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Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups

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The customs, traditions, beliefs, roles and relationships have social interaction as their scenario. This implies certain patters of behavior and thought that individuals have learned from established structures such as the family, friends, the community, institutions, etc.; all these are created and grounded on a culture and expressed in its objective and subjective constructs. From this logic, Diaz Guerrero (1995) established that individuals must be understood within their primary referential frame, that is, their group. Hence the role performed by culture in molding the personality of individuals is essential to understand their being and their relations with individuals from other cultures. The manner in which each individual builds up this cultural individuality is based on the notions of Diaz Guerrero (1994b) who claims that culture may be seen as "the condensation of all the aspects which are part of the learning process of individuals in society, the customs which make up the traditions of each group, and the concepts held by individuals about the 'what and how' of culture as premises"; or as defined by Triandis (1994) "the part of his environment shaped by humans"; it is through this interaction that an individual emerges within a particular physical environment where a culture determining the social environment in which individuals learn to relate to those around them is created (see Figure 1). Figure 1 Elements that determine social conduct (Triandis, 1994) The first research on the influence of culture in the personality may be traced back to the psychoanalytical approaches of Jung (1925) who thought that culture consisted of Ecology Culture Socialization Personality Social Conduct 5.3
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Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
281
MEXICAN PERSONALITY TYPES INVENTORY:
VALIDITY AND DIFFERENCES AMONG GROUPS
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
The customs, traditions, beliefs, roles and relationships have social interaction as
their scenario. This implies certain patters of behavior and thought that individuals have
learned from established structures such as the family, friends, the community,
institutions, etc.; all these are created and grounded on a culture and expressed in its
objective and subjective constructs. From this logic, Diaz Guerrero (1995) established
that individuals must be understood within their primary referential frame, that is, their
group.
Hence the role performed by culture in molding the personality of individuals is
essential to understand their being and their relations with individuals from other
cultures. The manner in which each individual builds up this cultural individuality is
based on the notions of Diaz Guerrero (1994b) who claims that culture may be seen as
“the condensation of all the aspects which are part of the learning process of individuals
in society, the customs which make up the traditions of each group, and the concepts
held by individuals about the what and how’ of culture as premises”; or as defined by
Triandis (1994) “the part of his environment shaped by humans”; it is through this
interaction that an individual emerges within a particular physical environment where a
culture determining the social environment in which individuals learn to relate to those
around them is created (see Figure 1).
Figure 1
Elements that determine social conduct (Triandis, 1994)
The first research on the influence of culture in the personality may be traced back
to the psychoanalytical approaches of Jung (1925) who thought that culture consisted of
Ecology
Culture
Socialization
Personality
Social Conduct
5.3
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
282
archetypes shared on a general and particular basis, and that depending on these
combinations cultural singularities were created.
One of the most recent researches on personality derived from this perspective is
that of Myers-Briggs (cit. Baron, 1998) on the four socio-cultural criteria for the
formation of personality. These authors retake Jung’s archetypes of Extraversion-
Introversion, Sensing-Intuition and Thinking-Feeling adding a fourth criterion called
Judging-Perceiving that determine the way in which an individual assimilated the
information and energy coming from the external world to internalize it and become
his/her way of seeing and living in the world thus making up his/her personality. These
criteria are seen in different cultural settings, since Jung's approach (1925) refers to
“universally” shared psychological aspects.
This approach, then, considers that the personality of an individual –and its study-
must be contextualized within a particular socio-cultural group which allows for the
possibility of comparing it with other cultural groups, as already carried out by Costa
and McCrae (1985) with their five main factors. However, the need to do this from an
ethnopsychological approach and specifically for Mexican people, was a starting point
for Diaz Guerrero (1994b).
MEXICAN ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY
During the 70s Diaz Guerrero advanced that man should be understood from his
biological, social and economic determining factors; in this way his individual
development could be explained. Based on this Diaz Guerrero stated in 1994 that
ethnopsychology is the study to find out the psychological particularities of individuals
living in a certain culture, for instance, the Mexican culture.
This perspective became a guideline to establish more formally the study of the so-
called Psychology of Mexicans which makes up a personality typology of Mexicans
based on the anthropological studies of culture, attitudes, socio-cultural norms and
character.
