Article

Reduction in behavior problems with omega-3 supplementation in children aged 8-16 years: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial

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Background While limited evidence suggests that omega-3 supplementation may reduce antisocial behavior in children, studies have not reported on posttreatment follow-up and most treatment periods have been of short duration. This study tests the hypothesis that omega-3 supplementation over 6 months will reduce behavior problems in children both at the end of treatment and at 6 months post treatment.Methods In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, parallel-group trial, a community sample of 8–16 year old children were randomized into a treatment group (N = 100) and a placebo-control group (N = 100). The supplementation consisted of a fruit drink containing 1 g/day of omega-3 or a placebo consisting of the same fruit drink without omega-3. Participants, caregivers, and research assistants were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome measures of externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were reported by both caregivers and their children in a laboratory setting at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment) and 12 months (6 months post treatment), together with the secondary outcome measures of parental antisocial behavior. Data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis including all participants. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02016079?term=mauritius&rank=2ResultsSignificant group × time interactions were observed with the treatment group showing long-term improvements in child behavior problems. The average posttreatment effect size was d = −.59. Effects were documented for parent reports, but with the exception of proactive and reactive aggression, child-report data were nonsignificant. Parents whose children took omega-3 showed significant posttreatment reductions in their own antisocial and aggressive behavior. This improvement in caregiver behavior partly mediated the improvements observed in child behavior.Conclusions Findings provide initial evidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. Results are the first to report improvements in caregiver behavior, and to establish this improvement as a part-mechanism for the efficacy of omega-3.

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... Correlational research has also shown that fish consumption has been negatively associated with cross-country homicide rates [4]. More recently, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown some evidence for the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation in reducing antisocial behavior [5,6]. One recent meta-analysis on the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation on aggressive behavior from 30 intervention studies reported an overall effect sizes of d = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.26, arguing that omega-3 can successfully reduce aggression and may be a viable intervention [7]. ...
... Treatment duration was six months. This duration was chosen to match that used in our prior studies [5,17] because prior treatment studies have usually been 2-4 months [16], and because a somewhat longer treatment period may be more effective in producing longer-term brain and behavioral change. The omega-3 drink was administered on the morning of each school-day by a research assistant, and by parents on weekends and school holidays. ...
... The primary hypothesis of this study, that omega-3 should reduce overall antisocial behavior, was supported for females but was not observed for males. These more mixed findings lie in contrast to prior omega-3 RCTs which have, taken together, shown somewhat stronger efficacy in reducing antisocial behavior in other countries [5,34,35]. In this context one cross-cultural difference should be considered. ...
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While some RCTs have observed efficacy for omega-3 supplementation in reducing antisocial behavior, the role of psychopathic personality and gender in moderating treatment outcome has not been examined. This study examines whether omega-3 supplementation reduces antisocial behavior, and whether any treatment effects are a function of gender and psychopathy. Three hundred and twenty-four schoolchildren with a mean age of 11.9 years were randomized into 3 groups: omega-3 (N = 108), placebo (N = 110), and no-treatment controls (N = 106). Parent and child reports of child antisocial and aggressive behavior and psychopathic-like personality were collected at 0 months (baseline), 6 months (end of treatment), and 12 months (6 months post-treatment). A group × time × gender interaction (p = .016) indicated that only females in the omega-3 group showed a significant reduction in antisocial behavior 6 months post-treatment compared to baseline (d = .35), whereas the females in the two control groups showed no change over time. A group x time x psychopathy interaction (p < .006) was also observed, with psychopathic personality levels moderating treatment outcome. Children in the omega-3 group with high (but not low) psychopathic-like personality showed significant improvements in child-reported antisocial behavior at the end of treatment (d = .19) Results suggest that omega-3 supplementation may be helpful in reducing childhood antisocial and aggressive behavior in females, and those with psychopathic-like personalities.
... | 1 on behavior. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies have been found to play a substantial role in determining behavioral outcomes from the pre-and perinatal period (e.g., Brennan et al., 2003;Neugebauer et al., 1999;Prado & Dewey, 2014;Roza et al., 2010) to childhood (e.g., Al-Ghannami et al., 2019;Choy & Raine, 2018;Duong et al., 2015;Portnoy et al., 2021;Raine et al., 2015) and into adolescence (e.g., Galler et al., 2017;Herbison et al., 2012;Robinson et al., 2018). Importantly, besides the observational evidence of dietary impact on aggressive and antisocial behavior, the results of randomized controlled studies of dietary interventions confirm the connection as well (Al-Ghannami et al., 2019;Bègue et al., 2018;Choy & Raine, 2018;Gesch et al., 2002;Raine et al., 2015;Zaalberg et al., 2010). ...
... Vitamin and mineral deficiencies have been found to play a substantial role in determining behavioral outcomes from the pre-and perinatal period (e.g., Brennan et al., 2003;Neugebauer et al., 1999;Prado & Dewey, 2014;Roza et al., 2010) to childhood (e.g., Al-Ghannami et al., 2019;Choy & Raine, 2018;Duong et al., 2015;Portnoy et al., 2021;Raine et al., 2015) and into adolescence (e.g., Galler et al., 2017;Herbison et al., 2012;Robinson et al., 2018). Importantly, besides the observational evidence of dietary impact on aggressive and antisocial behavior, the results of randomized controlled studies of dietary interventions confirm the connection as well (Al-Ghannami et al., 2019;Bègue et al., 2018;Choy & Raine, 2018;Gesch et al., 2002;Raine et al., 2015;Zaalberg et al., 2010). ...
... Besides observational research, there are several studies that show the effects of specific dietary interventions, especially those that include fatty acids, on the reduction of aggressive behavior (Bègue et al., 2018;Gesch et al., 2002;Raine et al., 2015Raine et al., , 2016Raine et al., , 2020Zaalberg et al., 2010). For example, in a randomized controlled trial, Zaalberg et al. (2010) administered nutritional supplements, including vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids, to a treatment group of 115 young adult prisoners. ...
