Results indicate that out of the 12 dimensions measured, pre-service teachers' ideal selves and instrumental motivation seem to be the most motivating aspects of English writing, and there is a strong correlation between these two scales suggesting that the participants' ideal L2 self has a pragmatic focus. Moreover, regression analysis shows that pre-service teachers' intrinsic motivation, and their ideal selves contribute most to their motivated learning behavior.
... Motivasi ekstrinsik merupakan faktor pendorong luaran yang menggalakkan proses pembelajaran seperti ganjaran, penghargaan dan sebagainya, manakala motivasi intrinsik dikaitkan dengan faktor dalaman pelajar sendiri, seperti keseronokan, minat, berasa kompeten dan berfikiran positif (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Rasa minat dan keseronokan belajar dicadangkan agar diberi lebih keutamaan kerana terbukti mampu meningkatkan penglibatan pelajar dalam aktiviti pembelajaran (Taylor et al., 2014). Motivasi turut dikaitkan dengan peranannya yang amat berkesan dalam penggunaan strategi belajar (Oxford & Nyikos, 1989). ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between internal factors and external factors in influencing diploma students in writing skills. A total of 140 respondents from four Malaysian higher learning institutions (IPTM) were selected including Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (90 respondents), Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (25 respondents), Kolej Universiti Islam Pahang Sultan Ahmad Shah (9 respondents), dan Kolej Islam Antarabangsa Sultan Ismail Petra (16 respondents) as the study sample. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) version 22.0 software. Descriptive analysis methods of mean score comparison and inference level analysis were used to derive study findings. For the purposes of analyzing the study data, the researcher used two methods, namely the mean score interpretation of Jamil Ahmad (1993) and Pearson's correlation to find the relationship between two different variables, dependent variables and independent variables. The results showed that the internal mean score was 3.80 (sd=0.42), while the factor mean score was 3.76 (sd=0.42). Both of these mean scores are at a high level. This indicates that both mean scores of internal and external factors influence students' Arabic writing. Furthermore, the correlation of internal factors to gender was (r = 0.45, n = 140, p = 0.599), whereas the correlation of external factors to gender was (r = 0.181, n = 140, p = 0.032). Therefore, there was a moderate positive linear relationship (r = 0.45) and no significant (p = 0.599) between internal factors to gender. Similarly, a very weak linear relationship (r = 0.181) and significant (p = 0.032) was identified between the external factors of gender.
... In der Literatur wird -gerade im Bildungsbereich -die Verwendung von intrinsisch motivierenden Spielelementen empfohlen Taylor et al. 2014). Im Vergleich zu ihren extrinsischen Pendants ist hier von einem nachhaltigeren Lernerfolg und einer länger anhaltender Motivation auszugehen. ...
Thesis
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In dieser Masterarbeit werden Verfahren und Frameworks zum Einsatz von Gamification-und Serious Games-Elementen für die Hochschullehre evaluiert, anhand eines ausgewählten Lehrmodul konzeptioniert, sowie prototypisch als mobile Anwendung implementiert. Es findet somit eine holistische Betrachtung der Gamifizierung eines Hochschulmodules statt. Die prototypische Implementierung er-folgt als Progressive Web App zur endgeräteunabhängigen Nutzung eines möglichst großen Personenkreises. Anhand einer anschließenden, qualitativen Online-Evaluation unter Studierenden wurden die Hypothesen überprüft, ob und welchen Einfluss Gamification-Elemente auf die Benutzererfahrung, die Lernmotivation und die Verständnisgenerierung haben, sowie welche Gamification-Elemente besonders positiv wahrgenommen wurden. Der hierfür selbst entwickelte Fragebogen wurde von N = 15 Probanden vollständig ausgefüllt. Es zeigt sich eine positive Tendenz sowohl bei dem Verständnis für die Modulinhalte, als auch beim Spaß bei der Modulbearbeitung. Indes konnte keine Steigerung der Lernmotivation beobachtet werden.
... Our findings can be compared with previous research showing that autonomous motivation is related to greater defending [15,25]. This is in line with self-determination theory [28] and with prior research demonstrating that autonomous motivation is associated with stronger persistence and performance in other activities [29][30][31][32], including prosocial behavior [19]. In general, our results suggest the importance of having a high autonomous motivation to defend victims of cyberbullying, as the relationship between autonomous motivation and defender behavior was particularly strong. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate how different types of motivation to defend victims of bullying would be associated with various bystander behaviors in cyberbullying situations among early adolescents in Sweden. Data were collected from 460 Swedish adolescents aged between 11 and 15 years who completed a survey in their classroom. Results showed that autonomous motivation to defend was positively associated with defender behavior and negatively associated with pro-bully and passive behavior, while extrinsic motivation was positively associated with pro-bully and passive behavior. Age was positively associated with increased passive behavior and dampened defensive behavior, while no effect of gender was found on defender behavior. Our findings suggest that students’ autonomous motivation to defend victims is important in cyberbullying situations.
... University students' intrinsic motivation is vital to a student's identity (La Guardia, 2009), academic achievement (Richardson et al., 2012;Taylor et al., 2014;Tasgin and Coskun, 2018), and university retention (Morrow and Ackermann, 2012). Against this background, it is quite problematic that empirical research revealed that students' intrinsic motivation declined during their bachelor's studies (Pan and Gauvain, 2012). ...
Article
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This study, based on the self-determination theory, investigates the link between university students' social peer and teacher integration and intrinsic motivation development. Both integration contexts are expected to contribute to the student's development, either additive or compensatory. The analyses rely on a nationally representative sample of 7,619 German university students (NEPS data set) and cover the time between the 3rd and 5th semesters in a longitudinal design. Person-centered analytical tools were applied to tap interindividual differences in the motivational trajectories as well as in integration profiles. Latent transition analyses revealed distinct links between the motivational trajectories (Increase [n = 532], Moderate Decrease [n = 2580], Decrease [n = 4,507]) and the integration profiles (Highly Integrated [n = 2,492], Moderately Integrated [n = 3832], Isolated [n = 1,144], Peer Deprivated [n = 151]), pointing to additive effects of teacher and peer integration. Positive trajectories were more likely in the Highly than in Moderately Integrated profiles. The two profiles pointing to below-average integration levels (Isolated and Peer Deprivated) showed the same probabilities for rather negative trajectories. The results are discussed against the backdrop of self-determination theory and additive vs. compensatory effects of teacher and peer integration, proposing a threshold model.
... Children may not be viewed as agents of their own learning but as compliant beings who need to be disciplined to comply with adult authority. Research suggests that intrinsic motivation has stronger longterm impact on developing sustained deep behaviours that are grounded in our belief systems (Taylor et al, 2014;Chatzisarantis, 2006), rather than based on obedience to authority. We only need look to the infamous psychological experiments of (Milgram, 1963) and (Zimbardo, 1971; to see where power abused becomes a potential recipe for compliance influencing behavioural choices and mental ill health. ...
Article
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This paper introduces the context of mental health in education and the importance of the teacher being acknowledged as an essential component and contributor to the function of society (Bower, 2020). The paper suggests that the mental health crisis impacting children has implications for new teachers in meeting the demand in the current global climate. (Education Endowment Foundation (EEF), 2017; 2018); (Lortie-Forgues, 2021). It explores why the definition of mental health might be a problematic construct for teachers and considers whether the teacher has a significant role to play in mental health provision in schools beyond the wider community. It considers the role pathologization of behaviour plays in our approach to education and proposes that the approach teacher training takes towards critically reflecting on retributive discipline and restorative approaches in schools, subsequently supports teacher understanding of child mental health. It also looks at the current teacher training landscape and reforms and argues that policy makers and practice should be interdisciplinary with effective mental health knowledge. The paper emphasises the importance of developing teacher understanding of the role of psychological awareness in supporting effective child mental health provision across the field of education and argues that new teachers have a part to play in this application through effective training to support the influx of demand. The paper proposes that critical considerations should be given to the potential application of interpersonal neurobiological research (Siegel, 2020), exploring concepts of the embodied brain through polyvagal theory (Porges, 2011). It touches upon developing new teacher understanding of trauma, (Van der Kolk, 2014) informed practice and transdisciplinary therapeutic approaches for practical use in schools. It considers the future of mental health knowledge in pre-service initial teacher training and proposes that such a focus will have a profound impact on making some headway in meeting child mental health needs. The paper finishes by proposing that future research should look to develop a psychological, neurobiological, developmental sensitive approach to exploring child mental health and well-being within education and support the role of initial teacher training education (ITT/ITE) in creating confident new teachers with efficacy to meet the needs of child mental health in schools.