The idea of the Mexican types is the result of a research conducted by Diaz
Guerrero on the features of the Mexican culture and its beliefs. Thus, during the
development of these studies it was found that one of the foundations of Mexican
culture was a number of popular sayings and proverbs which governed the behavior and
way of being of persons. From this the so-called Historical-Socio-Cultural Premises
(HSCPs) of the Mexican Family were created. These core units of interpersonal reality,
as defined by Diaz Guerrero, have the characteristic of being understandable, valid, and
specific to the reference group, so that they may mold the interpersonal behavior of
Mexicans.
Moreover, these HSCPs may be reinforced by each individual when they represent
an emotional, economic or social benefit for individuals. Furthermore, their influence
may be curbed by genetic, learning, or development deficiencies which may impair their
assimilation. The role of HSCPs has, as initially discussed, an impact on the personality
of the individual creating very particular psychological predispositions that will make
an individual a characteristic being belonging to his/her reference group.
These findings promoted the interest for persons of other cultures on these
premises resulting in the joint work of Holtzman et al. (1975) which found the existence
of some character and behavior contrasts between Mexicans and Americans. These data
and the information show there are particular characteristics of Mexicans which are not
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
283
found in the same manner in other cultures (i.e., respect); these studies, however,
were limited to HSCPs and beliefs, and therefore, the specific analysis of the cultural
personality was not included.
MEXICAN TYPES
Retaking the basic notions of ethnopsychology and the findings that had identified
the particularityin personality termsof Mexicans at that time, they pointed the way
to create a typology that considered variations and similarities among members of such
cultural group. Therefore, Diaz Guerrero identifies eight types of personality:
Passive Affiliative Obedient type (affectionate)
Self-affirming Rebellious type
Active Internal Control type
Passive External Control type
Passive Cautious type
Active Daring type
Active Autonomous type, and
Passive Interdependent type
Worth mentioning is that these types may be pure or a combination of others.
Likewise, it is necessary to say that from these, four are the most common and
representative of the population. In his typology Diaz Guerrero advanced a series of
hypothesis on the personality of each prototype in different stages of their physical
development. Thus, he described these prototypes at 12 and 18 years old. Below is their
description (see Table 1):
Table 1
Typology of Mexicans (Diaz Guerrero, 1994b)
Passive Affiliative Obedient Type
This type of Mexican seems to be the most common and representative of the Mexican culture, particularly in
urban areas, and in Southern and Central Mexico. The subjects with this predominant type are found more
frequently also in lower classes, women and in younger individuals.
They are characterized for being obedient, affectionate, orderly, neat, disciplined and not very assertive;
passive and peaceful along with the fact that they perceive time as passing slowly.
These personality characteristics, however, are by election, which is highly related to the forms of education
of the Mexican culture, since as it was said before, the individual is not as important as the group, this type has
a low need for autonomy due to the fact that the emotional safety needed by the individual is provided by
his/her reference group, and therefore, an internal control. Furthermore, according to the psychoanalytical
perspective, this gives individuals a strong sense of Self in their psychic development. For this reason they
tend to be conformist and obliging, so that they may be nice and acceptable to the group.
Self-Affirming and Rebellious Character
This type of Mexican is described as the most common in the middle and high classes of society, and is
widely found in teenagers. They are characterized for being strongly independent, and they are often
individuals that challenge and argue the orders they are given; they are also dominating. They get easily angry
and tend to get their own way; they may show features that could be very negative, such as being revengeful,
quarrelsome, irritable and tend to go against the opinions of others.
Other attitudes may be very positive such as their liking to be leaders and their independent and autonomous
nature, even though they are persons whose rebellious, disorganized and moody character tend to muddle and
cut their efforts short.
Active Internal Control Type
This type seems to include in itself the most outstanding characteristics of Mexicans, and is not usually found
in the traditional culture, as stated by Diaz Guerrero (1994
b
). They have a wealth of internal resources as they
seem to enjoy of an internal freedom which allows them to adapt themselves to the best of culture. However,
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
284
it is not a common type compared to the other two. It is found mostly in men or in members of affluent and
city-dwelling families.
