Article

AN OVERVIEW OF LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES

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Abstract

This paper aims to talk about the development of language learning strategy since the 1970s. It will provide information about of the use of language learning strategies, which will enhance English learning for non-native learners. Further, the better understanding of language learning strategies for English teachers can help students to learn more successfully and develop their learning autonomy. To this end, this paper can also serve as a research reference in the field of language learning strategies, particularly the relationship between a different language learning cultural background and the use of strategy as well as leading us to the current status of learning strategies and learning strategies instruction.

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... By employing LLSs, it will help those language learners to acquire the language better even if the development level isn't the same. As mentioned by Chien (2010), the use of LLSs will help non-native learners to enhance their learning. This is a great opportunity to help ESL learners to improve their experience in language learning and fluency too. ...
... To learn something, a person might deploy certain strategy/strategies to achieve the intended goal. As cited by Chien (2010) define learning strategies as various operations that help learners to learn. It is not specified as anything which means as long as a learner deploys a strategy or taking steps to learn something, it is a learning strategy. ...
... The classification started in the 1970s aligns with the emergence of researches in the LLSs field. Chien (2010), explains that there are at least five scholars who come up with a different type of LLSs classification. With every research carried out, improvisation is made on classification and typology. ...
... Broadly speaking about learning strategies, Rigney and Rubin as cited in Lee (2010), define language learning strategies as behaviors, steps, or techniques that language learners apply to facilitate language learning. It means that the students can decide certain strategies or think ways while they are learning English to enhance their own learning. ...
... She proposed that some language learning strategies are observable, but some may not be observable. Rigney and Rubin as cited in Lee (2010) define language learning strategies as behaviors, steps, or techniques that language learners apply to facilitate language learning. ...
... It is caused by a wide variety of learning strategies in learning process (Simsek, 2010 using language learning strategies. Some researchers according to Lee (2010) mention that age, sex, attitude, motivation, aptitude, learning stage, task requirements, teacher expectation, learning styles, individual differences, motivation, cultural differences, beliefs about language learning, and language proficiency as several factors that influence students in applying learning strategies. Furthermore, Liang as cited in Gestanti (2017) mentions four factor influencing students in choosing learning strategies. ...
Article
p>This study is aimed at verifying the finding of a study on what learning strategies applied by the students in writing text and the impact of learning strategies toward the students’ writing score. This is a qualitative descriptive study, and it is conducted at Communication Science Department of the Muhammadiyah University of Ponorogo. The instruments used to collect the data were observation, documentations, and questionnaire. After analyzing the data, it is found that the learning strategies used by the students in writing English text are metacognitive strategies, compensation strategies, cognitive strategies, affective strategies, memory strategies, and social strategies. The students use learning strategies in moderate level which means they sometimes use these learning strategies. Moreover, learning strategies influence the students’ writing score; the students who get good score use metacognitive strategies and the students who get fair score use affective strategies.</p
... In the classroom, they are consistently exposed to new input and challenging tasks given by their instructors. When processing new information and performing language tasks, language learners use learning strategies, either consciously or unconsciously (Al-Maktary, 2018;Lee, 2010;O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Yanju & Yanmei, 2016). Prior research findings have revealed that successful language learners employ language learning strategies (LLSs) better than their counterparts (Al-Maktary, 2018;Maldonado, 2016;Metcalfe & Noom-Ura, 2013;Yanju & Yanmei, 2016). ...
... This belief inspired educators and researchers to explore the LLSs that successful learners tend to use. Such strategies are suggestively useful for less successful learners to develop certain language skills (Al-Maktary, 2018;Maldonado, 2016;Lee, 2010). ...
... For the purpose of the present study, LLSs refer to all strategies that learners of English use to achieve better results. This paper adopts the definition of Lee (2010), who viewed LLSs as "learning skills, learning-to-learn skills, thinking skills, problem skills or, in other words the methods which learners use to intake, store and retrieve during the learning process" (p.134). The study was inspired by Oxford's (1990) quote that language learning strategies "are especially important for language learning because they are tools for active, self-directed movement, which is essential for developing communicative competence" (p.1). ...
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This chapter reports on the Yemeni and Saudi EFL learners' use of language learning strategies (LLSs) in technology-mediated language learning contexts. The study examines whether nationality and gender play a significant role in using LLSs on electronic platforms. The study adopted a correlative design in which 100 Yemeni and Saudi university students were recruited to respond to an online close-ended questionnaire. Drawing on Oxford’s classification of learning strategies, the findings of this study showed that metacognitive and cognitive strategies were used more frequently compared to the other LLSs. Moreover, the findings of t-test showed a significant difference in the use of LLSs attributed to nationality in favor of the Saudi learners, and no significant difference in the choice of LLSs attributed to gender. The study provided some suggestions for EFL learners to benefit from technology in their English language learning.
... Most researchers of self-assessment as a learning strategy in learning English as a second / foreign language were ( Jamrus and Razali,2019) and( Oscarson,2009) ,argued that self-assessment can be useful as a strategy for both students and teachers , at the same time students must be aware. However, some researchers like (Safranj,2012) and ( Lee ,2010) explained other strategies that can be used by students . All the researchers similarly focused on the awareness of students about the strategies. ...
... English as a second language is a challenge which needs much motivation (Wold,2006) . Different strategies can be used by language learners or students but the most important three strategies or categories are mentioned by (Safranj ,2013) and (Lee ,2010), which are ( cognitive , metacognitive and social affective ). The three categories are raised to students' goal and also to plan their learning in order to think about their operation of learning. ...
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Self-Assessment As Learning Strategy In Learning English As A Second \ Foreign Language. This study aims to explore the importance of Self-assessment as learning strategy in learning English as a second / foreign language and discusses the importance of having experienced teachers or trained teachers for self-assessment as learning strategy in learning English as a second / foreign language and the students of English language motivated by the strategy in a proper way for learning. To these ends, this study examined among 43 teachers and students of colleges and schools. The teachers and students as participants analysed lots of reasons which showed that if self-assessment as learning strategy in learning English as a second / foreign language has been used the process of learning English can go so quickly and in a motivated way , so it will be successful. In addition factors analysis the results that showed teachers with experience or trained teachers of self-assessment can teach more and can achieve the goal of learning English for the students. Keywords: self-assessment, motivation, learning strategy, learning English, trained teachers
... Furthermore, a comprehensive and inclusive taxonomy of LLSs was done by Oxford (1990), one which is generally accepted among researchers in this field, such as Zare (2012) and Tam (2013). The different strategies in Oxford's (1990) taxonomy can be summarised as follows: memory strategies (remembering language and retrieving new information), cognitive strategies (thinking about learning, understanding, and producing), compensation strategies (making up for limited knowledge, using language despite limited knowledge), metacognitive strategies (managing and coordinating own learning process), affective strategies (regulating feelings and emotions), and social strategies (interacting and learning with others) (Lee 2010). Apart from a taxonomy on LLSs, Macaro (2006) has pointed out that learners utilise more than one strategy at a time and combine different strategies in the form of strategy clusters (base, core, and plus strategies) to achieve a learning goal. ...
... These factors are closely connected to compensation strategies (Hashemian 2013;Medina 2010). However, there are other elements that can be considered as well, such as beliefs, aptitude, affect, age, gender, personality (and characteristics), and the nature of the learning target and situation (Griffiths 2010;Lee 2010;Zare 2012). For example, students with an introvert personally type would prefer metacognitive strategies (Zare 2012) and strongly motivated students who are enrolled in English programmes prefer metacognitive, social, and functional practice strategies (Griffiths 2010). ...
Article
The inadequate English language proficiency (LP) of multilingual first-year students on a university campus in South Africa has proved to be an obstacle to successful academic literacy and performance. English is the medium of instruction at university, but not a home language for any of these students. There might be several reasons and solutions for this problem; however, this study focuses on one possible factor related to this predicament. The research question that was investigated is whether weak performance in English can be directly related to the use of second-language learning strategies. Consequently, a study was done based on the hypothesis that there is a correlation between second-language learning strategies (independent variable) and LP (dependent variable). This correlation was tested amongst a random selection of BA first-year students for whom English is a second language (L2), by using a standardised test and questionnaire. Data were analysed using Spearman’s rank-order correlation, by means of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The results show a correlation between LP and language learning strategies (LLSs) in general and a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.26) between compensation strategies and LP. This article reflects on the pedagogical implications for the teaching and learning of an L2 and recommendations are made in this regard.