... At the Person level, metacognitive knowledge is considered a domaingeneral, person-related property that affects problem-solving across various domains (Desoete & De Craene, 2019). Metacognition at the Person level is connected to mastery goal orientation and greater intrinsic motivation to learn Pintrich, 2003;Taylor et al., 2014;. Metacognitively aware students are able to strategically set, evaluate, and achieve their learning goals, and perform better academically (Dunlosky & Rawson, 2012;Pintrich, 2003). ...
Article
Metacognition and motivation are considered key facets of self‐regulation in various contexts. Recent studies identified a link between metacognition and creative performance, with metacognitively aware students performing more creatively and exhibiting higher levels of intrinsic and identified extrinsic motivation. The present study aims to examine the relationship between metacognition, orientation toward intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, and creative performance. One hundred nineteen university students completed the Metacognitive Awareness Inventory (MAI) and Scale of Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom and performed four verbal creativity tasks (product improvement task, consequences task, and two unusual uses tasks). The partial correlation network showed that all the creativity tasks were uniquely related to at least one facet of metacognition, and that the most complex task (product improvement task) was linked to both metacognitive knowledge and regulation. Furthermore, the structural equation model indicated that orientation toward intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition and creative performance, explaining 16% of the variance in creative performance.
... Joy of reading (ranked 2nd) is rooted in self-determination theory and is defined as the most autonomous type of motivation, indicating that students learn reading for their inherent interests and enjoyment (Ryan & Deci, 2000). When intrinsically motivated, students are more likely to proactively engage in learning activities, obtain high academic achievement, and increase the likelihood of academic resilience (Cheung et al., 2014;Taylor et al., 2014;Thorsen et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Students from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds generally have worse academic outcomes than their more advantaged peers. However, some resilient students beat the odds and achieve academic success despite socioeconomic adversity. Identifying the factors that promote resilience is of critical theoretical and practical importance. Hence, this study aims to examine the different personal and social-contextual factors that predict resilience. We utilized the 2018 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) data from Hong Kong and focused specifically on the 1,459 students in the bottom socioeconomic quartile. Of these, 251 were identified as resilient students as they demonstrated a high level of achievement despite being from disadvantaged backgrounds. Machine learning (i.e., random forest classification) was adopted to understand the relative importance of 30 different personal and social-contextual factors in classifying students into those who are deemed resilient versus those who are not. Eight top variables that best predicted resilience were identified, including the use of meta-cognitive strategies, joy of reading, teacher-directed instruction, perception of difficulty of the PISA test, sense of belonging to school, discriminating school climate, self-efficacy, and perceived teacher’s interest. This study sheds light on the factors that underpin resilience, providing important theoretical and policy implications.
... Especially intrinsic motivation is of great importance in educational settings. If a student is intrinsically motivated to learn specific contents, she or he is more likely to achieve better academic outcomes (Taylor et al., 2014). According to self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation is achieved by the satisfaction of basic psychological needs (BPN). ...
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The development of 21st century skills in or rather through science teaching is on the agenda of many national and international school reforms aiming at creating so-called 21st century classrooms. In this context autonomous learning and practical relevance of science classes have been identified as important features, and education outside the classroom (EOtC) has been described as one way of providing such enriched classroom settings. We explore the relative importance of the four basic psychological needs (BPN), “perceived autonomy support”, “perceived competence support”, “student-teacher relatedness” and “student-student relatedness”, for the perceived practical relevance of the content (PRC) in science class in secondary school. We applied the same measures in normal and EOtC science classes, both in a short-term cross-sectional within-subject design study (A) and in a longitudinal between-subject design study (B). In order to account for the theoretical and empirical non-independence of the four BPN-explanatory variables, we used Bayesian ridge regression techniques. Our findings suggest that PRC in EOtC contexts is perceived higher than in normal classroom settings, both in the short-term as well as in the long-term designs. This can be best explained by the degree of perceived autonomy support by the students. In the short-term design, this holds true for both, the normal and the EOtC teaching contexts. In the long-term design, the relative importance of autonomy support can only be deemed statistically credible in the EOtC context. Perceived competence support and relatedness have no relative importance in the EOtC context. This suggests that science classes outside the classroom are less contingent on teacher-reliant or peer-related basic needs satisfaction. Thus, we can conclude that science teaching in EOtC fosters 21st century skills through more flexible, autonomous and collaborative settings and by being less teacher-centred.
... (Kim & Frick, 2011;Rakes & Dunn, 2010;Richardson et al., 2012;Taylor et al., 2014). Häufig wird vorausgesetzt, dass Studierende für ihr Studium eine hohe intrinsische Motivation mitbringen -sie haben sich schließlich bewusst dafür entschieden! ...
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Self-regulated learning means directing one's own learning toward a self-determined learning goal, selecting appropriate learning strategies, monitoring one's own learning progress during learning, and adjusting strategies as necessary. It also involves mustering and maintaining motivation in the face of adversity and reflecting at the end of the learning process on whether the learning goal was achieved and what actions contributed or hindered it. Competencies for self-regulated learning (SRL) are on the one hand the goal of higher education and the basis of lifelong learning, but on the other hand they are already of great importance during studies: they are a necessary condition for the development of professional competencies and for academic success. This compendium is intended to provide instructors and course directors with a tool to support self-regulated learning, motivation, and motivation regulation in their students. It draws on established theories of self-regulated learning and motivation and presents methods that have been proven in practice.
... A review by (Potvin & Hasni, 2014) reveals that motivation increases when teachers use variations in teaching. Motivation is essential for student learning achievement (Taylor et al., 2014). ...
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There is a ban on face-to-face learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. This condition forces teachers to find adequate learning strategies so that their students are motivated to learn. The present research article aimed to reveal the correlation between biology teacher learning strategies during the Covid-19 pandemic on student motivation. The correlational method was used in this research. A total of 191 senior high school students were taken as a sample. An online questionnaire was an instrument for collecting data. Data analysis used simple regression. The research result was showed that p < 0.05 and R = 0.610. These findings indicate that there was a strong correlation between biology teacher learning strategies on student learning motivation. This research concluded that using appropriate strategies during the Covid-19 pandemic encourages students to be motivated to learn.
... SE's motivation in mathematics is extrinsic. Extrinsic motivation, also known as instrumental motivation, refers to the extrinsic motivations that drive an activity (e.g., fear of parental chastisement, career aspirations, etc.) (Ryan & Deci, 2000;Taylor et al., 2014). Extrinsic motivation actions are not carried out with enthusiasm but rather for the benefits they are thought to be associated with (Wrzesniewski et al., 2014). ...
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[English]: Students' motivation and personality are two important aspects of mathematics learning. Both aspects can be used as one of the bases for mathematics educators to design learning strategies. However, students' motivation for different personality types has not been widely revealed. This qualitative research aims to uncover prospective mathematics teachers’ (PMT) motivation with introverted and extroverted personalities in mathematics learning. The participants were selected using a personality test and then an interview was conducted. The findings show that, in general, the motivation profile of introverted PMT is different from the extroverted ones. Past experiences of success and self-efficacy became essential factors in the motivation of the introvert. As for the extrovert, friends, and interactions in an activity become a motivating factor in learning mathematics. Implications of the findings will be further discussed. [Bahasa]: Motivasi dan kepribadian siswa merupakan dua aspek penting dalam pembelajaran matematika. Kedua aspek tersebut dapat dijadikan salah satu landasan bagi pendidik matematika untuk merancang strategi pembelajaran. Namun, bagaimana motivasi siswa berdasarkan tipe kepribadian yang berbeda belum banyak terungkap. Penelitian kualitatif ini bertujuan mengungkap profil motivasi mahasiswa calon guru dengan kepribadian introver dan ekstrover dalam pembelajaran matematika. Partisipan dipilih dengan menggunakan instrumen tes kepribadian, kemudian dilakukan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, secara umum profil motivasi calon guru introver berbeda dengan yang memiliki kepribadian ekstrover. Pengalaman sukses masa lalu dan kepercayaan diri tentang kemampuan diri menjadi faktor penting dalam motivasi calon guru introver. Sedangkan untuk calon guru ekstrover, teman dan interaksi dalam suatu kegiatan menjadi faktor motivasi dalam belajar matematika. Implikasi hasil penelitian ini akan dibahas lebih lanjut dalam artikel ini.