These persons are characterized for being capable, affectionate, orderly, obedient, polite, brilliant as regards
their vocabulary, speed and understanding of texts; courteous and responsible, and avoid exaggeration and
negative thinking. Usually they are not irritable, quarrelsome or rude; they do not get angry easily and dislike
hurting others.
Passive External Control Type
This type is exactly the opposite of the previous one, and epitomizes the worst features of Mexican culture.
Since they are 12 years old these individuals are uncontrolled, aggressive, impulsive, and pessimistic. These
same characteristics make them be persons who are particularly rebellious and disobedient; they are often
more irritable and have more tendencies to anger than other Mexican Types . They are lawless and not well-
groomed as they have a noticeable lack of interest in their physical appearance.
They may be described as a weathervane controlled by the environment, since their behavior, thoughts,
affections, and decisions are constantly altered by the events around them. Moreover, one of their
characteristics is they are prone to corruption.
According to this typology, these personalities are representative of the culture and
seem to be found within certain groups. For instance, the Passive Affiliative Obedient
Type is more typical among women and children, and also in the lower socioeconomic
classes, perhaps due to their attachment to the Mexican culture. The Self-Affirming
Rebellious type is more common in the middle and high class, and also among
teenagers and men, probably because at this age a rebellious attitude is more natural and
stereotyped and these are highly masculine features.
The Active Internal Control and Passive External Control types are not reported as
more common in some socio-economic classes or gender. The first type, however, is
considered as more common at a higher educational level as compared to the Passive
External Control type. This last one, due to its similarities to the Self-Affirming
Rebellious type, may be assumed to be more common in men.
Once the Mexican Types have been established and defined, it is indispensable
now to have a comparative analysis with other personality models in a cross-cultural
setting (see Table 2).
Table 2
Models of authors and dimensions of Personality
Psychoanalytical
(Eysenck, 1986)
Cross-cultural
(Hofsede, 1980)
Five Factors
(Costa & McCrae, 1985;
McCrae & Costa, 1987)
Ethnopsychology
(Diaz-Guerrero, 1989;
LaRosa & Diaz Loving,
1988)
Psychosis vs. Control of
Impulses
Aggressive, egocentric,
impersonal, creative,
hard, antisocial,
impulsive.
Disparity of Power
(Degree to which masses
accept that power is
distributed unequally)
1. Extroversion-Introversion
(Talkative-silent, social-
antisocial, daring-cautious)
1. Affiliative Social
Courteous-rude, polite-
impolite, decent-indecent
Extroversion-
Introversion
Sociable, assertive,
vivacious, seeks
adventurous, sensations,
active, unconcerned,
effusive, dominant
Acceptance of uncertainty
(degree of threat of
ambiguous situations, and
the creation of institutions
and beliefs to avoid it)
2. Pleasant-Unpleasant
(good mood-irritable,
cooperative-negativism,
jealous-non jealous)
2. Primary Emotional
Sad-happy, depressed-
content, bitter-lively
Neurosis- Stability
Anxious, depressed,
feelings of guilt, low
self-esteem, tense,
irrational, moody, shy,
emotional.
Individualism-
Collectivism
(The concept of oneself as
“Me” or as “We”)
3. Conscientious-Impulsive
(Responsible-irresponsible,
persevering-changeable,
fussy-careless, fastidious-
non fastidious
3. Social Expressive
Silent-talkative,
introverted-extroverted,
solitary-friendly
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
285
Masculinity-Femininity
(M-values: Success,
money, possessions. F-
values: Love for others,
quality of life)
4. Calm-anxious
(Serene-nervous, tense;
balanced-excitable,
hypochondriac-non
hypochondriac
4. Emotional
Interpersonal
Romantic-indifferent,
loving-cold, tender-rude.
5. Open Intellectually and
Sensitively Closed
(Imaginative-simple, direct;
intellectual-non reflexive,
square; refined-rude)
5.Occupational
Responsible-irresponsible,
punctual-non punctual,
dependable-not
dependable
6. Third
EmotionalImpulsive-
reflexive, temperamental-
calm
7. Ethical:
Honest-dishonest, loyal-
disloyal
8. With initiative
Active-Passive, fearful-
daring
9. Openness Accessible-
non accessible, amiable-
unsociable
It is clear that all these theories have the potential to describe general personalities
of individuals. Diaz Guerrero’s proposal, however, is particularly relevant since it is a
starting point to explore more deeply the personality of Mexicans, which would in turn
generate a cross-cultural research comparable to similar groups or not, such as Costa
and McCrae’s (1985). Likewise, the fact that this proposal comes from a collectivist
society makes it different to other approaches. For instance, in the case of this
classification of personality, characteristics such as machismo and affiliation have not
been included in other approaches to the study of personality, and are essential,
particularly in Mexico.