... The concept of Learning Strategy refers to learning-to-learn skills (Lee, 2010). When both cross cultural groups defined Language Learning Strategies, the Turkish group put forward the memorization concept and the Arabic group mentioned reading concept. ...
... Learning strategy use resembles footballers' tactics used to win a match. Learners just like football players use tactics in order to be successful in their learning (Lee, 2010). Like the tactical similarities and differences among football players, here in this study there are a number of cross cultural similarities in the language learning strategy use between Turkish and Arabic students, as well as significant differences. ...
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This study investigates the language learning strategy use of Turkish and Arabic students enrolled in middle schools and having differing cultural and linguistic backgrounds. Using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford (1989b), the study examines the cross-cultural differences in strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a foreign language. The study has found out that though there are a number of cross-cultural similarities in the language learning strategy use between Turkish and Arabic students, there are also significant differences between them. For instance, Turkish students prefer to use a dictionary while reading English texts, but Arabic students generally do not use a dictionary in their reading activities. Conclusions and pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed in the study.
... Research in English as a foreign language (EFL) revealed that learning strategy use and preferences depend on various learner characteristics such as their cultural background and nationality (Kamalizad & Samuel, 2014). Furthermore, different cultural groups use particular strategies at different levels of frequency or preference (Lee, 2010). However, it must be stressed that most of the conducted research concerned adult samples especially university students. ...
... When three groups of students were formed based on their perceived language proficiency score, it was found that they were statistically significantly differentiated in their frequency of strategy use, with the students of high perceived language proficiency reporting more frequent use of strategies than the students of medium language proficiency and the latter reporting more frequent use of strategies than those of low proficiency. This finding reinforces previous findings verifying that, similarly to the adult learners, the self-ratings carried out by the school children in our study as far as language proficiency is concerned, are closely linked to their use of strategies (Gavriilidou & Papanis, 2010;Gharbavi & Mousavi, 2012;Khamkhien, 2010;Lee, 2010;Liu, 2013;. ...
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The papers selected for this volume explore Language Learning Strategy (LLS) use by upper elementary and junior secondary students attending public schools in Greece. More specifically, they provide evidence of the exploratory phase of a largescale project entitled “Adaptation of the SILL in Greek and Turkish and strategic profiling of primary and secondary school learners and teachers-S.I.L.L.G.T.", under the Thales grant scheme and within the National Strategic Reference Frame 2007- 2013. ... ... The present volume reports the evidence extracted from the relevant analyses of the exploratory phase of the large-scale Thales project entitled “Adaptation of SILL in Greek and Turkish and strategic profiling of primary and secondary school learners and teachers-S.I.L.L.G.T.". The project was implemented from April 2012 to September 2015 under the National Strategic Reference Frame 2007-2015, and was co-funded by resources of the European Union's "European Social Fund" and national resources.
... Research in English as a foreign language (EFL) revealed that learning strategy use and preferences depend on various learner characteristics such as their cultural background and nationality (Kamalizad & Samuel, 2014). Furthermore, different cultural groups use particular strategies at different levels of frequency or preference (Lee, 2010). However, it must be stressed that most of the conducted research concerned adult samples especially university students. ...
... When three groups of students were formed based on their perceived language proficiency score, it was found that they were statistically significantly differentiated in their frequency of strategy use, with the students of high perceived language proficiency reporting more frequent use of strategies than the students of medium language proficiency and the latter reporting more frequent use of strategies than those of low proficiency. This finding reinforces previous findings verifying that, similarly to the adult learners, the self-ratings carried out by the school children in our study as far as language proficiency is concerned, are closely linked to their use of strategies (Gavriilidou & Papanis, 2010;Gharbavi & Mousavi, 2012;Khamkhien, 2010;Lee, 2010;Liu, 2013;. ...
... To summarize, language learning strategies refer to the operations, steps or measures taken by the learner to successfully acquire the target language. Lee (2010) proverbially likens learning strategy to tactics employed by sportsmen to win a game. The application of language learning strategies directly impacts the success of language learning. ...
... Stern (1992) proposed an expanded taxonomy which include five language learning strategies, which are 'management and planning, cognitive, communicative-experiential, interpersonal as well as affective strategies'. Nevertheless, of all the taxonomies of language learning strategies proposed, Lee (2010) commented that Oxford (1990) offers the most comprehensive taxonomy. Oxford (1990) posited two broad categories of language learning strategies namely direct and indirect strategies. ...
... Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) play a very significant role in facilitating language learning processes. As a result, LLSs have received great attention by a considerable number of research conducted on second language (Oxford 1990;Cohen, 1990O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Brown, 1991;Rubin & Thompson, 1994;Mendelsohn, 1994;McDonough, 1995;Dreyer and Oxford, 1996;Lan & Oxford, 2003;Oxford, Cho, Leung & Kim, 2004;Al-Otaibi, 2004;Hong-Nam and Leavell, 2006;Al-Sohbani, 2009;Lee, 2010;Paredes, 2010;Magno, 2010;Leung & Hui, 2011;Al-Natour, 2011 Nikoopour, Farsani, andNeishabouri, 2011;Alhaisoni, 2012). Chamot (2004) states that "An area of basic research in second language acquisition is the identification and description of learning strategies used by language learners and the correlation of these strategies with other learner variables such as proficiency level, age, gender" (p. ...
... Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) play a very significant role in facilitating language learning processes. As a result, LLSs have received great attention by a considerable number of research conducted on second language (Oxford 1990;Cohen, 1990O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Brown, 1991;Rubin & Thompson, 1994;Mendelsohn, 1994;McDonough, 1995;Dreyer and Oxford, 1996;Lan & Oxford, 2003;Oxford, Cho, Leung & Kim, 2004;Al-Otaibi, 2004;Hong-Nam and Leavell, 2006;Al-Sohbani, 2009;Lee, 2010;Paredes, 2010;Magno, 2010;Leung & Hui, 2011;Al-Natour, 2011 Nikoopour, Farsani, andNeishabouri, 2011;Alhaisoni, 2012). Chamot (2004) states that "An area of basic research in second language acquisition is the identification and description of learning strategies used by language learners and the correlation of these strategies with other learner variables such as proficiency level, age, gender" (p. ...
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This study intended to investigate the Language Learning Strategies(LLSs) of Yemeni secondary school students studying at the Turkish international school in Sana'a, where English is a medium of instruction. Eighty-three (83) students (males= 40 and females= 43) were the participants of the study, 78 responded to the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) (Oxford, 1990) of ESL or EFL version of 50 statements. The responses were calculated through statistical analysis in terms of mean, standard deviation, correlation and the t' test. It was found that: a) all participants found to be high users (Means above 3.5) of meta cognitive strategies, and medium users of the left five strategies. Memory & affective. strategies the most infrequently used. The learners' use of cognitive strategies highly correlated with their scores in speaking and reading skills. Affective strategies and gender correlated significantly with learners' level. However, there was no significant difference between male and female students regarding their use of the six categories of LLSs
... In reality, people do not understand everything when they are born, but have to learn everything so that they are able to understand (Lee, 2010:133). Therefore, many researches (Lee, 2010;and Cabaysa, 2010) try to find how learners go about learning something, what makes learners successful at learning something, and why some people are more effective at learning than others. ...