Article
Research in biosocial criminology and other related disciplines has established links between nutrition and aggressive behavior. In addition to observational studies, randomized trials of nutritional supplements like vitamins, omega‐3 fatty acids, and folic acid provide evidence of the dietary impact on aggression. However, the exact mechanism of the diet‐aggression link is not well understood. The current article proposes that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the process, with the microbiota–gut–brain axis serving as such a mediating mechanism between diet and behavior. Based on animal and human studies, this review synthesizes a wide array of research across several academic fields: from the effects of dietary interventions on aggression, to the results of microbiota transplantation on socioemotional and behavioral outcomes, to the connections between early adversity, stress, microbiome, and aggression. Possibilities for integrating the microbiotic perspective with the more traditional, sociologically oriented theories in criminology are discussed, using social disorganization and self‐control theories as examples. To extend the existing lines of research further, the article considers harnessing the experimental potential of noninvasive and low‐cost dietary interventions to help establish the causal impact of the gut microbiome on aggressive behavior, while adhering to the high ethical standards and modern research requirements. Implications of this research for criminal justice policy and practice are essential: not only can it help determine whether the improved gut microbiome functioning moderates aggressive and violent behavior but also provide ways to prevent and reduce such behavior, alone or in combination with other crime prevention programs.
... Considering early disruptive disorders, CU traits and APD in a neurodevelopmental approach could allow a change of perspective and advocate a need for early interventions [134]. It is thus worthy of considering early health interventions to prevent brain structure abnormalities and impairments in brain functions, with nutrient supplementation in pregnancy and/or childhood (e.g., omega 3, zinc) as well as early environmental enrichment (better nutrition, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation, sleep hygiene) [134,142]. Raine et al. [142] have indeed demonstrated the effects of omega-3 dietary supplementation on the long-term reduction of behavioral problems in children. A significant decrease in aggressive and antisocial behavior of the parents of the supplemented children was also found. ...
... It is thus worthy of considering early health interventions to prevent brain structure abnormalities and impairments in brain functions, with nutrient supplementation in pregnancy and/or childhood (e.g., omega 3, zinc) as well as early environmental enrichment (better nutrition, physical exercise, cognitive stimulation, sleep hygiene) [134,142]. Raine et al. [142] have indeed demonstrated the effects of omega-3 dietary supplementation on the long-term reduction of behavioral problems in children. A significant decrease in aggressive and antisocial behavior of the parents of the supplemented children was also found. ...
... A significant decrease in aggressive and antisocial behavior of the parents of the supplemented children was also found. This improvement in parental behavior is partly responsible for the observed improvements in children's behavior [142], again highlighting the role of person-by-context interactions in the development of CU traits. ...
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Numerous studies have shown that youth with behavioral disorders (BD) present an increased risk for developing severe and persistent antisocial behaviors in adulthood. Retrospective research notes that not all children and adolescents follow a negative trajectory and explains this heterogeneity in particular by the severity of CU traits. Our study examines how these traits affect the functioning of children and adolescents with BD. Method: A systematic literature review conducted through various databases and using different keywords made it possible to analyze 52 studies published from 2015 to 2020 that measured the bidirectional effects of CU traits on the functioning of young. Results: Out of the 52 studies, 47 analyzed links between CU traits and neurobiological or mental health, 20 examined family and school contexts, eight focused on social adjustment, 10 on social interactions and 19 measured links with cognitive functioning, especially executive functions. Conclusion: Consistent with previous recommendations in the field, our findings emphasize the importance of assessing the presence of UC traits in early childhood to prevent the emergence of comorbid disorders and to target multimodal (early) interventions to influence the life trajectories of youth with high CU traits.
... Omega-3 has been hypothesized as one nutritional component that could explain the link between poor nutrition and antisocial behavior (Raine, Mellingen, Liu, Venables, & Mednick, 2003). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown some evidence for the efficacy of omega-3 supplementation in reducing antisocial behavior (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015;Raine et al., 2016). Aggressive behavior in particular has been a focus of studies, with a recent meta-analysis of aggression yielding an effect size of d = 0.24 (Gajos & Beaver, 2016). ...
... Only three omega-3 RCT intervention studies have addressed this question. The first from Mauritius documented significant reductions in both forms of aggression (Raine et al., 2015). The second RCT from the USA documented significant reductions in reactive but not proactive aggression (Raine et al., 2016), while the third RCT from Singapore replicated the significant reductions in reactive but not proactive aggression (Raine et al. 2019). ...
... Based on prior findings for omega-3 RCTs where the primary outcome was antisocial behavior (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015;Raine et al., 2016), together with results of a meta-analysis of omega-3 RCTs on aggression (Gajos & Beaver, 2016), a small to medium effect size was anticipated. The final total sample size of 145 would have power of 0.80 to detect a small to medium effect size of f = 0.219, alpha = 0.05, and critical F(6,282) = 2.13. ...
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Objectives To examine whether omega-3 supplementation reduces antisocial and aggressive behavior in offenders.Methods In this randomized, double-blind trial, 145 young offenders were randomized into three groups: omega-3 (N = 48), placebo (N = 46), and treatment-as-usual controls (N = 51). Measures of antisocial, aggressive, and psychopathic behavior were collected at 0 months (baseline), 3 months (end of treatment), 6 months (3 months post-treatment), and 12 months (9 months post-treatment).ResultsOmega-3 supplementation resulted in both short-term and long-term declines in self-reported antisocial and aggressive behavior. Findings were stronger for a reactive-impulsive form of aggression than for proactive aggression and psychopathy. Sensitivity analyses documented long-term reductions at 6 and 12 months in the omega-3 group for officer reports.Conclusions Results suggest that omega-3 supplementation can help reduce antisocial and aggressive behavior over and above regular treatment programs in young offender institutions, particularly for reactive, impulsive aggression.
... In a small (n = 20) randomized trial of children aged 6-12 years with major depressive disorder (MDD), those supplemented with eicosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, EPA)+DHA for 16 weeks had a reduction in depressive symptoms compared with children who received a placebo composed mostly of LA [17]. During adolescence, supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in improved behavior in trials from the United Kingdom [18] and Mauritius [19]. Meta-analyses of randomized trials conducted in adults with depressive disorders showed that the benefits of long chain n-3 PUFA supplementation against depressive symptoms were greater when the supplements contained a higher percentage of EPA than DHA; this suggests that a potential effect might be through EPA [20,21]. ...