Worth mentioning at this point is that the typology of the Mexican Types advanced
in 1979 has not been operationalized despite the fact that it represents a basic guide to
understanding the Mexican people. Due to this the main objective of this research is the
clear measuring of the types proposed by Diaz Guerrero and exploring the possible
differences in men and women, in persons of different ages and levels of education.
METHOD
Objectives
(a) Design and validate a tool to evaluate the types of personality of Mexicans. (b)
Identify to which extent each type of Mexican resulting from the analyzed sample are
found. (c) Explore any possible differences depending on the gender, level of education
and age of each type of Mexican individual.
Justification
Considering that it was in 1994
b
when Diaz Guerrero published his Psychology of
Mexicans, a book that proposes the types of personality of Mexican individuals as an
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
286
approach to a pattern of cultural behavior, it is relevant and of ethnopsychological
interest to consider this proposal from a psychometric point of view by which the
Mexican Types s may be identified through a certain measure opening the possibility in
this way to study more widely and deeply the psychology of Mexicans.
Participants
The sample was of a non-probabilistic accidental type by quota (Hernandez
Sampieri, 2002) consisting of 325 participants, who had to be Mexican to be included in
the study. As regards their characteristics, participants were:
Gender: 162 Mexican men and 163 Mexican women.
Age: Ranging from 17 to 73 years old, and an average of 32.23 years old.
Marital Status: Mostly single (56%), followed by married (28%), free union
(10.2%), divorced (3.4%) and widows (1.8%).
Educational Level: Mostly professional (59.7%), followed by High School
(18.5%), Junior High School (9.2%), Elementary School (5.5%), and Postgraduate
studies (4.9%).
Design of study
This was a descriptive, field, cross-sectional study which intends to validate a
measure designed to evaluate the Mexican Types advanced by Diaz Guerrero (1994b),
in addition to find the differences in the sample according to the variables.
Measure
For this research, as there were no prior tools on the typology of Mexicans, it was
decided to develop a scale that could meet our purposes. Therefore, a scale with a
Semantic Differential form was developed in which participants answered the following
questions: How much did they consider to have one or other characteristic, based on the
five answers which ranged from Very to Not at all. This test consisted of 79 pairs of
adjectives taken from the theoretical descriptions advanced by Diaz Guerrero (1994
b
) on
each type of Mexican.
Procedure
The procedure consisted of a compilation of the sample and the application of
tools. To this end, people were sent to public parks, schools, universities, school for
adult people, hospitals, and other public places in Mexico City to request randomly the
participation of some individuals in this study if they met the requirements of the
sample.
Analysis of the results: To obtain a valid and reliable measure an analysis was
made of frequencies to know the degree of discrimination of reactive elements, a factor
analysis to identify the components of the test, a Cornbach’s Alpha reliability test to
know the degree of stability of the test and its dimensions, and finally a variance
analysis to seek for differences and/or similarities among groups.
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
287
RESULTS
To analyze the Mexican Types Scale the first step was to explore the discriminative
power of the designed reactive elements, eliminating those presenting scores near the
mean values. A factorial analysis of the main components was then conducted with a
Varimax-type orthogonal rotation. From this last analysis 11 factors were obtained
which accounted for 57.51% of the variance, grouping the 52 most representative
characteristics of the Mexican Types s according to the typology proposed by Diaz
Guerrero (1994b); furthermore, reliability analyses of each Cronbach's Alpha factors
were carried out with results ranging from .52 to .85 (see Table 3).