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This paper points out the gender differences in English learning.It investigated students’ language learning strategies as affected by gender differences. The data collected in 2015 from 15 male students and 15 female students’ of second grade at SMA Negeri 11 Makassar. It is to reveal their differences in English learning and the effect of gender differences in choosing language learning strategies. It is indicated that the entire student used six language learning strategies namely memory strategy, cognitive strategy, compensation strategy, metacognitive strateg, affective strategy and social strategy but they had different ways in using them. Mostly, females used social strategy because they were more emphatic, social thinking and like cooperating with their peers while the males refered to the compensation startegy because their characteristics were more confident, fun, logical, active in expressing their opinion. So, it was concluded that gender differences affect in choosing language learning strategies of male and female students at SMA Negeri 11 Makassar. Keywords: language learning strategy, gender differences, classroom interaction
... A successful language learner, according to [16], has to be in control of the way he learns first. This is supported by [17], who proposes that learners use language learning strategies in order to learn something more successfully. Furthermore, many teachers and educationalists also see learning how to learn as the most basic and important educational objectives [18]. ...
Article
The Japanese language is very popular among many youths as it is viewed as a means to secure better employment, in addition to understanding popular Japanese culture. Language learning strategies and learner autonomy are two key dimensions in learning Japanese as a foreign language. This study aims to identify language learning strategies used and perceived extent of learner autonomy among tertiary students in a Japanese Language Proficiency Test (JLPT) preparatory class. It also attempts to find the relationship between language learning strategies and learner autonomy in the context of learning Japanese in Malaysia. The results of the quantitative method show that the students are medium users of language learning strategies and possess learner autonomy extent at an average level. In addition, it is found that there is a high significant correlation between language learning strategies and learner autonomy in learning Japanese. It is hoped that this study could contribute towards more efficient and effective language learning process of Japanese language specifically and other foreign languages.
... Similarly, many previous studies explored the relationship between language learning strategies and learners' proficiency in which the findings portrayed that more proficient language learners employed a greater variety of language learning strategies. (Zakaria, Yunus, Nazri, & Shah, 2016;Lee, 2010;O'Malley & Chamot, 1990). The total means of each category showed that metacognitive strategies (Mean = 4.466) are among the most frequently used strategies, followed respectively by social (Mean = 4.217), cognitive (Mean = 4.036), compensation (Mean = 3.450), affective (Mean = 3.233) and memory strategies (Mean = 2.867) found as the least used strategies among successful language learners. ...
... Thus, what is evaluated develops into what is worthier, which turns into what is taught (Mc Ewen, 1995). After native language learning the another language which is learned is known as second language and the second language learning practice is termed as second language acquisition (Gass & Selinker, 2008).There are factors that affect successful second language learning (Lee, 2010). Teachers' pedagogies and methods are affected by exams and teachers need to modify their practices according to exams requirement producing a prejudgment about the curriculum (Rodrı guez, 2016). ...
Article
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This descriptive study explores the impact of washback on ESL students’ performance at secondary level. In this study, the term “washback” refers to the test effect on content of curriculum, learning English, teaching and the activities conducted in classroom. The factors other than the test itself may affect positive washback; lack of positive washback does not make test invalid whereas the negative washback effect occurs when there is lack of construct validity of test. Test design and validity plays vital role in achieving positive washback (Messick, 1996). The study aims to investigate the effects of positive washback and benefits in learning and teaching processes in ESL classrooms, while negative washback effects are destructive and can be a hindrance in achieving the goals in ESL classrooms. Recent research is descriptive in nature and survey based method was adopted for this study. 50 teachers were selected by using purposive sampling technique and 100 students were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Three tools were used for this study including: Questionnaire, Test and Observation checklist. The findings of the study exhibit that negative washback effect has its influence on tests, learning and teaching. The study concludes with a realization of the fact that language pedagogy is affected by washback. However, it is claimed by majority of the teachers that washback affects the selection of teaching methods because exams stress brings pressure and it becomes necessary for English teachers to develop linguistic competence in their students. For future researches it is recommended that other studies should be made in order to find out the impact of washback on the strategies adopted by learners while learning second language.
... 522-527, May 2018 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17507/tpls.0805.10 strategy use (Lee, 2010;Liu, 2010). This article makes a classification of the retrieved studies in such a way in order to gain a general scenery of studies about language learning strategy. ...
Article
Language learning strategy, a crucial variable of individual differences in second language acquisition (SLA), has been a fiercely discussed topic since 1970s, attracting a large number of researchers and teachers who have already made great achievements. This article aims to conduct a small-scale review of studies concerning language learning strategy, finding that studies in this respect were done mainly from perspectives of definition, identification and classification, usage and assessment and instruction of language learning strategy, and factors which exert influences on it. It is plausible to say that research on this issue is comparatively comprehensive, appreciating wide coverage and great achievements, but certain points are still in controversy. Although there are many related studies, rare studies were devoted to language learning strategy under the context of learners in mainland China. Subsequently, implications for further research and pedagogy in terms of language learning strategy are discussed.
... To cope with the problems in their speaking, students need to apply the appropriate learning strategies to make their learning speaking easier. It is stated, "Learners use learning strategies in order to learn something more successfully" (Lee, 2010). ...
... These strategies include dealing with the learner, personality, nature factors, learning style, age, sex, and culture (Doczi, 2011). The implementation of language learning strategies improves students' autonomy and language learning abilities (Kuolee, 2010 beliefs as to the efficacy and helpfulness of these learning strategies (Wu, 2005). It is worth noting that there are various ways of teaching and learning vocabulary, and each strategy has its own advantages and disadvantages (Nemati, 2009). ...
... The term Learning Strategy is accredited to learning-to-learn skills (Lee, 2010). We see several studies related to learning strategies (Rigney, 1978;Ames and Archer, 1988;Meyers and Jones, 1993;Silberman, 1996) and specifically language learning strategies (Rubin and Thompson, 1982;Oxford and Nyikos, 1989;Oxford, 1990;Samida, 2012). ...
Conference Paper
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The hegemony of right-handedness over left-handedness is crystal clear. Hand usage is aligned with functional laterality for cerebral supremacy as well as being conjoined with psychiatry. Basically, the majority of people are right-handed while a small minority of them use their left hands. There have been several researches related to left and right handedness, but there seems to be no study related to the issue with respect to language learning strategies. This study overviews the data driven from an inventory of language learning strategies applied to both right and left handed students. The conducted studies related to right and left handedness classification have formed conflicting results, yet this study clearly investigates the relation between right and left hand usage and language learning strategy use of EFL students. In other words, using the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) by Oxford, the study investigates the relation between the right and left hand usage and the strategy use of the mentioned students while learning English as a foreign language. Based upon a descriptive research design, the study will bring a light whether there is a significant difference between the stated points. Conclusions and pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed in the study.
... To get their successful in acquisition foreign language, the students need to apply strategy in learning language. Lee (2010) states that learners use learning strategies in order to learn something more successfully. By applying learning strategy, it can make the students easy to understand the material quickly and make them more efficient in learning foreign language. ...
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The main purpose of the present study was to empirically investigate the possible correlation and the influence between students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension. The population of this study was 138 eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang. The sample was all of eleventh grade students in social class. The total number of the student was 138. Since 16 students were absent, so the sample consisted of 122 students. To collect the data in order to measure the students’ language learning strategies and listening comprehension, SILL (strategy inventory in learning language) and listening comprehension test from TOEFL Junior test were used in this study. The Pearson correlation was used in analyzing the data using SPSS 16. The result from questionnaire showed that most of the students used metacognitive strategies were in medium level and sometimes used language learning strategies. The result from listening comprehension test showed that most of the students were in very poor level. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between the two variables that can be seen from the correlation coefficient or r-obtained (-.011) was lower than r-table (0.1779) then the level of probability or sig. value (.902) was higher than .05. From the result, it can be concluded that there was no significant correlation between language learning strategies and listening comprehension of eleventh grade students of Islamic Senior High School number 2 Palembang.
... Helal (2016, p.152) notes O"Malley andChamot (1990) view that they "can effectively assist foreign/second language learners in mastering different language skills on both levels, receptive and productive". Similarly, Griffiths (2013), Macaro (2001), Chamot and El-Dinary (1999), Nunan (1997) and Oxford and Burry-Stock (1995) also cited in Helal (2016) and Lee (2010) emphasize the positive correlation between the use of LLSs and second/foreign language achievement and motivation. This is because using the strategies allows the learners to extend their learning beyond the confines of formal classroom. ...