... Only a handful of investigations have addressed the potential effect of DHA on behavior problems during adolescence. DHA supplementation of schoolchildren in Mauritius and the United Kingdom was related to decreased aggressive and disruptive behavior, respectively [18,19]. The apparent discrepancy between the positive association we found and the protective effect of supplementation trials might be related to other PUFA present in the supplement. ...
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We sought to determine the associations of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in middle childhood with externalizing and internalizing behavior problems in adolescence. Using gas-liquid chromatography, we quantified n-3 and n-6 PUFA in serum samples of 444 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5–12 years at the time of enrollment into a cohort study. After a median 6 years, adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems were determined with the Youth Self Report (YSR) questionnaire. We estimated adjusted mean behavior problem score differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between quartiles of each PUFA using multivariable linear regression. We also considered as exposures the Δ6-desaturase (D6D) and Δ5-desaturase (D5D) enzyme activity indices. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was positively associated with externalizing problems; every standard deviation (SD) of DHA concentration was associated with an adjusted one unit higher externalizing problem score (95% CI: 0.1, 1.9). The D5D enzyme activity index was inversely related to externalizing problem scores. Alpha-linolenic acid concentration was positively associated with internalizing problem scores, whereas adrenic acid was inversely related to this outcome. Serum PUFA in middle childhood were related to behavior problems in adolescence. Some of these associations might reflect the role of D5D enzyme activity.
... It can be a coadjuvant treatment of the conventional treatments or for patients with subclinical or prodromic presentations. 22 In the Rainee study, 30 which had a double blind placebo controlled designed, the effects of a relatively high dose of PUFA versus placebo was compared in a sample of a general population during a 6-month period of treatment and a subsequent follow-up of 6 more months. At the end of the 12-month period, the effects were substantial, with a greater effect size than in the Stevenson study. ...
... 53 A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, stratified, group-parallel, trial shows results that can indicate initial evidence of the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids in sustained reduction of the internalizing and externalizing problems in children and adolescents. 30 A randomized, stratified, single blind, factorial clinical trial provides limited support regarding the efficacy of omega-3, vitamin and mineral supplements in reducing the aggressive behavior in children and makes up the first evaluation of the use of nutritional supplements together with cognitive-behavioral therapy. 54 There is marginal evidence on the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognition in those cases presenting omega-3 deficiency. ...
Article
Complementary and alternative treatments, including dietary supplements, are very popular and increasingly used in developed countries. Some features such as accessibility, ease of use, the possibility of self-administration and the belief they are safe without side effects, have led to an increase in their consumption. However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness and safety of these treatments because of methodological issues. The level of scientific evidence is particularly low and weak in the field of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The purpose of this article is to give an updated overview of dietary treatments in this area. We make a brief introduction about general questions, including legal aspects, and propose general practical recommendations for a proper management by the families that choose these treatments. We focus on reviewing the current state of research into dietary treatments in some childhood and juvenile psychiatric disorders, highlighting current evidence of specific treatments. The final purpose of this article is to describe the level of current evidence on dietary treatments and to provide professionals involved in the care of children and adolescents with a useful tool to help, guide and educate families about their use in order to achieve the greatest benefit to patients.
... To date, one promising study has been shown to be successful at reducing antisocial behavior and schizotypal personality traits. Raine et al. (2015) selected 100 children to receive an early environmental enrichment program compared to 1695 controls in the Mauritius cohort study using a stratified random sampling technique. This 2-year program at age 3 years consisted of three key elements: nutrition, education, and physical exercise (see detailed description in Raine et al. 2001). ...
... Although this program was successful at reducing schizotypal personality traits not schizophrenia itself, the sustained developmental benefits may inform intervention efforts at preventing or delaying the onset of schizophrenia as schizotypal personality disorder is often seem as a prodrome stage of schizophrenia (Raine Lencz and Mednick 1995). Other non-invasive yet promising methods that have been shown to reduce antisocial aggressive behaviors in both aggressive youths and prisoners involve increasing their omega-3 intake (Meyer et al. 2015;Raine et al. 2015). It seems then that treatment for both symptoms of schizophrenia and antisocial behaviors ought to begin early in development. ...
Chapter
The comorbid relationship between schizophrenia and crime may prove difficult to accept by some researchers, practitioners, and the public alike. However, over the last 50 years, accumulating evidence from several follow-up studies and retrospective studies of birth cohorts, patients, and incarcerated populations globally, have established the schizophrenia and crime link. This chapter reviews the growing empirical evidence to date on the risk-factors and cures associated with schizophrenia, crime, and for both of these conditions. By understanding the etiology of this comorbid relationship, we can reduce the stigma that is associated with these disabling conditions and importantly, begin to direct more resources into developing preventive interventions for individuals at-risk for developing these disabling conditions.
... In addition, low levels of cholesterol associated with aggression are frequently reported [19][20][21][22]. Recently, many studies have found dietary omega-3 supplementation can reduce violent behaviours in children, young men and schizophrenia patients [23][24][25][26][27][28]. ...
... Although earlier studies have reported the serum cholesterol, a subclass of lipid [60], is uncorrelated with violence [61,62], more recent studies have consistently found the increased violence risk is correlated with low cholesterol concentration [19,20,63] and polyunsaturated fatty acid [26,59]. Omega-3 supplement can reduce violent behaviours in children [25], young men [64], schizophrenia patients [26] and adult prisoners [23]. Our research also proves the important role of lipid metabolism in regulating violence. ...
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Background: Many studies have related biochemical characteristics to violence and have reported schizophrenia could elevated the risk of violent behaviour. However, the metabolic characteristics of schizophrenia patients with violence (V.SC) are unclear. Methods: To explore the metabolic characteristics of schizophrenia with violence and to identify potential biomarkers, untargeted metabolomics was performed by using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry to analyse the plasma metabolites of fifty-three V.SC and twenty-four schizophrenia patients without violence (NV.SC). Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed to identify differential metabolites and biomarkers. Violence was assessed by the MacArthur Violence Assessment Study method. Psychiatric symptoms were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: Multivariate analysis was unable to distinguish V.SC from NV.SC. Glycerolipid metabolism and phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis were the differential metabolic pathways between V.SC and NV.SC. We confirmed ten metabolites and five metabolites as metabolic biomarkers of V.SC by random forest and support vector machine analysis, respectively. The biomarker panel, including the ratio of L-asparagine to L-aspartic acid, vanillylmandelic acid and glutaric acid, yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.808. Conclusions: This study gives a holistic view of the metabolic phenotype of schizophrenia with violence which is characterized by the dysregulation of lipids and amino acids. These results might provide information for the aetiological understanding and management of violence in schizophrenia; however, this is a preliminary metabolomics study about schizophrenia with violence, which needs to be repeated in future studies.
... Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3), have been widely reported for their health benefits, such as the prevention of chronic inflammatory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, 1 cancer, 2 mental illness, 3 and adolescent antisocial/aggressive behaviour, 4 and potentiation of cellular development and steroid biosynthesis. 5 Despite an increase in the awareness of the health importance of n-3 PUFAs, the consumption of n-3 PUFAs in many countries is still low. ...
... The droplet size distribution of the diluted O/W emulsion was determined using light scattering technology (Mastersizer 2000, Malvern Instruments Ltd, Worcestershire, UK), after the O/W emulsions were further diluted 3 times. The volume surface average diameter, d (3,2) (µm), volume weighted average diameter, d (4,3) (µm) and dispersion index (Span) were calculated using eqn (1), (2) and (3), respectively. ...
Article
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Tuna oil was selectively hydrolysed using Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase for 6 h to prepare omega-3 acylglycerol concentrate with the DHA content significantly increased from 24.9% in tuna oil to 36.3% in the acylglycerol concentrate. The acylglycerol concentrate was subsequently encapsulated into the “multi-core” microcapsules using gelatin–sodium hexametaphosphate complex coacervates as the shell material. Rancimat, Oxipres and thermogravimetric analyses all showed that the microencapsulated acylglycerol concentrate had unexpectedly improved oxidation stability, compared to those produced using tuna oil, even though the concentrated oils themselves were significantly less stable than tuna oil. The incorporation of enzymatic tuna oil acylglycerol concentrate also significantly improved the oxidation stability of microencapsulated standard refined unconcentrated tuna oil. A wide range of characteristics including lipid and fatty acid composition, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion properties, morphology, nanomechanical strength and physicochemical stability of acylglycerol, acylglycerol oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and final microcapsules were investigated throughout the preparation. The result suggests that high levels of monoacylglycerol (about 35%) and diacylglycerol (about 8.5%) were produced in the acylglycerol. The acylglycerol O/W emulsion exhibited significantly smaller droplet size, lower zeta-potential and higher surface hydrophobicity, which contributed to the formation of the microcapsule with a significantly smoother surface and more compact structure, finally leading to improved oxidative stability compared to those prepared from native tuna oil.
... In addition, the trial duration also varied widely in studies included in this review (6−26 weeks). Since evidence suggested that it takes at least 6 months for PUFA to reach a steady state on the erythrocyte membrane [81] and at least 4 months to demonstrate an effect on cognitive performance [82], it has also been suggested that longer study periods up to one year might be needed to demonstrate n-3 PUFAs supplementation associated behavioural changes [83]. ...
... Generally, the n-3 PUFAs dosage for ADHD, ASD and MDD falls between the range of 750 mg/d to 2,000 mg/d, where a combination of DHA and EPA is recommended [7,12,13,114,116]. The duration of n-3 PUFAs is usually recommended at 16 weeks, however, if the primary outcome include observable/measurable behaviour changes, the duration may extend up to 52 weeks [83]. Of note, lethargy, hyperactivity and stereotypy are specific symptoms in ASD reported to be responsive to n-3 PUFAs treatment [13] ( Table 1). ...
Article
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Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (or omega-3 PUFAs, n-3 PUFAs) are essential nutrients throughout the life span. Recent studies have shown the importance of n-3 PUFAs supplementation during prenatal and perinatal period as a potential protective factor of neurodevelopmental disorders. N-3 PUFAs have been reported to be lower in youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). N-3 PUFAs supplementation has shown potential effects in the improvement of clinical symptoms in youth with ADHD, ASD, and MDD, especially those with high inflammation or a low baseline n-3 index. Moreover, it has been suggested that n-3 PUFAs had positive effects on lethargy and hyperactivity symptoms in ASD. For clinical application, the following dosage and duration are recommended in youth according to available randomized controlled trials and systemic literature review: (1) ADHD: a combination of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ≥ 750 mg/d, and a higher dose of EPA (1,200 mg/d) for those with inflammation or allergic diseases for duration of 16−24 weeks; (2) MDD: a combination of a EPA + DHA of 1,000−2,000 mg/d, with EPA:DHA ratio of 2 to 1, for 12−16 weeks; (3) ASD: a combination of EPA + DHA of 1,300−1,500 mg/d for 16−24 weeks as add-on therapy to target lethargy and hyperactivity symptoms. The current review also suggested that n-3 index and inflammation may be potential treatment response markers for youth, especially in ADHD and MDD, receiving n-3 PUFA.
... Zanarini and Frankenburg (2003) for instance, reported an effect of EPA on aggression in women suffering from borderline personality disorder, and Buydens-Branchey and colleagues (Buydens-Branchey & Branchey, 2008) suggested that EPA and DHA reduce anger in drug addicts. Raine and colleagues (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015) provided schoolchildren (8-16 years of age) on Mauritius with an EPA and DHA enriched fruit drink, resulting in substantially less antisocial and aggressive behavior. Interestingly, the researchers also reported effects in parents. ...
... Interestingly, the researchers also reported effects in parents. Although parents did not use the supplemented drink, self-rated psychopathic traits decreased significantly (Raine et al., 2015) and levels of intimate partner violence also dropped significantly (Portnoy, Raine, Liu, & Hibbeln, 2018). Furthermore, there was an interaction between parental improvement and the effect on children, indicating that improvement in parents mediated the effect in children. ...
... They found that index of agitation was significantly decreased, suggesting that n-3 PUFAs might be able to control violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia. Other evidence has also shown that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids can reduce the incidence of aggressive behavior in persons with or without major mental disorder (Long & Benton, 2013;Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015;Zaalberg et al., 2010). Furthermore, several meta-analyses and reviews have examined the available data on role of omega-3 PUFAs in alleviating symptoms of psychopathology from childhood, throughout adulthood (Joy, Mumby-Croft, & Joy, 2003;Sinn et al., 2010;Freeman et al., 2011;Akter et al., 2012;Bozzatello et al., 2016). ...