Table 3
Factors of the Mexicans Types Inventory
Factor TM1
α = .85
Factor TM2
α = .80
Factor TM3
α = .73
Orderly
.895
Impulsive
.795
Liar
.745
Organized
.831
Grumpy
.719
Corrupt
.715
Disciplined
.696
Impatient
.675
Self-Centered
.604
Responsible
.624
Fickle
.623
Opportunist
.586
Neat
.586
Rough
.507
Macho
.473
Optimistic
.375
Quarrelsome
.503
Revengeful
.500
Factor TM4
α = .75
Factor TM5
α = .71
Factor TM6
α = .82
Reflexive
.758
Manageable
.698
Self-Sufficient
.776
Perceptive
.720
Governable
.689
Autonomous
.730
Sensitive
.670
Dominated
.678
Independent
.712
Good at Planning
.608
Self-Sacrificing
.614
Free
.492
Cautious
.372
Passive
.532
Factor TM7
α = .73
Factor TM8
α = .61
Factor TM9
α = .75
Sociable
.663
Polite
.699
Studious
.697
Adaptable
.609
Courteous
.591
Successful
.618
Determined
.568
Assertive
.451
Enterprising
.449
Self-Confident
.521
Bold
.443
Intelligent
.369
Protective
.425
Factor TM10
α = .58
Factor TM11
α = .52
Kind
.797
Threatening
.741
Adventurous
.444
Hostile
.483
Well-Accepted
.407
Affectionate
-.452
Since the original approach considered four types and some of the factors showed a
certain similarity among them or defined the same type according to Diaz Guerrero, it
was decided to conduct a second order factorial analysis to find more clear groups
linked to the original theory. This analysis showed three factors with a value above 1
which accounted for 60.18% of the variance. The stability values were calculated
subsequently and .72 and .90 Alpha values were obtained (see Table 4).
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
288
Table 4
Second Order Factorial Analysis
Internal Active
Control (IAC)
α = .91
External Passive
Control (PEC)
α = .82
Passive Obedient
(PO)
α = .72
TM1
.647
TM2
.809
TM5
.863
TM4
.589
TM3
.785
TM6
.718
TM11
.764
TM7
.748
TM8
.725
TM9
.779
TM10
.692
In this way, the first factor obtained reflected the characteristics proposed for the
Internal Active Control (IAC) type, which includes the following characteristics:
orderly, organized, disciplined, responsible, neat, optimistic, self-sufficient,
autonomous, independent, free, sociable, adaptable, determined, self-confident,
reflexive, perceptive, sensitive, good at planning, cautious, studious, successful,
enterprising, intelligent, kind, adventurous, well-accepted, polite, courteous, assertive,
bold and protective.
The second factor included factors 2, 3 and 11, which showed a series of negative
features particular to the Passive External Control (PEC) type which described
individuals that are impulsive, grumpy, impatient, fickle, rough, quarrelsome,
revengeful, liar, corrupt, self-centered, opportunist, macho, threatening, hostile, and
non-affectionate.
While for the third factor, only factor 5 reflected the Passive Obedient (PO) type,
the type of personality that is manageable, governable, dominated, self-sacrificing, and
passive.
As regards the magnitude of the Mexican Types, a predominance of IAC type was
obtained, followed by PEC, and finally PO (see Table 5).
Table 5
Mexicans Types Frequencies
Mean
DS
Internal Active Control
3.9
.483
Passive External Control
2.5
.690
Passive Obedient
2.3
.763
Another objective of this study was to look for statistically significant differences
in the Mexican Types resulting from characteristics such as gender and age.
Thus, for the gender variable it was found that women tend to show more the IAC
type of personality, while for the PEC men usually have more the negative
characteristics of being quarrelsome, corrupt, rough, etc. For type PO, no statistically
significant differences were found that indicate if men or women are more self-
sacrificing, passive and subject to manipulation (see Table 6).
Table 6
Differences by Gender in the Mexican Types
Gender
N
Mean
F
Internal Active Control
Males
Females
127
125
3.83
3.98
7.33***
Passive External Control
Males
Females
127
125
2.83
2.36
36.67***
Passive Obedient
Males
Females
127
125
2.32
2.19
n.s.
Note: *** p < .001
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
289
To find out the impact that age may have on each type of Mexican, subjects were
divided by age in three equivalent groups: 1) 17 to 23 years old, 2) 24 to 37 years old,
and 3) 38 to 73 years old. In this way, young people, adults and senior individuals were
evaluated. Interestingly enough, data show that there were no statistically significant
differences, but a similarity among age groups in the Mexican Types (see Table 7).