... Many researchers focused on how learners process new information and the kinds of strategies they use to understand, learn or remember the information in the area of second or foreign language learning (Lee, Chien Kuo, 2010). Oxford (1990) described that the strategies have serious effects on motivating and promoting/developing students' reading comprehension. ...
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This study investigated how English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners with different learning styles (Field dependent and field independent) boost up their reading comprehension abilities as they develop their metacognitive skills. To conduct this research, 60 participants were randomly invited to sit PET (Preliminary English Test) to ensure homogeneity of the participants in terms of language proficiency level. A Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT) was then administered to distinguish field dependent and field independent learners. Two groups of 30 students were made; field dependent and field independent groups. Prior to any instruction on metacognitive strategy, groups of students attended a reading test as a pretest. Students were then received instruction with the focus on metacognitive strategies including inferring meaning through word analysis, using background knowledge, guessing the later topic, centering learning, arranging and planning leaning and elaborating as a treatment. After the instruction was completed the students were given a posttest in relation to the reading skills. The within and between group analysis of data gathered from this quasi experimental research using a series of t-test and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that field dependent learners outperformed field independent learners in reading comprehension after the treatment. The finding suggested a need for principled decisions and planning on metacognitive strategy training in language teaching and materials development.
... Using cognitive process and affective variables has many advantages on learning process. Some of these processes allow students to become more self-directed and autonomous learners (Lee, 2010;Oxford, 1990). Furthermore, research has shown that there is a positive relationship between the frequency of using cognitive processes and affective variables and the level of competence in different academic areas (Ansarin, Zohrabi, & Zeynali, 2012;Oxford, 1990;Ting & Chao, 2013). ...
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This study examined the competing role of cognitive and affective learning processes used by students on predicting their academic achievement. The sample included 342 students from different schools in Oman (female=74.6%). The participants responded to a group of measures as part of a national study examining different learning variables. For the purpose of the current study, the participants’ data of six measures (i.e., critical thinking strategies, organizational strategies, memory strategies, intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and anxiety) were obtained. In addition, the students’ grade average point (GPA) using their reported grades were also used. The findings showed that out of the affective model, anxiety level and intrinsic motivation were significant predictors of students’ academic achievement. However, critical thinking was the only predictor of academic achievement from the cognitive model.
... In each stage been LLS is eclectic in accordance with the needs of learning, good learning objectives, material characteristics, and the characteristics of the students. LLS LLS used was developed by Oxford (1990), which is considered a more detailed and comprehensive (Lee (2010), Zare (2012)) with the rare step of speaking developed Cohen (1996). ...
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This research is experimental testing of Language Learning Strategies to improve student presentation at the Indonesian Department of Education, University of Siliwangi Tasikmalaya. Learning stage presentations using Language Learning Strategies are as follows. (1) preparation, (2) presentation, (3) practice, (4) evaluation, (5) expansion activities. In each stage been LLS is eclectic in accordance with the needs of learning, good learning objectives, material characteristics, and the characteristics of the students. There is a significant difference between the mean score of the pretest to posttest mean score in the experimental class and there is a significant difference between the mean score of posttest in the experimental class with a mean score of posttest in control classes. This proves that effective language learning strategies to improve student presentation.
... These two types of strategies are of critical significance for foreign language learning that, unlike other disciplines or fields of study, depends heavily on using language in social contexts. This is consistent with research literature showing significant relationships between students' use of these language learning strategies and higher language proficiency as well as enhanced language learning (Lee, 2010). ...
... Good language learners are commonly considered to be those who can find their own way by taking care of their learning, organizing their language knowledge, and creating their own opportunities for language practice [1]. In addition, to support them in learning a language, they use their experience and strategy [2]. In addition, research involving language learners has also shown that the most active learners appear to use learning strategies that are relevant to the mission, content, self-objective, criteria, motivation and learning level [3][4] [5]. ...
... Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 was utilized in the research in collecting the information aligned with the desired objectives. SILL is a type of a survey tool developed by Oxford (1990) and it is a highly comprehensive and reliable tool in investigating learning strategies employed by the learners (Lee, 2010). Habok and Magyar (2018) further supported this statement by claiming that this instrument suits to be utilized as the taxonomy to assess the strategy that ESL/EFL are using. ...
... The classification started in the 1970s, coinciding with the explosion of research in the area of LLSs. Lee (2010), as quoted by Adan & Hashim (2021), explains that at least five scholars have suggested a distinct classification system for LLSs. Any time an analysis is done, changes are made to the classification and typology. ...
... SILL is a survey tool constructed by Oxford (1990). Lee (2010) stated that SILL is a highly comprehensive and thorough tool to investigate learning strategy among the learners. This is further advocated by Habók and Magyar (2018) where they mentioned that this instrument is a suitable taxonomy to be used taxonomy in assessing the strategy used by ESL/EFL learners. ...
... The different socio-cultural perspectives on human learning are based on the idea that human beings construct and understand knowledge in a social and cultural context through interactions that encourage dialogue, debate and negotiation [40][41][42]. Language is at the core of learning [43], considering that communication, thinking and learning are related processes modelled by culture [44] (p. 138). ...
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This study aims to identify the set of elements in the educational process that affect the creation of a teaching profile consistent with the principles of sustainability. In this research, we focus on identifying those sustainability attributes related to understanding social interaction and its role in the learning process of logical-mathematical knowledge. Social interaction is an essential part of the principle of collaboration. The study participants were 133 future teachers, students of the degree in Early Childhood Education at the Universidad de Cádiz (Spain). Qualitative methods and techniques were used to collect data, and mixed methods and techniques were employed for their analysis. The data relating to the student's perception of the importance of social interaction in learning were gathered through the final reports produced by the students. The data were processed by classifying them into categories and subcategories. The meaning condensation method used enabled identifying 33 sustainability attributes linked to socio-cultural learning. Those attributes identify and describe the internal dynamics of cooperative learning and show the synergies and interrelationships between social interactions, socio-cognitive conflict and language. The results stress the importance of a meaningful understanding of the role of social interaction in learning in order to promote the principles of sustainability.
... In the TEFL research domain, learning styles and learning strategy use have been widely integrated (Jie & Xiaoqing, 2006;Keith, 2010;Lee, 2010;Oxford, 1990;Wong & Nunan, 2011) and due to their importance in the language learning process, revealing the connections between them can be of great benefit for the learners, teachers and researchers (Cesur & Fer, 2011). However, few studies have tried to bridge the LLS and LS gap and find the relationship between the two. ...
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The present study investigated the effect of brain dominance on the use of Language learning speaking strategies. One hundred forty two undergraduate students of Shiraz University, Iran, participated in this study. The Hemispheric Dominance Test (HDT) was employed to categorize participants as right-, left- and whole-brain dominant, and a Speaking Strategy Questionnaire was administered to evaluate their use of speaking strategies. The results were analyzed using a one-way between groups analysis of variance (ANOVA) to investigate whether there were any significant differences between the three brain dominant groups in their overall use of speaking strategies. A MANOVA was also run to investigate whether the groups had preferences regarding the use of any particular strategy type. Results indicated a statistically significant difference between the whole brain dominant participants and both left brain and right brain dominant learners for using compensation speaking strategies. To teach and learn more effectively, instructors and learners need to better understand and appreciate individual differences and how they can affect the learning process. They could find ways to combine activities that accommodate both left and right brain learners, employing not only the usual linear, verbal model, but also the active, image-rich, visuo-spatial models so that learners would be able to use both hemispheres. © 2015, Australian International Academic Centre PTY LTD. All rights reserved.
... Those learning styles are affective, cognitive, metacognitive, memory related, compensatory, and social. Rubin conducted studies to find the factors which are responsible for selection of different learning styles like gender, age, proficiency, stage of learning, cultural differences, aptitude and experience of learning (Rubin, 1975, et al., cited by Lee, 2010). Actually language learners are interested to enhance their learning capacity and also wanted to learn in super quick speed; for which they consciously or unconsciously choose the learning styles which can enhance their learning speed and experience. ...