... Thus, there is tremendous value in understanding the long-term effects of adversity on executive function, particularly in childhood and adolescence (Blair & Raver, 2015) as well as the proximal effects of poverty, racism, and scarcity on self-controlled decision making (Duckworth, Kim, & Tsukayama, 2012;Mullainathan & Shafir, 2013). We also encourage further investigation of how executive function depends on good nutrition (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015), sleep (Diestel, Rivkin, & Schmidt, 2014;Schilbach, Schofield, & Mullainathan, 2016), aerobic exercise (Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008), and schooling as well as other common experiences (Diamond, 2013;Piquero, Jennings, Farrington, Diamond, & Gonzalez, 2016;Zhang et al., 2018). 5. More research is needed to test the robustness, effect size, and cost-effectiveness of each of the interventions discussed in this review. ...
Almost everyone struggles to act in their individual and collective best interests, particularly when doing so requires forgoing a more immediately enjoyable alternative. Other than exhorting decision makers to "do the right thing," what can policymakers do to reduce overeating, undersaving, procrastination, and other self-defeating behaviors that feel good now but generate larger delayed costs? In this review, we synthesize contemporary research on approaches to reducing failures of self-control. We distinguish between self-deployed and other-deployed strategies and, in addition, between situational and cognitive intervention targets. Collectively, the evidence from both psychological science and economics recommends psychologically informed policies for reducing failures of self-control.
... Fish oil is a source of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid which decrease serum triglyceride levels (Breslow, 2006) and reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and hypertension (Mori and Woodman, 2006;Mozaffarian and Wu, 2011). Some studies have also found that n-3 fatty acid supplementation by using fish oil products confers benefits on cognition (thinking, reasoning, memory), behavior, and school performance among healthy children (Al-Ghannami et al., 2019;Kuratko et al., 2013;Raine et al., 2015;Stonehouse, 2014); consequently, fish oil supplements have been marketed towards children with dyslexia, dyspraxia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other similar disorders (Fernandes et al., 2006). Also, the popularity of fish oil products has increased concurrently with scientific research showing the benefits of fish oils in addressing a number of disease conditions, including hypertriglyceridemia, peripheral artery disease, cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, renal injury, rheumatoid arthritis, and autoimmune disorders (Mason, 2000;Schmitz and Antony, 2002). ...
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Background: Oily fish and their extracted oils may be a source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which can induce toxic effects on the consumers. The main aim of this survey was estimation of PCBs intake through fish oil-derived dietary supplements and prescription drugs in the Japanese population. Methods: PCBs levels were determined in 20 fish oil-derived dietary supplements and 6 oil-derived prescription drugs from the Japanese market using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Then, the daily exposure to PCBs was estimated. Data were statistically analyzed using JMP software suite. Results: Totally, 17 of the 26 fish oil-derived products were contaminated with PCBs. The median PCB concentrations in the total set of fish oil-derived products was 2.2 ng/g oil wt. with a range of
... The inconsistent findings of the most omega-3 LCPUFA ASD RCTs and those of the present trial could be attributed to the study duration (12 months vs. 16-24 weeks), dose of omega-3 LCPUFA (722 mg/day vs. 200-700 mg/day), with some previous reports using a combination of EPA and DHA (Amminger et al. 2007;Mankad et al. 2015), and outcome measures used (each having unique psychometric properties). Evidence suggests that PUFA erythrocyte membrane reaches a steady state after 6 months (Katan et al. 1997) and longer study periods of 1 year might be needed to demonstrate behavioural changes in response to omega-3 LCP-UFA supplementation (Raine et al. 2015). It is also well documented that erythrocyte omega-3 index increases in a dose-dependent manner in response to DHA and EPA supplementation (Flock et al. 2013), with DHA having a greater impact (Allaire et al. 2017). ...
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We evaluated the efficacy of vitamin D (VID), omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 LCPUFA, OM), or both (VIDOM) on core symptoms of ASD. New Zealand children with ASD (n = 73; aged 2.5–8.0 years) received daily 2000 IU vitamin D3, 722 mg docosahexaenoic acid, both, or placebo. Outcome measures were Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Sensory Processing Measure (SPM). Of 42 outcome measures comparisons (interventions vs. placebo), two showed greater improvements (P = 0.03, OM and VIDOM for SRS-social awareness) and four showed trends for greater improvements (P < 0.1, VIDOM for SRS-social communicative functioning, OM for SRS-total, VIDOM for SPM-taste/smell and OM for SPM-balance/motion). Omega-3 LCPUFA with and without vitamin D may improve some core symptoms of ASD but no definitive conclusions can be made.
... As another example, an RCT of an omega-3 dietary supplement for children in Mauritius was followed by significantly lower CBCL Internalizing and Externalizing scores for children receiving omega-3 than for children receiving a placebo [21]. ...
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Abstract The purpose of this invited article is to present multicultural norms and related international findings obtained with the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) by indigenous researchers in over 50 societies. The article describes ASEBA instruments for which multicultural norms are available, plus procedures for constructing the multicultural norms. It presents applications to clinical services, including use of multi-informant data for assessing children and their parents. The Multicultural Family Assessment Module (MFAM) enables mental health providers to view side-by-side bar graphs of child and parent scores on syndromes, DSM-oriented scales, Internalizing, Externalizing, and Total Problems. Evidence-based assessment of progress and outcomes is facilitated by the Progress & Outcomes App (P&O App). Research applications are outlined, including longitudinal and outcomes research. Applications to training mental health providers include having trainees study standardized multi-informant assessment data prior to interviewing children and their parents. Trainees can also sharpen their clinical skills by completing assessment forms to describe children and their parents, and then using ASEBA software to compare their ratings with ratings by children, parents, and other informants. Practical evidence-based assessment instruments with multicultural norms enable mental health providers, researchers, and trainees to perform intake, progress, and outcome assessments of children and their parents in terms of a standardized international clinical data language.
... 93-96 Accordingly, several randomized, placebo-controlled interventional trials reported positive effects of dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in ADHD. 94,95, [97][98][99] However, other trials found only small or no therapeutic effects. Hence, some meta-analyses stated that there is evidence for n-3 PUFAs as a supplement to established therapies while others concluded that the currently available evidence is inconclusive. ...