... The studies showed that students' motivational factors were associated with their learning outcomes, behaviour, and academic success. 14,15 Besides, motivated students are more persistent in pursuing the academic programme than other students. 16 Choosing a profession is not straightforward; it requires a complicated decision-making process that could be influenced by numerous factors. ...
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Purpose: To identify factors influencing Saudi students to choose radiography as their academic major and future career field. Material and method: This study involved quantitative (online questionnaire) and qualitative (semi-structured interview) approaches. An online questionnaire was distributed among (n = 308) students. The questionnaire contained 30 questions covering the following three domains: economy, vocational and personal. A total of 25 individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with purposive sampling of radiography students in seven universities (public and private) across the western region of Saudi Arabia. Interview responses were coded, and main themes were extracted based on Miles and Huberman's framework. Results: The findings demonstrated that radiography was the first option as profession for 44% of the study participants. Several factors that study participants considered important were in the realm of patient care, helping patients, radiographer-patient relations, science-based profession, and the desire to work in the healthcare system. A few participants (14%) reported that they are planning to change their profession to another medical speciality. Four themes were identified from the interviews: 1) Profession decision-making, 2) changing career", 3) difficulties and challenges, and 4) recommended radiography as a profession. Conclusion: The results of the study support the need to bridge the gap between high school, universities, and employment through a collaborative network to assist students in exploring their career path by providing sufficient information and experience.
... The seminal work of Deci and Ryan [85] categorized extrinsic motivation into four distinct forms of regulation, namely, external, introjected, identified, and integrated. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation were consistently associated with higher performance in academic and research-related activities [86]. ...
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Current literature merely identifies the driving factors of research productivity in higher education institutions without directly examining their interrelationships that would offer some fundamental insights into the nature of these factors. Thus, this work intends to identify those driving factors and establish their structural relationships to determine those factors with crucial roles in advancing research productivity. Due to the subjectivity of the identified driving factors and the notion that the evaluation of their relationships reflects an expert judgment, an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) approach and the Matrice d’impacts croisés multiplication appliquée á un classment (MICMAC) analysis were adopted. Results show that institutional support, reward system, research funding, mentoring, and electronic information resources are the most crucial factors influencing research productivity. When addressed, these driving factors would motivate other driving factors, contributing to higher research productivity. In particular, these findings encourage higher education institutions to (1) efficiently allocate research funds and design mentoring programs, (2) offer efficient research incentive schemes, (3) develop initiatives that would support promising research proposals beneficial to the institution, and (4) collaborate with external organizations to grant funding for research proposals. These results contribute significantly to the literature as it provides meaningful insights that aid decision-makers in higher education institutions in resource allocation decisions, policy-making, and the design of efficient initiatives for augmenting their innovation potential.
... College students' motivation and engagement have a predictive effect on their school success and adaptive development, such as academic performance (Taylor et al., 2014) and subjective wellbeing (Hope et al., 2019). Nonetheless, evidence shows that college students' motivation and class engagement tend to decline after they enter the university (Trolian and Jach, 2020). ...
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College students' motivation and engagement are regarded as essential factors to promote their academic development and wellbeing. However, motivation and engagement among college students appear to decline after they enter the university. Guided by the framework of self-determination theory, this study attempted to explore a motivational model of how three dimensions of perceived teacher support (autonomy, structure, and involvement) related to student motivation and class engagement, using need satisfaction as a mediator. Drew on a survey of the perceptions of 705 Chinese university students, the results showed that besides structure, both autonomy support and involvement positively related to students' need satisfaction. Further, need satisfaction was positively associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and class engagement and negatively linked with amotivation. Yet, only autonomous motivation was positively predicted for class engagement. Need satisfaction and the chain from need satisfaction to autonomous motivation were found to be the significant mediators. The practical implications of educational practices are discussed.
... Based on these studies, gamification of learning has positive outcomes such as increased motivation, engagement, and enjoyment [4], [9]. However, some gamification elements can decrease intrinsic motivation [6], [7], [13] which is the only consistent predictor of academic achievement across different school contexts and cultures [14]. With the lack of motivation and desire to reach their overall potential to learn a second language, learners show minimal effort in developing second language skills. ...
Article
Gamification of learning in higher education has been used as an educational tool to motivate and engage students. Despite its positive impacts demonstrated in the existing body of knowledge, some adversaries are concerned with the decline of learners’ intrinsic motivation and becoming independent of extrinsic rewards. This research aims to design a user-centered and meaningful gamification framework for students who are explicitly learning English as a second language to resolve these adversaries. The empirical data for this study was collected through a focus group discussion. It was conducted to obtain students’ learning factors that would contribute to user-centered learning. Based on the focus group outcome, a gamification course using a learning management system with embedded gamification features will be best suited for these specific students. The affordances used in this study are rewards, levels, badges, and points. The practical implications of this study are to gain a more in-depth understanding of the students’ motivations in language learning, which is crucial in creating a meaningful user-centered game design.
... Our results indicate that students' level of autonomous motivation for reading decreases as students reach secondary school, while their controlled motivation remain roughly the same (Table 1). As a net result, students seem to become more externally controlled than autonomously motivated for in-school reading, a conclusion that is in line with previous research which has found that intrinsic motivation declines after elementary school (Corpus, McClintic-Gilbert, & Hayenga, 2009;Gillet, Vallerand, & Lafrenière, 2012;Scherrer & Preckel, 2019;Taylor et al., 2014;Wigfield, Eccles, Schiefele, Roeser, & Davis-Kean, 2006). This trend of decreasing levels of autonomous motivation as students grow older follows that of students' changing experiences of in-school reading in the studied subjects as well as their changing attitudes toward nonschool-related reading. ...
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As leisure-time reading among adolescents declines in the western world, stakeholders try to increase students’ motivation for school-related reading. We examine the relationship of students’ autonomous and controlled reading motivation with their amount and experiences of school-related reading in four school subjects, controlling for students’ attitudes toward the school subjects and general attitudes toward reading. Questionnaire data were collected from 3308 students in Grades 6 and 9 at 144 schools in Sweden. Multiple linear regression indicates that students’ attitudes toward the subject are more important predictors of reading amount than their reading motivation. Motivation type was primarily related to students’ affective experiences of the reading, and only weakly related to their amount of school-related reading. Results suggest that the relationship between motivation and school-related reading differ from voluntary leisure-time reading. The study thus complements previous research which primarily has focused on the role of students’ motivation for their amount of leisure-time reading.
... Az extrinzik motiváció kívülről szabályozott, a skála másik vége az intrinzik motiváció, amely önjutalmazó, a cselekvés belülről szabályozott, belső megelégedettséget, örömet, bevonódást él meg az egyén. Az intrinzik motiváció és az élethosszig tartó tanulás (Ryan és Deci, 2017), illetve a tanulmányi teljesítmény (Taylor, 2014) között is összefüggést találtak, továbbá az intrizik motiváció bejósolhatja a tanulmányi elköteleződést is (Froiland és Worrell, 2016). ...
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A kutatás egyetemi hallgatók (N = 251) körében vizsgálta a cyberbullying és a kiégés jelenségét, továbbá ezek kapcsolatát az önértékeléssel és a tanulmányi motivációval. A résztvevők – 18 és 47 év közötti, nappali, levelező és esti tagozatos hallgatók – egy online kérdőívcsomagot töltöttek ki. Az eredmények alapján egyetemi közegben alkalmanként bevonódott internetes zaklatásba a kitöltők 8,9%-a. A korábbi kutatásokkal összhangban az áldozati és a zaklatói szerep között összefüggés van, nemi különbség csak a zaklatói alskálán mutatkozott. A cyberbullying és a kiégés között pozitív együttjárást találtunk. A hallgatói kiégés súlyosabb tünetei a kitöltők 14,4%-át érintik, az eredmények alapján a teljes skálán nem volt szignifikáns nemi különbség, míg az érzelmi kimerülés alskálán a nők, a hatékonyságcsökkenés alskálán a férfiak értek el magasabb pontszámot. Az eredmények alátámasztják az alacsony önértékelés kapcsolatát a cyberbullyinggal és a kiégés-szindrómával egyaránt. A kiégést együttesen bejósló tényezők az alacsony önértékelés, az intrinzik motiváció hiánya és az amotiváció, az utóbbi önmagában is előrejelző lehet.