Article
The current study was conducted to know the relationship of learning styles used by the students of University of Management & Technology and University of Lahore, based upon their disciplines (Science, Humanities and Engineering). This is a quantitative study. Unfortunately, Pakistan is lacking such studies at this level; hence, this is an effort to fill this gap vis-à-vis to enhance the ability of university teachers. The data was collected from 300 gender balanced students through a survey designed by Oxford, and analysed through SPSS. The researcher used independent sample t test, ANOVA and bivariate correlation. The study conducted by using three major variables: gender, affiliations (UMT and UOL) and discipline (Science, Humanities, and Engineering). It was concluded that male and female students have insignificant difference in using learning styles in which male students are favouring visual, and interpersonal learning styles; whereas female students are more prone towards intrapersonal and aural styles.Verbal and physical styles of learning have no significant difference gender wise. One way ANOVA was applied to know the discipline wise difference, which rendered that only the significant difference was found in choosing interpersonal and intrapersonal learning styles by the students of different discipline. The university wise difference rendered the results that there is significant difference in using all learning styles except intrapersonal style in which students of UMT are more visual learners; whereas UOL students are more aural. For other learning styles there is significant difference though a slight tilt towards some learning styles can be seen in the tables except for intrapersonal learning style where there is no significant difference found. It was concluded from correlation matrix that all learning styles are interdependent on one or the other style of learning except interpersonal which is not correlated with other styles. Besides that science and humanities students mostly favoured the same styles. Intrapersonal and aural styles of learning are not favoured by humanities students and aural style is also not liked by science students. The study recommends including those activities which support the particular learning styles based upon the choices of discipline to further the results of university students.
... During the general language learning strategies, dissimilarity between males and females have been observed by Shmais (2003) where the strategies used by males are significantly much higher than females. Lee (2010) cited different factors that influence on LLS like different stages of learning, level of proficiency, motivational influence, background of culture, gender difference, styles of learning, learning aptitude and age of learners. Similarly, Graham (1997) cited the results obtained through his study on use of LLS that there is a significant difference among successful and unsuccessful learners regarding their use of language learning strategies. ...
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Language learning strategies play an important role in acquiring language proficiency skills at different levels of learning. The current study being quantitative in nature, has been carried out to investigate the role played by language learning strategies (LLS) while learning English literature at post graduate level. Therefore 160 students from three different institutions were randomly selected to participate in this survey-oriented project. An instrument originally created by Oxford (1980–1990) about Strategy inventory of learning a language (SILL) version 0.7 and further modified after piloting was distributed among the students. The findings of the sturdy reveal positive relation of strategies among the students while the females surpassed over male participants in adopting strategic use of learning. Obtained data show that there was no significant similarity found among them; but lot of differences observed regarding use of different strategies. The females were most frequent users of memory, cognitive, affective, meta-cognitive and social strategies while male learners were involved in using compensatory, cognitive and also the active users of meta-cognitive strategies. As far as difficulties during learning English literature are concerned: a lot of major aspects of language learning strategies were observed that need to be solved. On the whole, students at postgraduate level are aware of LLS and utilize these strategies while learning English language and literature.
... Many researchers have defined language learning strategies from various perspectives such as "language learning behaviors such as learning and regulating the meaning of a second language, learners' strategic knowledge of language learning, learners' motivations and attitudes, etc." (Wenden, 1987), "specific actions, behaviors, steps or techniques, such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task used by students to enhance their own learning" (Scarcella and Oxford,1992, p. 63), "learning processes which are consciously selected by the learners and which result in action taken to facilitate the learning of a second or foreign language through the storage, retention, recall, and application of information about the language" (Cohen, 1998); "the steps or techniques applied to facilitate language learning" (Rigney, 1978;Rubin, 1987). Even though one of the most popular definitions attributed in the literature through the booming strategy research belongs to Oxford: "specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferrable to new situations" (1990, p.8), it is obvious that there is still no consensus in the field as to a single definition which would summarize different perspectives (Cohen, 1998;O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Lee, 2010;Liu, 2010;Oxford, 1990;Scarcella & Oxford, 1992;Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006;Torres, 2013). Many theorists contributed to the definition and the studies of language learning strategies and their features from different perspectives, such as their goal-oriented function (Nisbet & Schucksmith, 1986;Oxford, 1990), their learnability and teachability (Oxford, 1990;Riding, 2000), voluntary-based application (Cohen, 1998;Oxford, 1990), ) their purposefulness (Nisbet & Schucksmith, 1986;Riding & Rayner, 1998), their flexibility in use (Oxford, 1990;Riding & Rayner, 1998; their action-based side (Oxford, 1990) etc. ...
... Many researchers have defined language learning strategies from various perspectives such as "language learning behaviors such as learning and regulating the meaning of a second language, learners' strategic knowledge of language learning, learners' motivations and attitudes, etc." (Wenden, 1987), "specific actions, behaviors, steps or techniques, such as seeking out conversation partners, or giving oneself encouragement to tackle a difficult language task used by students to enhance their own learning" (Scarcella and Oxford,1992, p. 63), "learning processes which are consciously selected by the learners and which result in action taken to facilitate the learning of a second or foreign language through the storage, retention, recall, and application of information about the language" (Cohen, 1998); "the steps or techniques applied to facilitate language learning" (Rigney, 1978;Rubin, 1987). Even though one of the most popular definitions attributed in the literature through the booming strategy research belongs to Oxford: "specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, and more transferrable to new situations" (1990, p.8), it is obvious that there is still no consensus in the field as to a single definition which would summarize different perspectives (Cohen, 1998;O'Malley & Chamot, 1990;Lee, 2010;Liu, 2010;Oxford, 1990;Scarcella & Oxford, 1992;Tseng, Dörnyei & Schmitt, 2006;Torres, 2013). Many theorists contributed to the definition and the studies of language learning strategies and their features from different perspectives, such as their goal-oriented function (Nisbet & Schucksmith, 1986;Oxford, 1990), their learnability and teachability (Oxford, 1990;Riding, 2000), voluntary-based application (Cohen, 1998;Oxford, 1990), ) their purposefulness (Nisbet & Schucksmith, 1986;Riding & Rayner, 1998), their flexibility in use (Oxford, 1990;Riding & Rayner, 1998; their action-based side (Oxford, 1990) etc. ...
... It have been studied that students in Hong Kong while two other groups studied students in Iran. They studied LLSs in different contexts so that I can analyze, discuss and criticize them in order to adapt their procedures and findings for my own research [4][5][6] . ...
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Learning strategies play essential roles on students' understanding information and solving problems. Not being aware of learning strategies and how to use them may lead to students' failure. Since conducting research on learning strategies is difficult as they are not observable directly and selecting a reliable method is an issue, this paper aims to investigate the significant contribution to the development of learning strategies within Second Language Acquisition studies through reviewing three research-based related articles to adapt the findings to new research. Regarding different sections of this paper, it explains the learning strategies related to the new study and describes its pedagogical context. Moreover, it discusses the articles research strategies, research designs, methods of data collection and data analysis, validity, reliability and ethics separately. It also considers their shortcomings and suggests some solutions. Furthermore, conclusion and general implications for the new research project are discussed. Finally, it decides to conduct a case study design, employ mixed method research to collect more reliable data, apply action research and administer Strategy Inventory of Language Learning (SILL) questionnaire, use descriptive and content analysis and cross-check the findings in order to recognize students' learning strategies usage.
... In addition, Liu (2005) states that performance of language proficiency is related to learning strategies applied by students. Thus, EFL educators develop strategies for learning and memorizing information to relieve and overcome difficulties they encounter during the process of language studying (Hong-Nam & Leavell, 2006; Lee, 2010). Using learning strategies aims to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective and more transferable (Oxford, 1990). ...
Article
This study aimed at applying English reading and writing strategies’ training to improve the low English proficiency students’ competence of English reading and writing. It was a quasi-experiment design. In total, 70 non-English major undergraduates at a private university in China participated in the research, 35 students in the experimental group and the rest 35 students in the control group. The intervention of English reading and writing strategies training was applied to the experimental group over a 24-lesson period in 6 weeks. The control group received an English reading and writing course without the intervention in the same period of the class schedule. Meanwhile, this study applied SILL and PET to the pre-test and the post-test, and used statistical analysis to do data analysis. The result of a detailed one-way ANCOVA showed that the intervention of English reading and writing strategies training in the experimental group had a significant improvement in English reading and writing skills.