Table 7
Differences by Age in the Mexican Types
Age Group
N
Mean
Internal Active Control
17-23 years
24-37 years
38-73 years
99
79
77
3.86
3.95
3.87
Passive External Control
17-23 years
24-37 years
38-73 years
99
79
77
2.52
2.32
2.41
Passive Obedient
17-23 years
24-37 years
38-73 years
99
79
77
2.30
2.24
2.25
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
The initial objective of this study consisted of creating a reliable and valid measure
to evaluate the four types of personality of Mexican individuals which allowed us to
know the relevance and applicability of the Psychology of Mexicans within the scope of
their culture to be compared to others. It was thus necessary to create a test to measure
this typology of personality as it represents an icon in ethnopsychology and in
psychology at large, which, it might be said, was achieved since a reliable and valid test
was found that identified three of the Mexican Types described by Diaz Guerrero
(1994b): the Internal Active Control (IAC), the Passive External Control (PEC) and the
Passive Obedient (PO).
The first one shows a Mexican who possesses many positive elements of the
human being, which allows us to compare it, to a certain degree, with Maslow’s self-
actualized human being (1954) This Mexican combines exceptionally organization,
discipline and responsibility with sensibility, autonomy, self-confidence and
assertiveness with courtesy; and the ability to plan and being reflexive with an
adventurous trait. In words of Diaz Guerrero: “this type of personality has the most
positive aspects of Mexican culture, as it avoids exaggerations and its negative
elements...”
The second factor in turn shows the individual that due to his/her impulses and
poor handling of his/her emotions gets angry easily, is moody, quarrelsome, revengeful,
corrupt, opportunist, liar, threatening, and hostile. It seems that this type of Mexican
even includes the negative traits of the Self-Affirming and Rebellious type, but without
its intellectual skills, which makes it the “black sheep” of our culture (Diaz Guerrero,
1994b).
The third factor is the Obedient and Passive, but not Affiliative, so that he/she is
simply a follower, a soft and timid personality that is easy to be manipulated, governed,
dominated, self-sacrificing and passive.
In the second order analysis only three of these types were found and this may
suggest that the Self-Affirming and Rebellious type has disappeared in the culture with
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez & Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon
290
time. This conclusion, however, would be rather hasty since two significant aspects on
Diaz Guerrero's (1994b) original approach about these typologies have been overlooked:
(1) types are not archetypes or determining factors that may mix among them, and (2)
some types are apparently more common than others in some genders, stages of life,
socio-economic levels, etc.
Thus we could assume that perhaps the Self-Affirming and Rebellious (SAR) type
of Mexican was not found in this study due to the characteristics of the sample, because
Diaz Guerrero (1994b) original approach proposed that this type was more common
among teenagers, and the sample's age range did not include this period. However,
along this same line of thought, it was claimed that the Passive Obedient type was more
commonly found in children, women and individuals with a low educational level,
which was confirmed in the variance analyses that were undertaken.
Diaz Guerrero (1994b) also mentioned that the PO type was the most common in
culture and that it related to the agreement of its individuals. However, the data showed
that the most common type was IAC, followed by PEC and finally PO; this may be due
to the fact that since types may sometimes depend on the age of individuals, one could
advance that just as PO is more common in childhood and SAR among teenagers, since
our sample consisted mainly of young and adult participants, they had also to evolve in
their cultural personality development. Therefore, they must choose between keep on
being obedient within their culture (continue to be PO), or rebel without any specific
cause, as teenagers do (become SAR). However, when they go into their youth and the
beginning of maturity they would have to choose between letting their rebelliousness go
(back to PO), follow the positive features of culture keeping their independence
(become IAC), or follow the negative aspects of culture (PEC). Nevertheless, to verify
this hypothesis it would be necessary to continue with other research which are
designed to evaluate age groups of children, teenagers, young people, and adults to
support these assumptions.
It is likely that this is why the most frequent types were IAC and PEC, since the
individuals had already made their decisions, or they had gone back to PO.