... From the institutional perspective of the theory of public service motivation, Tung proved that person-post matching can improve public service motivation, and public service motivation is between the positive effect of person-post matching on employee satisfaction [16]. Geneviève et al. designed the scales of person-post fit, perceived obligation, and job performance based on a large number of references and research purposes, as well as the nature of the companies studied [17]. Wu et al. believe that person-post matching can improve employee organizational commitment, organizational citizenship behavior and job satisfaction, and can reduce employee turnover willingness [18]. ...
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Under the modern environment, the reconstruction of enterprise’s core competitiveness depends not only on capital and technical strength, but also on the overall strength of its human resources. At the same time, effective allocation and rational use of talents are needed to create good performance for enterprises. Enterprise human resource management is the key part of the whole enterprise management. At the same time, it is also a necessary preparation for the continuous development and innovation of enterprises. In the whole process of human resource management, the core work is person-post matching. Only by promoting the reasonable implementation of person-post matching can other management work be carried out smoothly. This paper expounds two major elements in human resource management, namely, the concept and measurement of person-post matching and the principle of person-post matching. And the factors in the matching of people and posts are analyzed. This paper probes into the implementation of person-post matching in enterprise human resource management. Based on this, this paper puts forward a depth model of accurate matching between people and posts based on ability perception. On the basis of studying the optimization of human resource scheduling, this paper takes into account three factors: resource constraints, heterogeneity of employee efficiency and time sequence relationship, and uses integer linear programming theory to model the system with the shortest construction period as the goal. The research shows that the accuracy of this algorithm can reach about 94%, which is about 8% higher than the traditional algorithm. It has certain superior performance. This will provide some reference for related researchers.
Article
Slecht zijn in wiskunde heeft grote gevolgen. Voor leerlingen met dyscalculie vormt dit een extra drempel. De school is de uitgelezen plek om ervoor te zorgen dat als leerlingen een wiskundeopdracht krijgen, ze denken: “Yes, ik ga dat proberen!” Inzetten op autonome motivatie en betrokkenheid lijkt dan ook van belang.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that need-supportive teaching, which includes support for autonomy, competence, and relatedness facilitates motivation and achievement across cultures. However, prior evidence of SDT's cross-cultural generalizability were drawn from a limited set of cultural contexts. Furthermore, prior work has mainly focused on autonomy-support. This study used data from the 2018 Programme for International Student Assessment (N = 578,168). Countries were grouped following Schwartz’ (2009) eight cultural clusters. Results found that need-supportive teaching predicted achievement via intrinsic motivation across the eight cultural groups. However, the magnitude of the associations among the variables varied across cultures. Findings also indicated a positive association between need-supportive teaching and achievement in six out of the eight cultural groups. However, a different pattern was observed in East-Central Europe (non-significant association) and Africa and the Middle East (negative association). This study offers broad, though not unanimous, support for SDT's cultural generalizability.
Article
The self-system model of motivational development was used in this study to examine whether and how student motivation and self-assessment practices—as psychological and behavioural mechanisms, respectively—link need-supportive teaching to students’ objective achievement scores in English language learning. We applied a multilevel mediation analysis on Rasch-calibrated data from 796 students (53% females; mean age = 14.12, SD = 1.51) nested within 30 classes (mean class size = 26.53) in a secondary school in the Philippines. We collected all predictor variables (i.e., need-supportive teaching, motivation, self-assessment practice) in Time 1, while achievement scores were collected eight weeks later (Time 2). Lower-level mediation results show that students’ perceptions of involved teaching and structured teaching are associated with higher controlled motivation and autonomous motivation. Further, only autonomous motivation was associated with higher achievement in Time 2. Self-assessment practice significantly mediated the link between both controlled and autonomous motivation to achievement. These results held while controlling for age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Hence, involved and structured teaching practices correlate with higher motivation and increased self-assessment practice, which, in turn, leads to higher achievement in English language learning. The findings highlight that motivation and self-assessment practices are psychological and behavioural pathways that can theoretically and empirically explain how need-supportive teaching practices impact student achievement in a specific subject. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.
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This study researched how different sequences of two types of cooperative learning (CL), informal (e.g. tasks) and formal (e.g. projects), affect Japanese first-year university EFL students’ motivation and basic psychological need (BPN) satisfaction. Research questions (RQs) for this study are as follows. RQ1. How does student motivation change over an academic year in different sequential arrangements of informal and formal CL? RQ2. How do students’ basic psychological needs change over an academic year in different sequential arrangements of informal and formal CL? The results suggest that informal followed by formal CL activities appear to make students focus on important aspects of working cooperatively in groups and positively affect their motivation and feelings toward BPNs. Formal CL followed by informal CL seems to positively affect identified regulation and competence over the year. It also appears to make some students focus on their English skills more than on their interpersonal connections.
Article
This article aims to contribute to the explanation of why bilingual education (CLIL) may reduce the differences in motivation and English proficiency commonly seen between students from different SES backgrounds (Shepherd & Ainsworth, 2017). From a mixed-methods approach involving a questionnaire and focus group interviews, fourth year Secondary Education students in the Community of Madrid (Spain) were asked about their views on education, teachers, classroom practices, and their use of English outside the classroom. Results reveal significant differences in the way that students from bilingual schools and those from non-bilingual schools see their schooling experience (what they value in teachers and schools) as well as how often they speak English outside of school. This may be explained by the nature of students’ motivation in each case, which may, in turn, be influenced by the schools’ characteristics. Further research is needed as to whether bilingual schools are inherently more autonomy-supportive learning environments.
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The 8th annual International Conference of the Immersive Learning Research Network (iLRN2022) was the first iLRN event to offer a hybrid experience, with two days of presentations and activities on the iLRN Virtual Campus (powered by ©Virbela), followed by three days on location at the FH University of Applied Sciences BFI in Vienna, Austria.
Article
Although an increasing body of reading research explores motivation among students from underrepresented racially minoritized groups in academic settings, the research tends to either lump students into an “underrepresented racial minority” (URM) or an “Other” category or focus on students from specific racial backgrounds (e.g., White, Asian, or Black students). This approach results in students too few in number being overlooked (e.g., American Indian students). However, these students represent an important part of the U.S. culture and school population. The scarce research available focuses on achievement gaps, rather than studying factors such as reading motivation and reading self-concept, which have been suggested to contribute to reading success among American Indian students. Therefore, this study explored self-determined reading motivation, reading self-concept, home reading environment, and student reading behaviors in the prediction of reading achievement among American Indian students representing 19 American Indian Tribes (in comparison to Hispanic students) from one Southwestern State and explored the interrelations between these variables. In a sample of 343 grade 5-8 students (n = 219, 63.8%, American Indian students; n = 124, 36.2% Hispanic students) multiple-group path analyses in Mplus revealed differential relations among the variables: Whereas reading self-concept was the strongest predictor of reading achievement for both groups of students, intrinsic motivation was negatively related to reading achievement for American Indian students. Potential explanations of the observed interrelations are discussed.