... Since 1970's, the research on language learning strategies has gained attention of many researchers. According to Chien (2010), many researchers tend to research how learners process new information and the types of language learning strategies that they use to understand, learn or remember the information while learning a second or foreign language. ...
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The Malaysian Education Blueprint is aimed to ensure every child is proficient in English Language besides Bahasa Malaysia. Thus the English Language syllabus is geared to mould learners to become successful language learners. However, not all learners are capable of being successful language learners despite years of schooling. Therefore, this study aims to investigate language learning strategies used by good language learners in learning English as their second language. To achieve the aim of the study, a questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data. 30 pupils with good language ability from a rural primary school in Sabah were selected to participate in this study. The findings of the study indicated that different language learners prefer different learning strategies to improve their second language learning. The learning strategies also vary based on the language skills they are learning. The findings of the study are hoped to provide significant impact to the pupils, teachers and curriculum planners to integrate language learning strategies in teaching and learning to assist successful language learning.
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The scientific approach (observing, questioning, associating, experimenting and networking) employed in the 2013 curriculum requires students to not only master, experiment and create concepts but also to communicate results of analysis, findings or products to other students/parties. Indonesian teaching, therefore, is oriented not only for mastery of grammatical competence but also sociolinguistic, discourse ad strategic competences. To acquire such competences, an appropriate teaching strategy is called for. One such strategy is the so-called the language learning strategy, which refers to specific actions carried out by students to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more independent, more effective and more directed towards new situations. This strategy includes memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, affective and social strategies.
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Using an adapted list of language learning strategies (LLS), the study looks at familiarity and use of LLS among primary and secondary teachers of Chinese Language in Singapore. The listed LLS consists of memory strategies, cognitive strategies, social strategies, metacognitive strategies, and determination strategies. The survey results show that the teachers, especially those teaching in the secondary school, are familiar with many of the listed LLS but have not used them frequently.The teachers also identified memory, written expression, and writing of Chinese characters the most difficult tasks for students. While primary and secondary teachers were low in the use of cognitive strategies, primary teachers were also low on social strategies and secondary teachers also low in memory strategies and determination strategies. Implications for training and further research are discussed.
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As educators we have a target goal and that is to promote students’ success and nurture their desire to learn in a respectful and constructive environment. One of our greatest tasks is to implement effective methods and strategies that aid us to achieve our instruction goals in our classrooms related to vocabulary and reading comprehension. Pikulski and Templeton (sf) say that it is impossible to exaggerate the power of words; they have changed and they will continue varying the course of history. Vocabulary is a great tool we can give students to succeed not only in education but also in their lives. Our language skills are essential to function in today’s complex social and economic worlds. Furthermore, vocabulary could be reflected more specifically in high levels of reading achievement. Besides, the report of the National Reading panel in 2000 concluded that its relevance has been worldwide recognized in the development of reading skills. Many researchers have noted the relationship between the growth in reading power and the growth in word knowledge. This book comprises research articles related to reading comprehension and lexicon. They were conducted by students of the English Teaching Diploma at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana in Monteria, Cordoba, (Colombia). We hope they can support teachers by offering different ways to develop vocabulary and reading skills in their learners
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The main objective of this paper is to explore the learning strategies of male and female students and to discuss those strategies in relation to gender differences. This research was conducted in one senior high school in Makassar, Indonesia. The number of respondents was 71 students taken randomly by using Slovin formula among 250 students. The study used quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative data were collected by using a questionnaire of SILL whereas the qualitative data were taken by using interview. The learning strategies were discussed based on Oxford's learning strategies (1990) whereas the notion of gender differences in relation to learning strategies was discussed in the framework of gender differences in communication proposed by Lakoff (1975, 1976) and (Tannen, 1990, 1994). Findings from the questionnaire show that female students use cognitive, compensation, and affective strategy more often compared to male students while male students use memory, metacognitive, and social strategy more often compared to female students. Findings from the interview show that female and male students chose different learning strategies. In addition, those learning strategies were influenced by the notion of gender differences in communication. These findings significantly give beneficial inputs to the process of English language teaching in order to create effective teaching and classroom interaction. It also provides significant contribution to the study on language and gender in communication in a setting of education and language teaching.
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English language learning is not a new thing in Indonesia, many people want to learn English for various purposes. However, not all students can easily achieve their goals and follow the learning process. One of the factors is language learning strategy. This research aimed to investigate the students’ English language learning strategies and its correlation with the English academic achievement. Descriptive and correlational design, quantitative and qualitative methods were applied in this research. The students’ English scores on their study report (KHS) and SILL were used as the instrument. The samples of this research were fifty third year students majoring in English at IAIN Samarinda. Moreover, three students were chosen to participate in the semi structured interview. The data of the research were analyzed using descriptive and Pearson Product Moment correlation. The result showed that the most preferred strategy used by the students was social strategy There was a significant correlation between students’ English language learning strategies and English academic achievement (r=.436, p=.001<.05).
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This paper tries to give a general view of the development of the concept of learning strategies in second/foreign language acquisition. It goes on to briefly explain some of the important strategies that have been of a great use in enhancing the learners' language proficiency and motivation level. Starting with the definitions given by various researchers over the period of four decades since the 1970s, the development, classification, variables involved in Language Learning Strategies (LLS) and the studies conducted so far, both overseas and in India, have been briefly looked into. It is evident that not much research has been conducted in India and hence there is call for the young researchers to focus on the LLS used among Indian students. Towards the end, a few areas in LLS study are mentioned that needs considerable attention. Hence this paper gives a clear idea of LLS and leads us into need for strategy based instruction which would not only benefit the learners, but also the teachers.