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The prevalence of neurologic and psychiatric diseases has been increasing for decades and, given the moderate therapeutic efficacy and safety profile of existing pharmacological treatments, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic approaches. Nutrition has recently been recognized as an important factor for the prevention and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. The omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play critical roles in neuronal cell function and neurotransmission as well as inflammatory and immune reactions that are involved in neuropsychiatric disease states. A large number of experimental and epidemiological studies provide a strong basis for interventional clinical trials that assessed the clinical efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. Most of these trials found beneficial effects of dietary supplementation with EPA and DHA, and no serious safety concerns have emerged. This review gives an introduction to recent findings on the clinical efficacy of n-3 PUFAs in various neuropsychiatric disorders and the underlying biochemical mechanisms. In addition, the reader will be enabled to identify common methodological weaknesses of clinical studies on n-3 PUFAs, and suggestions for the design of future studies are given.
... Deficits of omega-3 fatty acids have been linked with impaired neurocognition and externalizing behavior (Liu & Raine, 2006;McNamara & Carlson, 2006). The opposite relationship is also supported; increased intake of omega-3 fatty acids has been associated with a variety of positive physical and mental health outcomes (Ruxton, Reed, Simpson, & Millington, 2004), increased brain volume in regions related to memory and emotion regulation (Conklin et al., 2007), and reduction in behavioral problems in children (Raine, Portnoy, Liu, Mahoomed, & Hibbeln, 2015). Studies examining the effect of nutritional supplements have suggested that reducing the amount of sugar consumed by offenders can significantly reduce offending during incarceration (Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves, & Crowder, 2002;Schoenthaler, 1983). ...
Article
There is a growing literature on biological explanations of antisocial and criminal behavior. This paper provides a selective review of three specific biological factors – psychophysiology (with the focus on blunted heart rate and skin conductance), brain mechanisms (with a focus on structural and functional aberrations of the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and striatum), and genetics (with an emphasis on gene-environment and gene-gene interactions). Overall, understanding the role of biology in antisocial and criminal behavior may help increase the explanatory power of current research and theories, as well as inform policy and treatment options.
... Scientists connect their inadequate intake in pregnant women with premature birth, low birth weight, and to hyperactivity in children. [15,17,36] The fatty acids in the composition of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids defines the biological activity of the phospholipids, the properties of biological membranes, the interaction of phospholipids with membrane-proteins and their transport and receptor activity. ...
Article
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REVIEW The fat content of the human body is about 97% saturated and monounsaturated fat, with only 3 % polyunsaturated fats. Half of that three percent is Omega-3 fats, and that balance needs to be kept. Vegetable oils contain very high levels of polyunsaturated fats, and these oils have replaced many of the saturated fats in our diets since the 1950s. The first evidence for the important role of dietary intake of omega-3 essential fatty acids (PUFAs) in inflammation was derived from epidemiological observations of the low incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as psoriasis, asthma and type-1 diabetes, as well as the complete absence of multiple sclerosis in a population of Greenland. Most of these diseases are characterized by unexplained activation of T cells resulting from the destruction of host tissues. In the 1980's some evidence suggested that changes in the natural history of hypertensive, atherosclerotic and chronic inflammatory disorders may be achieved by altering availability of eicosanoid precursors. Native Greenland Eskimos and Japanese have a high dietary intake of long chain omega-3 PUFA from seafood and a low incidence of myocardial infarction and chronic inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, even when compared to their Westernized ethnic counterparts. The metabolism of taken omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has important meaning for the prevention of certain socially important diseases.
... Prior studies designed to evaluate the effectiveness of omega-3 fatty acids in behavioral disorders have drawn similar conclusions. The randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled, parallel-group trial by Raine et al. (2015) provided initial evidence that omega-3 supplementation can produce sustained reductions in externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nonpharmacological interventions for attention deficiency hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) concluded that this type of supplementation achieves significant improvement, although its clinical significance has to be determined (Sonuga-Barke et al. 2013). ...
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The aim of this study was to assess the impact of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation among other nonpharmacological treatments on mental health and quality of life (QOL) of children with behavioral disorders. An observational multicenter study of 6- to 12-year-old children with behavior-related problems was performed in Spain with a three-month follow-up assessment. The Kidscreen-10 and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) were used to assess effectiveness of each intervention. Characteristics of study population were compared with those of the general population. Subanalyses of two homogenous subgroups, who received versus did not receive dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids, were performed. The study included 942 children (69.1% male) with a mean (SD) age of 8.5 (1.8) years. Overall, patients’ health status and QOL significantly improved at three months (p < .001). Scores on the SDQ also improved, with significant reductions on all subscales (p < .05). Comparison of SDQ results with the same-age general population showed higher overall scores in the study population (8.5 [5.5] vs. 18.6 [8.1], respectively) and on all the subscales (p < .001 in all cases). The omega-3 fatty acid supplementation subgroup presented greater improvements in each category of SDQ (p < .05), except for the emotion subscale. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation alone or in combination with other nonpharmacological treatments is effective in improving children’s mental health. Overall, nonpharmacological recommendations currently made by pediatricians seem to be effective in improving the perceived health status and patients’ QOL and in the reduction of health problems, especially hyperactivity/inattention and conduct problems.
... Besides, there is an increasing body of research documenting health and neurobiological-risk factors for aggression and violence, and part of the prevention failure may be due to ignoring biological factors such as impaired neurocognitive and psychophysiological functioning. Omega-3 (a long-chain fatty acid critical for brain structure and function) dietary supplementation is a neurobiological intervention that may help attenuate behavior problems in children [131]. Fung [132] investigated the effectiveness of omega-3 supplements in reducing aggression of school children in Hong Kong. ...
