The study presents a means of evaluating sustainable using a case study from the South Luangwa Area Management Unit in Zambia as an illustration. It builds on the factors suggested in the analytic framework (Appendix 1) giving more emphasis to processes of sustainability, rather than to the achievement of a particular state. Matrixes are presented for most factors (External/Human Population; and Modifiable factors: Economic – Price-Policy and Market Distortions; Proprietorship: Socio-Political Organization, Resource Governance and Tenure; Management: Organizations and Resources) together with indicators of the processes involved. Indicators have been defined from two perspectives: From an overall assessment of a number of programmes in a region, and of this particular programme. Emphasis is put on social, economic, and political systems, with management of the natural resource seen as being a consequence of these. The study forwards that the key to sustainable use of wildlife lies in promoting its comparative advantage over other types of land use. Proprietorship, correction of market and policy failures, and management of both human and natural resources are seen as the three main pillars leading to sustainable use. The process of converting wildlife from a nationalized resource into a resource that is privately owned either by communities or individual landholders is recognized as paramount. International funding which secures non-use areas would complement this. Wildlife has a comparative advantage in South Luangwa in part because there are few alternatives. This has been supported through the partial de-nationalization of wildlife resources and the consequent devolution of some use rights to locals. Both individuals and communities benefit directly. This has been recognized through changing attitudes among the local people who now report that they value wildlife, where before wildlife was seen as a nuisance. A notable exception to this is found in attitudes to elephants from which the people receive no direct economic benefits because of international sanctions. Supporting the empowerment process are transparent, democratic institutions that are functioning well in five of the six areas included in the project. Potential threats to long-term sustainability include the interest of national officials in maintaining benefits and management rights for themselves, the need for land use planning at the local level to assure that contingent areas are reserved and enhanced for wildlife, and that issues of equity both within this area and between this and adjacent areas are addressed.