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Resumo As estratégias de aprendizagem vêm sendo pesquisadas na área de ensino e aprendizagem de línguas há muitos anos, uma vez que o foco passou a ser o aluno e não o professor. Muitas pesquisas enfocaram o aprendiz em sala de aula, haja vista que ela era tradicionalmente entendida como um local de excelência para o ensino de línguas. Entretanto, com o advento das tecnologias digitais, surgiram novas ferramentas e modalidades de aprendizagem, como, por exemplo, a telecolaboração a distância orientada pelas relações interculturais. O contexto dessa pesquisa, o Teletandem, encontra-se diretamente relacionado aos recursos de comunicação síncrona com uso de vídeo e voz, que geram oportunidades de interação oral com falantes da língua alvo em propostas de ensino e aprendizagem a distância. O objetivo geral desta pesquisa foi investigar quais estratégias de aprendizagem foram utilizadas pelos participantes nas interações de Teletandem. A metodologia de pesquisa e os instrumentos de coleta de dados foram de natureza qualitativa. Os resultados revelaram que os participantes investigados afirmam utilizar principalmente as estratégias de aprendizagem dos tipos sociais e metacognitivas, que se relacionam a dois princípios do Teletandem: reciprocidade e autonomia. Palavras-chave: Ensino-aprendizagem de línguas; Estratégias de aprendizagem; Telecolaboração; Teletandem; Língua inglesa. Abstract Learning strategies have been researched in the area of language teaching and learning for many years, since the focus has been on the student rather than the
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The current study aims at exploring the learning styles used by undergraduate English learners in public-sector colleges in Pakistan. The study is descriptive and expository as it uses the quantitative approach. There is dearth of empirical evidence in Pakistani context available to determine the learning styles used by undergraduate English learners, therefore, the current study is an endeavour to bridge the gap. There are normally three categories of English learners who study English at undergraduate level. These categories are based on the respective discipline of learners and categories are students of Arts (BA), students of Sciences (BSc.) and students of Commerce (BCom.). The current empirical study using the survey approach was conducted by adopting the questionnaire developed by Oxford and has been widely used across the globe to explore the area of learning styles. The close-ended questionnaire developed on 4-point likert scale was administered to a sample of 300 English learners. Stratified sampling was done as each category of learners comprised equal proportion of respondents i.e. 100 learners from each stratum. In order to analyse the data, the researchers used independent sample t test, ANOVA, and bivariate correlation. The findings reveal that male were more prone towards using visual, verbal, and interpersonal learning styles whereas female respondents were in favour of intrapersonal and aural style. There was significant difference in using learning style by the undergraduate English learners hailing from rural or urban background except in using physical learning where there was no significant difference. The results of One-way ANOVA on the base of economic background reveals that only significant difference was there in choosing interpersonal and intrapersonal learning style otherwise there was no statistical difference among other leaning styles. It is concluded from the study that the students of Arts and the students of Sciences have similar learning style choice while the choice of learning styles by students of Commerce were quite different. The study implicates that the findings of the study can be incorporated in dealing with each category of students in order to yield productive results. Introduction Learning styles are the prime factor for learners to decide how they will learn something whether it is a language or something else. So, it is really important for them to use it to enhance their learning experience. There are various learning style typologies which are used in the world, but the current study will use VAK/VARK model of learning styles developed by Oxford (1996) as it is suitable to determine the learning styles of undergraduate learners. Other learning style models are more prone towards knowing the learning experience of professionals and learners in the process of becoming a professional. Oxford (1990) stated that there are six important types of learning styles, which are memory related, affective, cognitive, compensatory, social and metacognitive. There are multiple researches available to analyze the influence of different factors on the selection of learning styles; these factors are gender, cultural differences, age, stage of learning, proficiency, experience of learning, and aptitude (Rubin,
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Myanmar Students are always enthusiastic to learn a foreign language. Both inside and outside classroom, they always find possible ways to improve their foreign language skills. Additionally, students have burning desire to communicate with the foreigners proficiently and accurately. However, some are not content with their foreign language proficiency. Therefore, they want to know what kind of strategies they should apply in learning a language. The objectives of this research were to study the language learning strategies employed by foreign students who study Myanmar Language at Yangon University of Foreign Languages (YUFL) and Mandalay University of Foreign Languages (MUFL) in the academic year 2019-2020, and to examine whether there is a relationship between language learning strategies and language improvement according to gender. This study applied quantitative method. The utilized questionnaire was from the most widely
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This study attempts to uncover the Language Learning Strategies (LLSs) utilized byproficient language learners in English pedagogy programs at two universities. It was found that students employ indirect strategies frequently, which are of a metacognitive nature. Through a case study methodology, these students were asked to do a semi-structured interview and a think-aloud protocol. It was found that cognitive and metacognitive strategies were the most prevalent.
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This paper introduces LS-LS, an interactive learning environment to raise learner awareness of language learning strategies. Strategies of potential interest to a student are suggested based on (1) the student's learning style; and (2) similarities between new strategies and strategies already used by the individual. LS-LS is intended primarily for use in contexts where resources are limited. An initial study suggests that learners will find many of the strategy recommendations useful.
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Bibliography: leaves 34-43 Funded by grants HD06864 and HD05951 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Article
This paper describes a long-term observational project which focuses on student behaviour in order to examine different learning styles and learning strategies. The implications for syllabus design are then discussed.
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This chapter reviews the idea that students can be taught to be more effective learners as opposed to being taught subject matter. Cognitive strategies facilitate the acquisition, retention, and retrieval of information. A cognitive strategy is composed of two parts: (1) a cognitive orienting task and (2) one or more representational, selectional, or self-directional capabilities. The term orienting task designates methods for inducing the student to perform particular kinds of operations. Orienting tasks help gauge performance of cognitive processes and enable more optimal usage of the same. Such processes utilize representational as well as selectional resources. Representational resources include propositional and appositional processes of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, chiefly language and imagery. Selectional resources consist of attentional and intentional processes. Self-directional resources include self-programming and self-monitoring processes. Although cognitive strategies are always performed by the student, initiation of their use may come from the student's self-instructions or from an instructional system. The processing operations students perform constitute a cognitive strategy that may or may not be apparent to them.
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The differential success of second/foreign language learners suggests a need to examine in detail what strategies successful language learners employ. An indication is given of what these strategies might consist of and a list of several widely recognized good learner strategies is given. In addition to the need for research on this topic, it is suggested that teachers can already begin to help their less successful students improve their performance by paying more attention to learner strategies already seen as productive.
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Think-aloud protocols, a version of verbal report in which participants state their thoughts and behaviors, have become increasingly popular as a means of studying the comprehension processes of native English speakers. The study reported in this article used think-alouds to examine the comprehension strategies used by college-level students—both native speakers of English and nonnative speakers—enrolled in remedial reading classes as they read material from a college textbook. “Poor” readers (those who had failed the college's reading proficiency test) were chosen for study because they are the ones at whom college remedial reading programs are aimed. Furthermore, their use of comprehension strategies has not attained the degree of automaticity found in fluent readers. Thus, they may be more aware of how they solve the problems they encounter as they read. Some of the strategies used by the ESL and native-speaking readers in the study are described. Strategy use is related to measures of memory and comprehension and to academic performance, and implications for teaching are discussed.
Article
Recent research on learning strategies has yielded conflicting findings and generated limited success in learner training. These problems may be rooted in inadequate knowledge of the actual strategies used by unsuccessful learners in contrast to what they report doing. The present study combines methods to probe the strategies of two nsuccessful learners—both Saudi Arabian women enrolled in an academically oriented intensive English program (IEP)—as they completed four activities (an interview, a verb exercise, a cloze passage, and a composition). After task requirements were determined, learner strategies were ascertained by analyzing think-aloud protocols and task products. These combined analyses offer a detailed and insightful picture of learner strategies, providing counterevidence for the claim that unsuccessful learners are inactive. When viewed through the task-demand model proposed here, these unsuccessful learners emerged as active strategy users, though they sometimes applied strategies inappropriately. The model also revealed fundamental differences in the approaches to problem solving used by learners who appear similar on the basis of simple strategy counts. This research provides evidence of the importance of case studies in verifying critical assumptions about second language learning.
Article
This article examines the relationships of a variety of individual difference variables to end‐of‐training proficiency ratings in speaking and reading for a large sample of adults in intensive training in a wide range of languages at the U.S. Department of State. Variables included tested cognitive aptitude, learning strategies, learning styles, personality, motivation, and anxiety. Although tested cognitive aptitude showed the strongest correlations with proficiency test results in both skills, the other variables also correlated in ways that show how rich and complex the individual learner's role in language is. Results may contribute to increasingly sophisticated student counseling and to efforts to enhance student autonomy by tailoring treatments to student characteristics. They also increase knowledge of attributes that may affect language training to the upper proficiency levels.
Article
Recent research on cognition has indicated the importance of learning strategies in gaining command over second language skills. Despite these recent advancements, important research questions related to learning strategies remain to be answered. These questions concern 1) the range and frequency of learning strategy uses by students learning English as a second language (ESL) and 2) the effects of training in learning strategies on English language skills. This study, which was conducted with high school ESL students, was carried out in two phases corresponding to the two research questions. In Phase I, ESL students and their teachers were interviewed to identify strategies associated with a range of tasks typically found in ESL classrooms and in other settings. Results indicated that students used a variety of learning strategies but typically used more familiar strategies and applied them to discrete-point rather than integrative tasks. In Phase II, ESL students were randomly assigned to receive learning strategies training on vocabulary, listening, and speaking tasks. Results varied depending on the task but generally indicated that strategy training can be effective for integrative language tasks. Results are discussed in terms of implications for teaching and future research.