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In a Danish context regular (weekly or biweekly) education outside the classroom (EOtC), school-based outdoor learning or learning outside the classroom (LOtC) is called udeskole and aims to enhance both health and education. The purpose of this chapter is to present two Danish research projects; the Søndermark School and TEACHOUT studies. It highlights the impact and potentials of physical activity (PA) in primary school based on results from pupils (grade 3–6 grade—year 9–12), taught weekly outside the classroom and school buildings. The chapter summarises how teaching in nature, green areas or using cultural institutions like museums, factories, cemeteries etc. has an impact on PA levels. The Søndermark School study in Copenhagen investigated whether udeskole in urban nature or cultural institutions helps to increase children’s PA in four classes. 44 girls and 40 boys (grade 4–6) participated in this study, where the PA was measured for seven consecutive days. For all 84 pupils, the average PA was significantly higher on udeskole days compared to traditional school days without PE lessons. The average PA levels among boys were significantly higher than among girls in all mentioned settings, except on days with PE lessons, where both sexes’ PA levels were equal. As part of the TEACHOUT research project, PA of 663 children was measured 24 h a day for 9–10 consecutive days. Udeskole classes were compared with control classes, i.e. their parallel classes, from 12 schools located in different parts of Denmark, in a quasi-experimental design. A gender comparison was made on a weekly basis, i.e. days with more than 150 min of udeskole were compared with traditional school days and days with physical education (PE) classes. Measured over a whole week, boys having udeskole were more physically active than boys in control classes and girls in both settings. No difference was found between girls in udeskole and the comparison classes during a week, but girls on udeskole days were associated with a greater proportion of PA at light intensity than on traditional school days and days with PE lessons. In general, the children were far less sedentary during udeskole compared to traditional classroom teaching.
Chapter
Do experiences with nature—from wilderness backpacking, to plants in a preschool, to a wetland lesson on frogs, promote learning? Until recently, claims outstripped evidence on this question. But the field has matured, not only substantiating previously unwarranted claims but also deepening our understanding of the cause-and-effect relationship between nature and learning. Hundreds of studies now bear on this question, and converging evidence strongly suggests that experiences of nature boost academic learning, personal development, and environmental stewardship. This brief integrative review summarizes recent advances and the current state of our understanding. The research on personal development and environmental stewardship is compelling although not quantitative. Report after report—from independent observers as well as participants themselves—indicate shifts in perseverance, problem solving, critical thinking, leadership, teamwork, and resilience after time in nature. Similarly, over fifty studies point to nature playing a key role in the development of pro-environmental behavior, particularly by fostering an emotional connection to nature. In academic contexts, nature-based instruction outperforms traditional instruction. The evidence here is particularly strong, including experimental evidence; evidence across a wide range of samples and instructional approaches; outcomes such as standardized test scores and graduation rates; and evidence for specific explanatory mechanisms and ‘active ingredients’. Nature may promote learning by improving learners’ attention, levels of stress, self-discipline, interest and enjoyment in learning, and physical activity and fitness. Nature also appears to provide a calmer, quieter, safer context for learning; a warmer, more cooperative context for learning; and a combination of “loose parts” and autonomy that fosters developmentally beneficial forms of play. It is time to take nature seriously as a resource for learning—particularly for students not effectively reached by traditional instruction.
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Öz Biyolojik, sosyal ve kültürel koşulların, psikolojik büyüme ve iyi oluş için doğuştan gelen kapasitemizi nasıl geliştirdiğini veya engellediğini inceleyen Öz Belirleme Kuramı’na (ÖBK) göre üç temel psikolojik ihtiyaçtan biri olan ilişkili olma ihtiyacı, insanların değer gördükleri ve ait hissedebildikleri sosyal bağlar kurabilmeleri anlamına gelir. İlişki Motivasyonu Kuramı (İMK), ÖBK’yı oluşturan altı mini kuramdan sonuncusudur. Bu derleme çalışmasının amacı, İMK’nın tanımladığı ilişkili olma ihtiyacına odaklanarak mevcut alanyazını incelemek ve alanyazının güçlü ve zayıf yanlarını belirleyebilmektir. İlk kısımda ÖBK ve İMK genel hatlarıyla tanıtılmış, ikinci kısımda farklı ilişki türleri üzerinden İMK’nın alanyazında nasıl irdelendiği ve ne tür bulgular sunduğu değerlendirilmiştir. Genel anlamda, herhangi bir ilişkide temel psikolojik ihtiyaçların karşılanması, kişinin özerk motivasyon seviyesi ve çevrenin sağladığı özerklik desteği miktarı, ilişkideki kişilerin genel iyilik halini arttırmakta; temel ihtiyaçların çatışması ya da engellenmesi kişilere zarar vermektedir. Alanyazında, romantik ilişkiler dışındaki ilişki türlerine odaklanan daha çok çalışmaya ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır. Kesitsel çalışmalardan ziyade, deneysel ve boylamsal desenli çalışmalara yer verilmesi önerilmiştir. Ayrıca, her bir ilişki türünün farklı örneklem grupları ile test edilmesinin bulguların genellenebilirliğine katkı sağlayacağı; farklı ilişki türlerini aynı anda inceleyen çalışmaların arttırılmasının ise İMK’nın kapsamlı olarak değerlendirilebilmesine imkân sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. The Importance of Basic Psychological Needs in Relationship Quality: A Review on the Basis of Self-Determination Theory and Main Relationship Categories Abstract Self-Determination Theory (SDT) assesses how biological, social, and cultural conditions improve or thwart our innate capacity for psychological growth. According to the SDT, one of three basic psychological needs is the need to be related which means the ability to form social bonds to whom people are valued and feel belonging. This review aims to assess the current literature by focusing on the need for relatedness from the perspective of the Relationships Motivation Theory (RMT). After a brief introduction about the SDT and the RMT, current literature on the RMT is examined through different types of relationships. In general, meeting basic psychological needs in any relationship, the level of autonomous motivation of the person and the amount of autonomy support provided by the environment increases the general well-being of the people in the relationship, while the conflict or obstruction of basic needs negatively affect them. More studies are needed in areas other than romantic relationships, with experimental and longitudinal designs. In addition, testing each type of relationship with different sample groups and increasing studies that examine different types of relationships at the same time might enable a comprehensive evaluation of the RMT.
Conference Paper
Area measurement has a high priority in mathematics school education. Nevertheless, many students have problems understanding the concept of area measurement. An AR tool for visualizing square units on objects in the real world is developed to enable teachers to support understanding already in primary school. This work-in-progress paper presents the initial test version and discusses the first teaching experiment results. The students’ feedback and use of the app showed possible adaptations of the AR tool, e.g., that the idea of dynamic geometry could be incorporated in the future.
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Recently, in elementary and junior high schools with an emphasis on regional cooperation, teachers are required to demonstrate teamwork with parents and community residents. However, there is little evidence about what kind of educational effect the teacher-parent-resident teamwork would have on children. The present study aimed to examine the effects of homeroom teachers’ perceptions of teamwork on the intrinsic motivation of children, and the subjective adjustment of children to the classroom, through a classroom social goals structure. A survey was conducted on 2,225 6th grade elementary school students and 3rd year junior high school students and 235 teachers. The multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that the influence of teamwork on intrinsic motivation and subjective adjustment to the classroom was mediated by the social goals structure. The results suggest that the teacher-parent-resident teamwork is an important factor for creating a comfortable class environment.
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Student engagement is considered an essential element of student's learning experience and performance. While many studies are conducted to evaluate student engagement in the face-to-face environment, less is known about its impact on student performance in online learning, especially in project management education. COVID-19 forced all education institutions around the world to rapidly change to the delivery of courses online, often with little or no expertise in this form of delivery. This article provides insight into student engagement in undergraduate and postgraduate project management programs delivered online during 2020–2021. Specific objectives are: (i) to identify the factors that impact student engagement; (ii) to examine the impact of engagement on performance and (iii) to investigate the role of self-motivation on engagement and performance. Data were collected from 285 students enrolled in eight randomly selected courses of the project management program at a university in Australia during the second half of 2020 via an online questionnaire. The results found that self-motivated students are likely to engage better with their peers. Through structural equation modeling, it was further identified that student engagement is significantly related to students' performance in online learning. The study provides numerous insights for teachers to increase student engagement, such as creating a learner-centered environment with clear expectations.
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The secondary school transition is considered a critical life event by practitioners and researchers alike, and the challenges presented by the pupils during this transition continues to be high-profile in educational, social and political contexts. This study focused on Year 7 pupils aged 11 to 12 years old in their first year of secondary school. Classroom observations of around 120 pupils using an open framework recording procedure offered real-time insights into the everyday lived experiences of these adolescents. The paper illustrates the skills and behaviours that children brought to their secondary school transition, and as such reveals how the transition should be perceived as both an event and a social and emotional learning process. The findings of this study highlight the challenges of flexibility and diversity within peer networks after the move to secondary school and the impact the transition can have on the pupils’ sense of self. The analysis is discussed in terms of implications for schools, practitioners and researchers with suggestions for further studies with this under-researched and vulnerable group.