Article
The negative impacts of aggressive bullying behavior by adolescents on both the bullies and victims are being increasingly recognized as social and economic problems. At the same time, there are alarming trends in face-to-face and online aggression and bullying behavior in Hong Kong. Since the 1970s, prevention and intervention programs to reduce bullying behavior have been implemented in schools in Western countries; however, antibullying and antiaggression programs in Hong Kong schools only began in the 2000s. There are two ways of defining the target groups for these intervention programs. Programs using a one-factor model categorize the adolescents who exhibit bullying behavior into a single group, bullies, whereas two-factor models distinguish two subtypes of aggression: reactive and proactive aggression. The former approach is emphasized in the Restorative Whole-school Approach with Shared Concern method, which uses mediation to reduce bullying in schools. The two-factor approach differentiates adolescents' behaviors into reactive, proactive, or occurring reactive-proactive aggression based on the functions and underlying goals of their actions. Specific interventions are then designed to address the particular features and psychosocial correlates of reactive and proactive aggression. The aim is to develop the positive development attributes related to specific types of aggression and thus reduce aggressive behavior in schools.
... Together with findings from other studies in forensic populations relating to different aspects of lifestyle, this could prompt us to promote a healthier lifestyle in youth residing in judicial institutions. For example, it has been found that insufficient sleep is related to violent delinquency (Clinkinbeard et al., 2011), and antisocial and aggressive behavior has been shown to be mitigated through nutrition (Raine et al., 2015). ...
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This study examined a biopsychosocial approach on risk assessment in a clinical sample of youth offenders. In search of enhancing the validity of prediction of recidivism through risk factors alone, the added value of protective and neurobiological factors was measured. In 209 male youth offenders (age 15-24), risk and protective factors were assessed with the Structured Assessment of Violence in Youth (SAVRY) and the Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for violence risk-Youth Version (SAPROF-YV). Autonomic nervous system (re)activity was assessed, and cortisol and testosterone levels were measured in saliva. Recidivism data were obtained from official criminal records. As expected, risk factors alone provided moderate predictive validity for general and violent recidivism. Incorporating protective factors and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) reactivity significantly improved prediction models. Risk assessment may gain by adopting a broader, biopsychosocial perspective. Including neurobiology and protective factors in risk assessment could improve release decision-making, offer guidance for better tailored interventions, and enhance chances of successful community reintegration.
... Similar results were observed in a sample of 8-to 16-year-old children who received EPA and DHA supplementation in the form of fruit juice drink during a period of 3 months. In this population, a statistically significant reduction in externalizing and internalizing behavioural problems was observed, with improvement continuing 6 months after treatment cessation [68]. LC n-3 PUFA supplementation was also tested in a large group of 324 schoolchildren with a mean age of 11.9 years, with positive results on early-onset antisocial and aggressive behaviours particularly in females, as well as in children with psychopathic-like traits [69]. ...
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: It is the focus of increasing interest to investigate the effects of long-chain n-3 and long-chain n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFAs; LC n-6 PUFAs) on psychiatric symptoms in a transdiagnostic perspective. There is some evidence that low levels of LC n-3 PUFAs and a higher ratio of LC n-6 to LC n-3 PUFAs in plasma and blood cells are associated with aggressive and impulsive behaviours. Therefore, implementation of LC n-3 PUFAs may produce positive effects on hostility, aggression, and impulsivity in both psychiatric and non-psychiatric samples across different stages of life. A possible mechanism of action of LC n-3 PUFAs in conditions characterized by a high level of impulsivity and aggression is due to the effect of these compounds on the serotonin system and membrane stability. Studies that evaluated the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs on impulsivity and aggressiveness indicated that addition of rather low doses of these agents to antipsychotic treatment might reduce agitation and violent behaviours in psychosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, and impulsive control and conduct disorders. The present review is aimed at examining and discussing available data from recent trials on this topic.
... Fish intake is associated with omega-3 fatty acids and an early study in Japan and a later review showed that having a high number of behaviour problems is associated with low total omega-3 fatty acid intake. 24,25,26 However, a study conducted in Australia found no association between fatty acids and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. 27 Furthermore, a randomised controlled trial showed no improvement in children with aggression and disruptive behaviour with fish oil treatment. ...
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Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate food consumption frequency in 1-6-year-olds as an eating behaviour-related predictor of behavioural problems over a span of six years. Eating behaviour in early childhood serves as a foundation for future health outcomes. Diet patterns can have long-term beneficial or adverse effects on social behaviour development. Methods: This longitudinal study was performed based on information obtained between July 2011 and August 2017 provided from a project named 'Community Empowerment and Care for Wellbeing and Health Longevity' initiated in 1991; the current study involved 124 mother-child dyads from the project. Children aged 1-6 years were studied in July 2011, with a follow-up assessment in August 2017. The primary exposure examined was the frequency of food items intake. The primary outcome was behaviour problems as assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Results: The adjusted results suggested that a higher intake of leafy green and light-coloured vegetables were significantly associated with decreased odds of conduct problems and prosocial behaviour problems in Japanese children. However, no associations were observed among fruits, milk, small fish, eggs, soybeans, seaweed and any SDQ subscales. Conclusion: This study shows that eating leafy green and light-coloured vegetables may have a protective effect on a child's conduct and against prosocial behaviour problems. Due consideration should be given to children's eating habits in the early stages of their lives to ensure better mental health.
... Likewise, in a study on the effect of text message nudges sent to offenders as reminders to attend their court hearings, it might be assumed that every individual has received, read and then internalised the messages (Cumberbatch & Barnes, 2018). Similarly, a trial on the effect of omega-3 supplements on behaviour problems in children might posit that the participants adhered fully to the experimental protocol and took precisely 1 g/day of omega-3 during the days of the experiment (Raine et al., 2015). ...
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The fourth book in The SAGE Quantitative Research Kit, this resource covers the basics of designing and conducting basic experiments, outlining the various types of experimental designs available to researchers, while providing step-by-step guidance on how to conduct your own experiment. As well as an in-depth discussion of Random Controlled Trials (RCTs), this text highlights effective alternatives to this method and includes practical steps on how to successfully adopt them. Topics include: · The advantages of randomisation · How to avoid common design pitfalls that reduce the validity of experiments · How to maintain controlled settings and pilot tests · How to conduct quasi-experiments when RCTs are not an option Practical and succinctly written, this book will give you the know-how and confidence needed to succeed on your quantitative research journey.
... Our meta-analysis further showed that the duration of most of the trials in this area range between 12 and 16 weeks to show an effect on clinical symptoms (Chang et al., 2018c). Moreover, it has been reported that it requires at least 16 weeks to have an effect on cognitive performance (Stonehouse, 2014), about 24 weeks to reach a steady level in the RBC (Katan et al., 1997), and sometimes up to 52 weeks to show behavioural changes (Raine et al., 2015). ...