Article
A questionnaire relating to presumed good learning behaviors was administered to 37 students enrolled in an eight-week intensive course in English as a second language in preparation for graduate study in the United States. The answers to the self-report questionnaire were classified according to the students' cultural background (Asian versus Hispanic) and field of specialization (professional engineering/science versus social science/humanities) and related to gains on four English language proficiency measures: linguistic competence; auditory comprehension; overall oral proficiency; and communicative competence, conceptualized here primarily as the ability to convey information. Analyses indicated that while the Asian subjects engaged in fewer of the assumed “good” learning behaviors than the Hispanics, they tended to make greater gains in linguistic competence and communicative competence. On the other hand, the Hispanic students made more progress in overall oral proficiency and in auditory comprehension. Examination of the relationships between specific behaviors and second language learning gains revealed an interesting split: Some behaviors were associated with conscious learning, while others were related to acquisition and gains in general communicative competence. Results indicate that caution in prescribing good learning behaviors is warranted. Considerable further research is needed to explain which behaviors are helpful for learners at various levels and to relate these behaviors to current second language learning theories.
Article
This is a report on several aspects of a research study designed to investigate the learning strategies in oral communication employed by Chinese EFL students in the People's Republic of China. Sixty graduating (fourth year) English majors in a tertiary level language institute were given an oral test as well as learning strategies questionnaire. In order to obtain more in-depth information, interviews were done with the ten highest and nine lowest achievers on the oral communication test. The results support the critical role of functional practice in language learning as previously suggested in Bialystok (1978, 1979). Reading practice also stood out as the most significant predictor of oral proficiency when examined along with speaking and listening practice.
Article
A study investigating the learning strategies in oral communication used by Chinese students of English as a second language in China consisted of identification of the general strategies and specific techniques for improving oral proficiency, and assessment of the effects of some of them on achievement. It also explored some learner characteristics believed to affect learning strategies and techniques. Sixty graduating English major students at Guangzhou Foreign Languages Institute completed a strategies questionnaire and were given an oral test designed to evaluate their communicative abilities. The ten highest and nine lowest achievers in oral communication, as determined by the oral measure, were interviewed to obtain more information about the learners, especially their personal insights about their learning processes and strategies. The results yielded a large number of strategies and techniques characteristic of successful learning. Statistical analyses demonstrated that a certain number of them are critical for the improvement of oral proficiency. These findings confirmed several good learner strategies suggested by the Rubin-Stern-Naiman inventories. In addition, the interview findings revealed some idiosyncratic behavior patterns that seriously affected language learning and also demonstrated the complexity and individuality of the foreign language learning process. (MSE)
Article
A study of learning strategies in second language learning, of both English and other languages, presents a theory of the role learning strategies play and uses it to examine specific studies and to integrate research results. The research and theory described here are based on a cognitive information processing perspective of human thought and action, viewing language as a complex cognitive skill that can be described within the context of cognitive theory. An introductory chapter introduces some early studies on learning strategies in second language learning, and related theoretical background. This is followed by a rationale for cognitively-based theory in second language acquisition, and application of cognitive theory to a set of prevalent constructs emerging in the second language learning literature. Drawing on this theoretical foundation, methods of research on learning strategies, particularly collection of data, are then discussed. Four studies of strategies used by second language learners are analyzed, and conclusions are drawn. The issue of instructing learners in the use of learning strategies is addressed in a separate chapter, with reference made to two related studies. Finally, instructional models and materials for teaching learning strategies are outlined. A glossary and substantial bibliography are included. (MSE)
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concerned with CpS [compensatory strategies] as used by Dutch learners of English co-operative strategies (the learner asks the listener for help) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study was designed to (a) identify the range, type, and frequency of learning strategy use by beginning and intermediate level ESL students and (b) determine the types of language tasks with which the strategies tend to be associated. Students at beginning and intermediate levels in English proficiency were interviewed in small groups to determine the strategies used to assist in learning each of a number of language tasks: pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, following directions, listening, making a brief presentation in class, social communication, and functional communication (e.g., applying for a job). In addition, ESL and other teachers of limited English proficient students were interviewed to detect their familiarity with student use of strategies, and to determine whether or not they introduced strategies to their students during instruction. Findings indicated that (a) strategies could be classified into three broad categories—metacognitive, cognitive, and social mediating strategies, (b) students tended to use strategies most often with less complex language tasks, (c) strategies students used most often tended to require little cognitive processing of the learning materials, and (d) teachers were generally unaware of students' strategies and rarely introduced strategies while teaching.
Article
The principles of the communicative approach to language learning and teaching foster the use of appropriate, positive learning strategies. Communicative principles and learning strategies, in combination, have powerful implications for the language classroom.
Article
A model of second language learning is proposed which attempts to account for discrepancies both in individual achievement and achievement in different aspects of second language learning. The model outlines aspects of the input of information through various kinds of exposure to the language, the storage of that information for the language learner, and the responses that are produced as a function of the stored information. The operation of the model is explained in terms of learning processes and learning strategies. The former refer to the obligatory relationships that hold between aspects of the model and are true for all second language learners. The latter describe a group of optional strategies that may be employed by different language learners and in different learning situations. Individual learner characteristics, such as language learning aptitude and attitude, affect the efficiency with which the processes will operate for an individual and the extent to which he will use the learning strategies. Illustrations are provided to explain how the model would account for performance on a number of different learning tasks.
Article
This paper summarizes the findings of a three year project which investigated the use of learning strategies by foreign language students and their teachers,1 and suggests specific classroom applications for learning strategy instruction. Three studies were conducted under this project: (a) a Descriptive Study, which identified learning strategies used in studying foreign languages, (b) a Longitudinal Study, which identified differences in the strategy use of effective and ineffective language learners and analyzed changes in strategy use over time, and (c) a Course Development Study, in which foreign language instructors taught students how to apply learning strategies. Classroom applications discussed in the paper include guidelines for developing students' metacognition and motivation through the identification and discussion of their existing language learning strategies, and techniques for modeling and practicing additional strategies that can help students become more effective and independent language learners.
Article
This study is the largest scale project ever conducted in Hong Kong concerning the learning of English vocabulary by Cantonese speakers. The aims of the project were threefold: (a) to find out the vocabulary size of the tertiary students and whether they need help with academic vocabulary, (b) to identify the strategies that are conducive to learning vocabulary in general and the strategies that are especially useful for learning high– and low–frequency words in particular, and (c) to look at the discrepancies among the frequency of use, the perceived usefulness, and the actual usefulness of vocabulary strategies. The participants in the study included 1,067 students who had recently been offered places by the 7 local institutions of higher education. A vocabulary test and a vocabulary learning strategy questionnaire were used for data collection. Whereas in an earlier work (Fan, 2001) the author reported the findings in relation to the first aim, this article focuses on the findings for the second and third aims. ANOVA and Multiple Regression were employed for data analysis. The results of the study shed light not only on the strategy profile of the Hong Kong learners in general but also on the complexity involved in strategy use. Strategies relevant to the learning of L2 vocabulary as well as high– and low–frequency words are identified, and their implications are thoroughly discussed.
Article
This article addresses two questions: What strategies do good language learners use? What factors affect choice of language learning strategies? To answer these questions, the author reviews and synthesizes existing research on language learning strategies, including a number of new and unpublished studies.
Article
The mathematics problem solving approaches of a group of elementary and secondary ESL students were investigated through a performance assessment accompanied by think-aloud procedures. Students were enrolled in ESL mathematics classes in a Title VII project implementing the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA). In this approach, curriculum content is used to develop academic language and learning strategies are taught explicitly to increase students metacognitive awareness and to facilitate their learning of both content and language. Participating teachers were identified either as high implementation teachers (extensive involvement in staff development and other project activities) or low implementation teachers (limited involvement in project activities). The study was designed to identify learning and problem solving strategies of students at high, average and low mathematics achievement levels, and to compare strategic approaches of students in high implementation and low implementation classrooms. The results indicated that significantly more students in high implementation classrooms were able to solve the problem correctly than were students in low implementation classrooms. As expected, students rated high in math performance also performed significantly better on finding the correct problem solution. Of greater interest was the finding that there were no differences in the actual number 1 2 Bilingual Research Journal, 16:3&4, Summer/Fall 1992 of problem solving steps used by students in the two implementation levels, but that significant differences for high implementation classrooms were found for correct sequence of problem solving steps, which has been featured in instruction in the high implementation classrooms. This seemed to indicate that ex...
Strategies of two language learners: A case study
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The Good Lnaguage Learner. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
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Review of language learning strategy research and its implications
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