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Curiosity, intrinsic motivation, and autonomy-supportive teaching all promote lifelong learning in both the classroom and Marine Corps. Humans are all born with curiosity. Children inherently practice forms of intrinsic motivation. Most would agree that they do not like being micromanaged - they enjoy a sense of freedom when completing tasks. Despite this, many students learn in a controlling environment and many Marines work under controlling leaders. Though a large amount of time is spent on learning through the first 18 years of life, lifelong learning does not come naturally and is not commonly practiced. The research and ideas discussed below are all means to promote a positive learning environment for students in the classroom and the population within the Marine Corps. If curiosity, intrinsic motivation, and an autonomy-supportive teaching environment can be promoted, it equates to creating a foundation for lifelong learning. These attributes promote confidence, self-identity, and growth as an individual. They will lead to higher test scores, morale, and mission accomplishment without that being its purpose. Lifelong learning can be something we all strive for and seek for ourselves and our Marines. It will benefit us as leaders and the Marine Corps as an institution. There are tangibles to implement in the Marine Corps to promote these attributes.
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This study examined a process model of relations among children's perceptions of their parents, their motivation, and their performance in school. Children's perceptions of their parents on dimensions of autonomy support and involvement were measured with the new children's perceptions of parents scale. Three motivation variables-control understanding, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy-were hypothesized to mediate between children's perceptions of their parents and their school performance. Analyses indicated that perceived maternal autonomy support and involvement were positively associated with perceived competence, control understanding, and perceptions of autonomy. Perceived paternal autonomy support and involvement were related to perceived competence and autonomy. In turn, the 3 motivation variables, referred to as inner resources, predicted children's performance. Structural equation modeling generally supported the mediational model.
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Conducted a field experiment with 3-5 yr old nursery school children to test the "overjustification" hypothesis suggested by self-perception theory (i.e., intrinsic interest in an activity may be decreased by inducing him to engage in that activity as an explicit means to some extrinsic goal). 51 Ss who showed intrinsic interest in a target activity during baseline observations were exposed to 1 of 3 conditions: in the expected-award condition, Ss agreed to engage in the target activity in order to obtain an extrinsic reward; in the unexpected-award condition, Ss had no knowledge of the reward until after they had finished with the activity; and in the no-award condition, Ss neither expected nor received the reward. Results support the prediction that Ss in the expected-award condition would show less subsequent intrinsic interest in the target activity than Ss in the other 2 conditions. (25 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.
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Although people often assume that multiple motives for doing something will be more powerful and effective than a single motive, research suggests that different types of motives for the same action sometimes compete. More specifically, research suggests that instrumental motives, which are extrinsic to the activities at hand, can weaken internal motives, which are intrinsic to the activities at hand. We tested whether holding both instrumental and internal motives yields negative outcomes in a field context in which various motives occur naturally and long-term educational and career outcomes are at stake. We assessed the impact of the motives of over 10,000 West Point cadets over the period of a decade on whether they would become commissioned officers, extend their officer service beyond the minimum required period, and be selected for early career promotions. For each outcome, motivation internal to military service itself predicted positive outcomes; a relationship that was negatively affected when instrumental motives were also in evidence. These results suggest that holding multiple motives damages persistence and performance in educational and occupational contexts over long periods of time.
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This study tested the degree to which a need-supportive family environment influences adolescents' endorsement of the value priorities that their mothers wish for them. Mothers and their adolescents (𝑁=280) rated the importance of three intrinsic values (personal growth, close relationships, and community contribution) and three extrinsic values (wealth, fame, and attractiveness). Results revealed that mothers placed greater emphasis on intrinsic over extrinsic values than did adolescents. Furthermore, the congruence of mothers' and adolescents' emphasis on intrinsic values was moderated by the extent to which adolescents experienced satisfaction of their basic needs for autonomy, relatedness, and competence at home. Finally, the well-being of both adolescents and mothers was associated with the degree to which they prioritized intrinsic over extrinsic values. Implications for research on the transmission of values and goals are discussed.
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Le but de cet article consiste à présenter les résultats de trois études ayant pour objectif de construire et de valider un nouvel instrument mesurant la motivation en éducation, soit l'Échelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME). L'EME est formée de 7 sous-échelles mesurant trois types de motivation intrinsèque (motivation intrinsèque à la connaissance, à l'accomplissement et aux sensations), trois types de motivation extrinsèque (régulation externe, introjectée et identifiée) et l'amotivation. Dans l'ensemble, les résultats révèlent que l'EME possède une cohérence interne satisfaisante ainsi qu'une stabilité temporelle élevée. Les résultats d'une analyse factorielle confirmatoire ont également confirmé la structure à 7 facteurs de l'EME. En plus, la validité de construit de l'EME a été soutenue par une série de corrélations entre les 7 sous-échelles ainsi qu'entre ces dernières et certaines variables servant d'antécédents et de conséquences pertinentes pour le secteur de l'éducation. Les présents résultats apportent donc un soutien à la validité et la fidélité de l'EME. Cette dernière semble donc prête à être utilisée en recherche dans le milieu de l'éducation. À cet effet, on suggère certaines pistes pour l'utilisation de l'EME tant en recherche fondamentale qu'appliquée.
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Missing data analyses have received considerable recent attention in the methodological literature, and two “modern” methods, multiple imputation and maximum likelihood estimation, are recommended. The goals of this article are to (a) provide an overview of missing-data theory, maximum likelihood estimation, and multiple imputation; (b) conduct a methodological review of missing-data reporting practices in 23 applied research journals; and (c) provide a demonstration of multiple imputation and maximum likelihood estimation using the Longitudinal Study of American Youth data. The results indicated that explicit discussions of missing data increased substantially between 1999 and 2003, but the use of maximum likelihood estimation or multiple imputation was rare; the studies relied almost exclusively on listwise and pairwise deletion.
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A new measure of motivation toward education has been developed in French, namely the ''Echelle de Motivation en Education'' (EME). The EME is based on the tenets of self-determination theory and is composed of seven subscales assessing three types of intrinsic motivation (intrinsic motivation to know, to accomplish things, and to experience stimulation), three types of extrinsic motivation (external, introjected, and identified regulation), and amotivation. Extensive data support the reliability and validity of the EME. The EME has been translated recently in English. Initial data provided support for the reliability (internal consistency and temporal stability) and factorial validity of the English version of the scale now termed the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). However, the concurrent and construct validity of the AMS has not been assessed. Such was the purpose of the current study. The subjects were 217 junior-college students who completed the AMS, other motivation-related constructs, as well as variables assessing motivational determinants and consequences. The concurrent validity of the AMS was assessed by correlating its subscales with known motivational scales, while the construct validity was ascertained through a series of correlational analyses among the seven AMS subscales, as well as between these scales and other psychological constructs deemed to represent motivational antecedents and consequences. Findings provided support for the concurrent and construct validity of the AMS. Future directions concerning the use of the AMS in theoretical and applied research are proposed.
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This study disaggregated parenting styles into three socialization dimensions: connection/involvement, regulation, and psychological autonomy. Six dependent variables were used (grades and educational expectations, psychological and somatic symptoms, and delinquent acts and substance use), and the three socialization measures were associated individually with all six outcomes. When multiple regressions included all three socialization measures simultaneously, connection/involvement was associated positively with educational outcomes, whereas regulation andpsychological autonomy were associated significantly with all six outcomes in the three domains. For deviance, regulation appeared to be the strongest socialization dimension. For health, psychological autonomy was the strongest. Educational outcomes were more balanced among the three socialization measures, with all three contributing positively to these outcomes. Using instrumental variables allowed the regression models to isolate the direction of causality from the socialization variables to the six outcomes. The impact of each socialization dimension was stable across allfour ethnic groups and both genders.