As regards the differences in the Mexican Types, contrary to the assumptions of
Diaz Guerrero (1994b), no difference was found due to age which seems to contradict
his theory. However, this may be due to the fact that there are no comparative age
groups which are very specific, and therefore, it would be advisable in further studies to
have a sample consisting of groups sorted by life stages that would allow for better
comparisons and identify any possible difference.
As regards differences due to gender, it was not possible to confirm the approach
on a higher predominance of PO in women. Whereas for IAC and PEC types, which the
theory proposed it was not possible to establish if more women or men presented them,
differences were actually found.
For the IAC type, the mean was higher among women, while PEC was more
common in men. In the first case, the studies conducted on HSCPs with women (Diaz
Guerrero, 1974) showed that even though they are still found in culture, social changes
have allowed women to rebel against authority elements that used to put them down, so
that they now have a different independence which would be expressed in a higher
tendency toward IAC as a cultural evolution. On the other hand, the PEC type is found
more commonly among men due to the cultural demands of machismo (Diaz Guerrero,
2000a) by which they have to be strong, macho. An improper understanding of this type
could turn it more into a trend to negative traits.
In the case of the similarities found by age groups, it may be said that this finding
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
291
is not supported by the theoretical assumptions of Diaz Guerrero (1994b) who
speaks about differences due to development stages (a variable often related to age).
This may be due to the fact that this study used persons with wider age ranges than
those on which the original assumptions were made.
For the age variable, the first idea was to divide the age range in three different
groups: The first one with participants 17 to 23 years old; the second one, 24 to 37 years
old, and the third one, 38 to 73 years old. In this way, young people, adults and senior
individuals were evaluated. No statistically significant differences were found in any
type of Mexican (see Table 7).
Worth mentioning is that this is a pioneer study, as it was already said that Diaz
Guerrero (1994a) made only theoretical assumptions based on other anthropological,
cross-cultural studies which revealed data within a certain socio-cultural context which
had to be evaluated before being compared to other groups. Therefore, turning this
qualitative research into a quantitative one will allow seeing the influence of culture in
the formation of personality (Holtzman et al., 1975). This is a field that is to be
examined not only in Mexican culture, but in other specific socio-cultural environments.
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Baron, R. (1998) What type am I? The Myers-Briggs Type indication. USA: Penguin
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Psychological Assesment Resources, Inc.
Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1974) La mujer y las premisas historico socio-culturales de la
familia mexicana. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia. 6 (1), pp 7-16.
Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1989) Una etnopsicologia mexicana. Ciencia y Desarrollo. 15 (86),
pp 69-35.
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a
). Etnopsicologia: Scientia Nova. Republica Dominicana:
Corripio
Diaz Guerrero, R. (1994
b
) Psicologia del Mexicano; Mexico: Trillas
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Latinoamericana de Psicologia, Vol. 27 (3), pp 359-389.
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a
) La evolucion del Machismo, Revista de Psicologia
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b
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292
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Social Psychology.
APPENDIX
Mexican Personality Types Inventory
I am
Very Self-Sacrificing
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Self-Sacrificing
Very Well-Accepted
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Well-Accepted
Very Adaptable
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Adaptable
Very Affectionate
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Affectionate
Very Kind
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Kind
Very Threatening
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Threatening
Very Assertive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Assertive
Very Bold
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Bold
Very Autonomous
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Autonomous
Very Self-Sufficient
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Self-Sufficient
Very Adventurous
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Adventurous
Very Cautious
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Cautious
Very Self-Centered
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Self-Centered
Very Corrupt
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Corrupt
Very Courteous
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Courteous
Very Determined
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Determined
Very Disciplined
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Disciplined
Very Dominated
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Dominated
Very Polite
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Polite
Very Enterprising
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Enterprising
Very Grumpy
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Grumpy
Very Studious
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Studious
Very Successful
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Successful
Very Governable
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Governable
Very Hostile
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Hostile
Very Impatient
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Impatient
Very Impulsive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Impulsive
Very Independent
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Independent
Very Intelligent
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Intelligent
Mexican Personality Types Inventory: Validity and Differences among Groups
293
Very Irritable
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Irritable
Very Free
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Free
Very Neat
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Neat
Very Macho
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Macho
Very Manageable
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Manageable
Very Liar
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Liar
Very Opportunist
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Opportunist
Very Optimistic
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Optimistic
Very Orderly
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Orderly
Very Organized
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Organized
Very Passive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Passive
Very Quarrelsome
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Quarrelsome
Very Perceptive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Perceptive
Very Good at Planning
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Good at Planning
Very Protective
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Protective
Very Reflexive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Reflexive
Very Responsible
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Responsible
Very Self-Confident
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Self-Confident
Very Sensitive
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Sensitive
Very Sociable
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Sociable
Very Rough
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Rough
Very Revengeful
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Revengeful
Very Fickle
______
______
______
______
______
Not at all Fickle
AUTHORS
Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez, Social and Clinical Psychologist, Research Assistant,
Department of Social Psychology; National Autonomous University of Mexico. Recife
550-1. Col. Churubusco Tepeyac. Del. Gustavo A. Madero Mexico, Distrito Federal C.
