Article

Weight Reduction Through Inhalation of Odorants

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Abstract

Despite the pervasive problem of obesity and the ex-penditUre of billions of dollars devising methods of losing weight. no studies have been published on the role of the ol-factory sense in determining weight. To assess the effect of inhalation of certain aromas upon weight control. we studied 3193 overweight volunteers. Their average age was 43 years, average height 65 inches. and average weight 217pounds. Each was given <:'01 inhale. containing a blend of odorants and in-structed to inhale three times in each nostril whenever feeling hungry. New inhalers containing a new blend of odorants were supplied each month over a period of 6 months. Those subjects whose test scores showed they had good olfactory abilities and who use their inhalers frequently. ate 2 to 4 meals a day, felt bad about overeating, but did not feel bad about themselves lost nearly 5 .pounds, or 2% of body weight per month. It appears possible that inhalation of certain aromas can induce sustained weight loss over a 6-month period.

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... On the other hand, there are indications that odors can be satiating as well after a longer exposure time. 6,[15][16][17][18] Jansen et al. 6 showed that normal-weight children decreased their intake of palatable sweet and savory snacks after smelling those foods for 10 min, compared with no smelling. In addition, Rolls and Rolls 15 found that smelling bananas or chicken for 5 min decreased the pleasantness of the smell of bananas and chicken, respectively relative to the pleasantness of other foods that were not smelled. ...
Article
Background Exposure to palatable food odors influences appetite responses, either promoting or inhibiting food intake. Possibly, food odors are appetizing after a short exposure (of circa 1-3 min), but become satiating over time (of circa 10-20 min).Objective To investigate the effect of odor exposure on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA) over time.DesignIn a cross-over study, 21 unrestrained women (age: 18-45 y; BMI: 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) were exposed for 20 min to eight different odor types: five food odors, two non-food odors and no-odor. All odors were distributed in a test room at supra-threshold levels. General appetite, SSA and salivation were measured over time.ResultsAll food odors significantly increased general appetite and SSA, compared to the no-odor condition. The non-food odors decreased general appetite. All effects did not change over time during odor exposure. Savory odors increased the appetite for savory foods, but decreased appetite for sweet foods, and vice versa after exposure to sweet odors. Neither food odors nor non-food odors affected salivation.Conclusions Palatable food odors were appetizing during and after odor exposure and did not become satiating over a 20 min period. Food odors had a large impact on SSA and a small impact on general appetite. Moreover, exposure to food odors increased the appetite for congruent foods, but decreased the appetite for incongruent foods. It may be hypothesized that, once the body is prepared for intake of a certain food with a particular macronutrient composition, it is unfavorable to consume foods that are very different from the cued food.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 6 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.143.
... Another product called Aroma Works Suppress is a breath inhaler claimed to curb appetite when used during mealtimes (Amazing-Solutions 2008). A study by Hirsh and Gomez (1995) revealed that inhalation of certain odors can induce sustained weight loss over a 6-month period. Moreover, Poothullil (1999) studied that the seven female subjects terminated eating when the pleasantness of the food subsided during a meal. ...
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... In most cases active ingredients incorporated into 73 food products are aimed to have their effects in the post-ingestive 74 and post-absorptive phases. However, the use of sensory triggers 75 and in particular aromas, which take part in the early phases of 76 the satiety cascade and contribute to the process of meal termina-77 tion, has also been reported (Hirsch & Gomez, 1995 Batches of non-aromatised creamy custard of 566 kJ/100 g were 176 produced by Friesland Foods (Deventer, The Netherlands) and con-177 tained 90% milk, 3.1% starch, and 6.5% sugar, which corresponds to 178 7.6(w/w)% fat, 14.1 (w/w)% carbohydrates, and 3.2 (w/w)% protein. the descriptors ''not at all" and ''very much" at their ends (Fig. 2). ...
Article
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... In view of the obesity problem one of the targets is to develop foods that combine liking with limited food intake, by enhancing satiation signals. In this respect, the role of aroma as a sensory trigger in satiety mechanisms is of interest (8,9) . ...
Article
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... Stimulation of the sensory systems, in particular olfactory and gustatory systems, has been applied to weight loss treatment. For example, a study by Hirsch and Gomez showed that inhalation of odors prior to eating, in the absence of any instructions about dieting or energy restriction, resulted in a significantly amount of weight loss relative to a control group given no odors (Hirsch & Gomez, 1995). Although the precise mechanism is not known, one possibility is that sensory stimulation facilitates weight loss by accelerating the rate of habituation to food cues. ...
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