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Adjustment to the university environment is regarded as an important factor in predicting university outcomes. This study explores the pathways taken by adjustment and other psychosocial variables (help‐seeking, academic motivation, self‐esteem, perceived stress, and perceived academic overload), in relation to the success of economically and educationally disadvantaged students at university. Participants were 194 first‐year students on need‐based financial aid at a South African university; they completed questionnaires that measured these psychosocial variables, and their final first‐year academic results were obtained via the university’s records office. Path analyses showed that adjustment did not function as a pure mediator on academic performance as the dependent variable. Furthermore, the psychosocial factors explained much (59%) of the variance in the students’ adjustment and 20% of the variance in their academic performance. Hence, the psychosocial variables better explained the students’ adjustment to university than academic performance.
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Self-determination theory is a macro-theory of human motivation, emotion, and personality that has been under development for 40 years following the seminal work of Edward Deci and Richard Ryan. Self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985b, 2000; Niemiec, Ryan, & Deci, in press; Ryan & Deci, 2000; Vansteenkiste, Ryan, & Deci, 2008) has been advanced in a cumulative, research-driven manner, as new ideas have been naturally and steadily integrated into the theory following sufficient empirical support, which has helped SDT maintain its internal consistency. To use a metaphor, the development of SDT is similar to the construction of a puzzle. Over the years, new pieces have been added to the theory once their fit was determined. At present, dozens of scholars throughout the world continue to add their piece to the ‘‘SDT puzzle,’’ and hundreds of practitioners working with all age groups, and in various domains and cultures, have used SDT to inform their practice. Herein, we provide an historical overview of the development of the five mini-theories (viz., cognitive evaluation theory, organismic integration theory, causality orientations theory, basic needs theory, and goal content theory) that constitute SDT, discuss emerging trends within those mini-theories, elucidate similarities with and differences from other theoretical frameworks, and suggest directions for future research
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This study tested whether students who learned with an active orientation would be more intrinsically motivated to learn and would learn more than students who learned with a passive orientation. The active orientation was created by having subjects learn material with the expectation of teaching it to another student; the passive orientation was created by having subjects learn the same material with the expectation of being tested on it. The results indicate that subjects who learned in order to teach were more intrinsically motivated, had higher conceptual learning scores, and perceived themselves to be more actively engaged with the environment than subjects who learned in order to be examined. The two groups were equal, however, in their rote learning scores. The effects of exposure to the material were ruled out as an explanation because the two groups reported spending equal time with the material. The results are discussed in terms of intrinsic motivation theory.
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To obtain reliable measures researchers prefer multiple-item questionnaires rather than single-item tests. Multiple-item questionnaires may be costly however and time-consuming for participants to complete. They therefore frequently administer two-item measures, the reliability of which is commonly assessed by computing a reliability coefficient. There is some disagreement, however, what the most appropriate indicator of scale reliability is when a measure is composed of two items. The most frequently reported reliability statistic for multiple-item scales is Cronbach’s coefficient alpha and many researchers report this coefficient for their two-item measure. Others however claim that coefficient alpha is inappropriate and meaningless for two-item scales. Instead, they recommend using the Pearson correlation coefficient as a measure of reliability. Still others argue that the inter-item correlation equals the split-half reliability estimate for the two-item measure and they advocate the use of the Spearman-Brown formula to estimate the reliability of the total scale. As these recommendations are reported without elaborating, there is considerable confusion among end users as to the best reliability coefficient for two-item measures. This note aims to clarify the issue.
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The authors examined relations among motivational styles and school adjustment in a sample of 786 7th and 8th grade U.S. students. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that agency beliefs mediate relations between styles of motivational self-regulation (i.e., intrinsic, identified, introjected, and extrinsic) and school adjustment (school grades, school well-being, and positive and negative affect). A structural equation model testing this hypothesis indicated that agency beliefs about one's effort mediate the relations between the styles and positive school adjustment. By contrast, the extrinsic style was not mediated by agency beliefs but reflected adverse low-magnitude direct effects on all of the outcomes except positive affect. Overall, the model strongly predicted school adjustment, and adherence to the identified motivational style was particularly important. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Recognizing recent criticisms concerning the cross-cultural generalizability of self-determination theory (SDT), the authors tested the SDT view that high school students in collectivistically oriented South Korea benefit from classroom experiences of autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction. In Study 1, experiences of autonomy, competence, and relatedness underlaid Korean students’ most satisfying learning experiences, and experiences of low autonomy and low competence underlaid their least satisfying learning experiences. In Study 2, psychological need satisfaction experiences were associated with productive (achievement and engagement) and satisfying (intrinsic motivation and proneness to negative affect) student outcomes. Study 3 replicated and extended Study 2’s structural equation modeling findings by showing that the hypothesized model explained students’ positive outcomes even after controlling for cultural and parental influences, including the collectivistic value orientation. Study 4 replicated the earlier cross-sectional findings with a semester-long prospective 3-wave design. The authors discuss how the findings support the motivation theory’s cross-cultural generalizability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present study pursued two goals. The first goal was to explore the presence of students’ learning goals profiles during the beginning of middle school, using cluster analyses procedure. The second goal was to examine whether these profiles are related to academic (motivation, feeling of competence, and achievement) and emotional (anxiety and depression) characteristics. Three hundred ten adolescents participated in this study. Results of cluster analyses showed the presence of different learning goals profiles (high mastery, mixed, mastery-avoidance, and low engaged). Furthermore, results indicated that students in high mastery and mixed profiles are better adapted than students in mastery-avoidance and low engaged profiles, particularly in regard of academic characteristics. On the whole, these findings suggest that considering heterogeneous profiles of learning goals at the beginning of middle school appears quite useful to better understanding students’ academic and emotional characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Age differences in intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and the relationships of each to academic outcomes were examined in an ethnically diverse sample of 797 3rd-grade through 8th-grade children. Using independent measures, the authors found intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to be only moderately correlated, suggesting that they may be largely orthogonal dimensions of motivation in school. Consistent with previous research, intrinsic motivation showed a significant linear decrease from 3rd grade through 8th grade and proved positively correlated with children's grades and standardized test scores at all grade levels. Extrinsic motivation showed few differences across grade levels and proved negatively correlated with academic outcomes. Surprisingly few differences based on children's sex or ethnicity were found. Causes and consequences of the disturbingly low levels of motivation for older, relative to younger, children are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Using self-determination theory, the authors tested a motivational model to explain the conditions under which rural students formulate their intentions to persist in, versus drop out of, high school. The model argues that motivational variables underlie students' intentions to drop out and that students' motivation can be either supported in the classroom by autonomy-supportive teachers or frustrated by controlling teachers. LISREL analyses of questionnaire data from 483 rural high school students showed that the provision of autonomy support within classrooms predicted students' self-determined motivation and perceived competence. These motivational resources, in turn, predicted students' intentions to persist, versus drop out, and they did so even after controlling for the effect of achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Employees could be affectively committed towards at least eight work-related targets: organization, career, co-workers, supervisor, tasks, profession, customers, and work. The WACMQ (Workplace Affective Commitment Multidimensional Questionnaire) was recently developed to assess these targets. This study used confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) to test alternative factor structures, relying on a sample of 404 Canadian workers. The measurement invariance of the model across gender and linguistic groups was also examined. CFAs generally supported a 7-factor structure over the original 8-factor model, showing that two targets (profession and tasks) rather formed a single factor (occupation). Finally, CFAs supported the measurement invariance of the WACMQ across gender and language versions. In addition to this substantive purpose, this study was also designed as a methodological illustration of Millsap and Tein's (2004) procedure for the evaluation of the measurement invariance of CFA models for ordered-categorical items, as supplemented by Cheung and Rensvold's (1999) recommendations for the post-hoc probing of non-invariant factor models.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
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Many mechanistic rules of thumb for evaluating the goodness of fit of structural equation models (SEM) emphasize model parsimony; all other things being equal, a simpler, more parsimonious model with fewer estimated parameters is better than a more complex model Although this is usually good advice, in the present article a heuristic counterexample is demonstrated in which parsimony as typically operationalized in indices of fit may be undesirable. Specifically, in simplex models of longitudinal data, the failure to include correlated uniquenesses relating the same indicators administered on different occasions will typically lead to systematically inflated estimates of stability. Although simplex models with correlated uniquenesses are substantially less parsimonious and may be unacceptable according to mechanistic decision rules that penalize model complexity, it can be argued a priori that these additional parameter estimates should be included. Simulated data . are used to support this claim and to evaluate the behavior of a variety of fit indices and decision rules. The results demonstrate the validity of Bollen and Long’s (1993) conclusion that “test statistics and fit indices are very beneficial, but they are no replacement for sound judgment and substantive expertise” (p. 8).