P. 07730. E-mail: luzmacruz@gmail.com or arale_luzma@hotmail.com.
Rozzana Sanchez-Aragon, Ph.D., Professor, Department of Psychology, National
Autonomous University of Mexico. Mexico City, Mexico. Email: rozzara@servidor.
unam.mx.
Correspondence should be addressed to Luz Maria Cruz-Martinez.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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Este artículo recapitula varias décadas de teoría e investigación que han llevado al desarrollo de la disciplina de la Etnopsicología. Los primeros estudios se fundamentaron en las complejas unidades culturales denominadas premisas histórico-socioculturales (PHSCs) que se presentaban a los sujetos como reactivos (ítems) de cuestionarios. Para 1972 ya se tenían escalas factoriales de PHSCs. Con fácilmente interpretables diferencias en media aritmética,las calificaciones en estas escalas permanecían constantes a través de gran número de variables incluyendo la edad, el sexo (género), la educación, la clase socioeconómica, la región geográfica, el tiempo y la etnicidad a través de México. El teorizar, incluyendo una revisión del modelo psicológico de la causalidad, coexistió con la investigación de campo. El descubrimiento de que las calificaciones con las PHSCs correlacionaban con un gran número de variables psicológicas, sociales y económicas, posibilitó una teoría de la personalidad. Esta emergería de una dialéctica perenne entre los mandatos de la cultura y las necesidades biopsíquicas de los individuos en el marco de ecosistemas conductuales específicos y/o hábitats. Ya para entonces, principios de los 80s, psicólogos jóvenes, altamente entrenados, buscaban reproducir en México dimensiones sociales y de la personalidad de los países industrializados. En ocasiones tuvieron éxito, en otras sólo a medias y en otras fracasaron. A esto siguió una intensa pesquisa de dimensiones sociales y de la personalidad local y varias han sido descubiertas. Con dimensiones culturales, sociales y de la personalidad vernáculas y sus intercorrelaciones a mano, se ha propuesto una etnopsicología, con postulados y metas.
Etnopsicologia: Scientia Nova Republica Dominicana b ) Psicologia del Mexicano Una aproximacion cientifica a la etnopsicologia
  • Diaz Guerrero
  • R Corripio Diaz Guerrero
Diaz Guerrero, R. (1994 a ). Etnopsicologia: Scientia Nova. Republica Dominicana: Corripio Diaz Guerrero, R. (1994 b ) Psicologia del Mexicano; Mexico: Trillas Diaz Guerrero, R. (1995) Una aproximacion cientifica a la etnopsicologia, Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia, Vol. 27 (3), pp 359-389.
Culture consequences: International differences in work-related values. California: Sage
  • G Hofstede
  • W H Holtzman
  • R Diaz Guerrero
  • J D Swartz
  • L Lara Tapa
  • L Larosa
  • M L Morales
  • Reyes Lagunas
  • I Witzke
Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture consequences: International differences in work-related values. California: Sage Holtzman, W. H.; Diaz Guerrero, R.; Swartz, J. D.; Lara Tapa, L.; LaRosa, L.; Morales, M. L; Reyes Lagunas, I. y Witzke, D. (1975) El desarrollo de la personalidad en dos culturas: Mexico y Estados Unidos. Mexico; Trillas.
What type am I? The Myers-Briggs Type indication
  • R Baron
Baron, R. (1998) What type am I? The Myers-Briggs Type indication. USA: Penguin Books.