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Although there is a vast amount of research on reading motivation, evidence for bidirectional associations between reading self-concept and reading achievement is still missing, whereas there is compelling empirical evidence that suggests reciprocal effects between academic self-concept and achievement in other domains. This paper aimed to rigorously test reciprocal effects between reading self-concept and reading achievement within a longitudinal design comprising four waves of data collection. Drawing on a sample of N = 1508 secondary school students, results of structural equation modeling yielded support for reciprocal effects between reading self-concept and reading achievement. Strong support was found for the skill-development hypothesis, i.e. achievement predicting self-concept. Moreover, the self-enhancement hypothesis (self-concept predicting achievement) was corroborated in early years of secondary school. Thus, to best support poor readers, reading skills should perhaps be fostered by boosting the reading skill itself and reading self-concept, the latter particularly at the beginning of secondary school.
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The motivational effects of mastery goals and performance goals have been widely documented in previous research on achievement motivation. However, recent studies have increasingly indicated a need to include social goals so as to gain a more comprehensive understanding of achievement motivation. The purpose of the present research was to examine how social goals predicted achievement motivation among students with different self-construals (independent versus interdependent). In Study 1, 134 Chinese 8th graders completed a questionnaire on self-construal, social goals, and avoidance behaviors. In Study 2, the causal effect of self-construal and social goals on students’ willingness to take a course for improvement after failure was examined with experimental manipulation. Participants were 121 Chinese 7th graders. Results demonstrated that social goals yielded higher report of avoidance behaviors (Study 1) and lower willingness to improve after failure (Study 2) for students with independent self-construal, but lower report of avoidance behaviors (Study 1) and higher willingness to improve after failure (Study 2) for those with interdependent self-construal. The research sheds light on the theoretical framework of achievement motivation that goes beyond mastery and performance goals.
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Meta-analysis is a statistical tool for estimating the mean and variance of underlying population effects from a collection of empirical studies addressing ostensibly the same research question. Meta-analysis has become an increasing popular and valuable tool in psychological research, and major review articles typically employ these methods. This article describes the process of conducting meta-analysis: selecting articles, developing inclusion criteria, calculating effect sizes, conducting the actual analysis (including information on how to do the analysis on popular computer packages such as IBM SPSS and R) and estimating the effects of publication bias. Guidance is also given on how to write up a meta-analysis.
Article
Many mechanistic rules of thumb for evaluating the goodness of fit of structural equation models (SEM) emphasize model parsimony; all other things being equal, a simpler, more parsimonious model with fewer estimated parameters is better than a more complex model. Although this is usually good advice, in the present article a heuristic counterexample is demonstrated in which parsimony as typically operationalized in indices of fit may be undesirable. Specifically, in simplex models of longitudinal data, the failure to include correlated uniquenesses relating the same indicators administered on different occasions will typically lead to systematically inflated estimates of stability. Although simplex models with correlated uniquenesses are substantially less parsimonious and may be unacceptable according to mechanistic decision rules that penalize model complexity, it can be argued a priori that these additional parameter estimates should be included. Simulated data are used to support this claim and to evaluate the behavior of a variety of fit indices and decision rules. The results demonstrate the validity of Bollen and Long's (1993) conclusion that "test statistics and fit indices are very beneficial, but they are no replacement for sound judgment and substantive expertise" (p. 8).
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) assumes that inherent in human nature is the propensity to be curious about one's environment and interested in learning and developing one's knowledge. All too often, however, educators introduce external controls into learning climates, which can undermine the sense of relatedness between teachers and students, and stifle the natural, volitional processes involved in high-quality learning. This article presents an overview of SDT and reviews its applications to educational practice. A large corpus of empirical evidence based on SDT suggests that both intrinsic motivation and autonomous types of extrinsic motivation are conducive to engagement and optimal learning in educational contexts. In addition, evidence suggests that teachers' support of students' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness facilitates students' autonomous self-regulation for learning, academic performance, and well-being. Accordingly, SDT has strong implications for both classroom practice and educational reform policies.
Article
The purpose of the present study was to test a motivational model that explains the relationship between school-leisure conflict and indicators of educational functioning and mental health using structural equation modeling with a sample of college students. Results provided support for the proposed model. Experiencing a conflict between education and leisure contexts was negatively predicted by having a self-determined motivation for school, while self-determined motivation for leisure activities was unrelated to the experience of such a conflict. A school-leisure conflict, in turn, was associated with poorer academic consequences (poor concentration at school, academic hopelessness, few intentions of pursuing in school), which were associated with higher levels of depression and low life satisfaction. Importantly, the proposed theoretical model was supported for both men and women. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991, 2000) and the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (Vallerand, 1997).
Article
A motivational science perspective on student motivation in learning and teaching contexts is developed that highlights 3 general themes for motivational research. The 3 themes include the importance of a general scientific approach for research on student motivation, the utility of multidisciplinary perspectives, and the importance of use-inspired basic research on motivation. Seven substantive questions are then suggested as important directions for current and future motivational science research efforts. They include (1) What do students want? (2) What motivates students in classrooms? (3) How do students get what they want? (4) Do students know what they want or what motivates them? (5) How does motivation lead to cognition and cognition to motivation? (6) How does motivation change and develop? and (7) What is the role of context and culture? Each of the questions is addressed in terms of current knowledge claims and future directions for research in motivational science.
Article
L’étude poursuivait deux objectifs. Le premier consistait à vérifier, au moyen d’analyses en classes latentes, la présence de profils de buts d’apprentissage chez les élèves au début du secondaire. Le deuxième consistait à déterminer si ces profils étaient reliés à certaines caractéristiques scolaires (motivation, sentiment de compétence et de réussite) et émotives (anxiété et dépression). Trois cent dix adolescents ont participé à l’étude. Les résultats des analyses de classes latentes montrent qu’il existe différents profils de buts d’apprentissage (profils maîtrise, mixte, maîtrise-évitement et peu engagé). De plus, les résultats indiquent que les élèves des profils maîtrise et mixte sont mieux adaptés que les élèves des profils maîtrise-évitement et peu engagés, particulièrement au regard des caractéristiques scolaires. Dans l’ensemble, ces résultats soulèvent l’importance de prendre en compte l’hétérogénéité des profils de buts d’apprentissage au début du secondaire afin de mieux comprendre les caractéristiques scolaires et émotives des élèves.
Article
The proposition, derived from self-determination theory (SDT), that autonomy-support has a positive effect on self-motivation and well-being, is examined in two distinct cultural settings. Participants were 264 high school students from Russia and the United States who completed measures of perceived parental- and teacher-autonomy-support, academic motivation, and well-being. Means and covariance structure analyses were used to examine the cultural comparability of measured constructs. Results supported the hypotheses that Russian adolescents would perceive parents and teachers as more controlling than U.S. students; and in both samples, perceived autonomy-support would predict greater academic self-motivation and well-being. Results are discussed in terms of SDT’s postulate of a basic human need for autonomy in the context of cultural variations.
Article
A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine the predictive relations between social problem-solving appraisals and subsequent adjustment, stress, health, motivation and performance in a sample of university students during their three years at university. Controlling for gender, age and prior academic aptitude, self-perceived problem-solving abilities, measured on entry to university, had direct beneficial effects on psychosocial adjustment to university, perceived stress levels, self-determined motivational orientations, and academic performance during students’ second year of study. Additionally, social problem-solving appraisals, adjustment to university and intrinsic motivation towards accomplishment predicted higher marks over the course of students’ 3 years at university, controlling for university entry qualifications. Gender differences emerged in perceived stress, self-determination profiles, and academic performance, with women displaying higher scores than men. More specific analysis of problem-solving appraisals indicated that different dimensions (e.g. control, confidence) had different long-range adaptational outcomes. Results are discussed with reference to models of social problem-solving (D'Zurilla, 1986, 1990) and self-determination (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 1991) and implications for interventions based on problem-solving training for stress management are considered.