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Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a common childhood disorder with a prevalence rate of 5–10%. There have been many theories proposed to explain ADHD, and one of them focuses on the deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA), particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Studies have shown that there is a positive correlation between EFA deficiency severity and ADHD symptoms, and a negative association between blood PUFAs levels and ADHD symptoms. Moreover, clinical studies have shown a promising effect of n-3 PUFAs in the treatment of both clinical and cognitive symptoms in children with ADHD. In addition, with the more relatively safe and tolerable properties of n-3 PUFAs when comparing with the standard pharmacotherapy, n-3 PUFAs may be a potential treatment option for children with ADHD. Of note, the association between n-3 PUFAs deficiency and ADHD has been suggested to involve several biological systems, including inflammation, dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and an imbalanced gut-microbiota axis (GBA). Thus, the biomarkers from these biological systems may serve as possible treatment response predictors of n-3 PUFAs in children with ADHD.
... The Nutrition Guidelines for Primary Schools in Ireland state that research has shown that children benefit nutritionally by eating breakfast (Department of Health and Children, 2003). According to the Irish Primary Principals' Network (O'Brien, 2015) and the 2014 Health Behaviour in School Children (Gavin et al., 2015) one in five children goes to school hungry every day and hunger and malnutrition negatively impact on children's mental health (Galler et al., 2012, Lukowski et al., 2010O'Neil et al., 2014;Raine et al., 2014). ...
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The aim was to explore the relationship between children’s psychological well-being and daily breakfast club engagement in primary schools in Ireland. A quantitative survey method was employed using a staged correlational design with regression analysis. Parents and teachers (n=142) completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (Goodman & Goodman, 2009) and a breakfast club engagement questionnaire. The analyses revealed that breakfast club attendance, as well as healthy eating and enjoyment at the club, was predictive of psychological well-being, positive peer relationships and engagement in academic activities. This was especially the case among older children. To date, this is the most thorough analysis of the impact breakfast clubs have on psychological well-being in Irish primary schools. These study findings suggest breakfast clubs can support one of the recommendations of the recent Wellbeing Policy Statement and Framework for Practice – the schools purposefully support children’s well-being and to include well-being in their School self-evaluation (DES, 2018).
... Both the low-dose (n = 7) and high-dose (n = 7) groups demonstrated significant increases in RBC EPA and DHA composition, as well as decreases in depression severity; however, changes in depression severity were not correlated with changes in erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition. A small number of trials have also been conducted in children with other psychiatric conditions, including Tourette's disorder, 34 bipolar disorder, [35][36][37][38] borderline personality disorder, 39 psychosis, 40 attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 41,42 and externalizing behavior [43][44][45] ; however, in all, the evidence is mixed. 46 The current investigation tested the efficacy of orally administered O3FA (combined EPA + DHA, 2:1 ratio) as a monotherapy for adolescent MDD in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. ...
Article
Objective: Reports are mixed on the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), with only limited data in adolescents. The present trial aimed to investigate systematically the efficacy of O3FA as a monotherapy, compared to a placebo, in adolescents with MDD. Secondarily, we explored O3FA effects on anhedonia, irritability, and suicidality-all key features of adolescent MDD. Methods: Fifty-one psychotropic medication-free adolescents with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of MDD (aged 12-19 years; 57% female) were randomized to receive O3FA or a placebo for 10 weeks. Data were collected between January 2006 and June 2013. O3FA and a placebo were administered on a fixed-flexible dose titration schedule based on clinical response and side effects. The initial dose of 1.2 g/d was increased 0.6 g/d every 2 weeks, up to a maximum of 3.6 g/d. Clinician-rated and self-rated depression severity, along with treatment response, served as primary outcome measures. Additionally, we examined O3FA effects on depression-related symptoms, including anhedonia, irritability, and suicidality. Treatment differences were analyzed via intent-to-treat analyses. Results: O3FA were not superior to a placebo on any clinical feature, including depression severity and levels of anhedonia, irritability, or suicidality. Additionally, response rates were comparable between treatment groups. Within-treatment analyses indicated that both treatments were associated with significant improvement in depression severity on self- (O3FA: t = -4.38, P < .001; placebo: t = -3.52, P = .002) and clinician (O3FA: t = -6.47, P < .001; placebo: t = -8.10, P < .001) ratings. Conclusions: In adolescents with MDD, O3FA do not appear to be superior to placebo. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00962598.
... Як нейрокримінолог Рейн А. зібрав величезну базу даних, що свідчать про порушен ня у відділах головного мозку, які відповідають за регуляцію емоцій стимуляторів злочину: імпульсивного прийняття рішення, спалахів насильства та ін. Базуючись на власному досвіді та інформації із сучасної наукової літератури, дослідник вивчив можливі вектори зовнішнього впливу на формування поведінкових характери стик, зокрема, корекції дієти, як одного з методів зниження рівня поведінкових проблем [37]. ...
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The article offers review of the literature dedicated to the relationship between nutrition and antisocial behavior of teenagers, in particular, their manifestation of aggression. The authors are focused on improper nutrition influence on health and mental activity of teenagers, the role of some nutrients in formation of a child's brain and later intellect and cognitive functions, as well as behavioral responses. The article studies the causes of the «antenatal stress» problem facilitating analysis and substantiation of «nutrition-brain» dependence and currently evolving in neuronutrition science. It is emphasized that the lack of micronutrients leads to reduction in the size of the hippocampus, decrease in proliferation and cell migration activity, which are neuronal precursors in the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is responsible for emotional sphere, memory function, learning ability, etc. Currently there are approaches to reducing the aggressiveness in adolescents by means of diet correction, in particular, by enriching the diet with essential fatty acids, micronutrients, vitamins, which positively affect the manifestations of behavioral reactions in children. The information provided in the literature sources prove the relevancy of scientific researches of improper nutrition role as one of the factors fueling the risk of mental disorder occurrence in teenagers.
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ملخص الدراسة هدفت الدراسة إلى معرفة فاعلية برنامج إرشادي نفسي للتخفيف من سلوك العناد لدى أطفال الشوارع, وأثره على تنمية الثقة بالنفس، وتكونت العينة من (14) طفلاً تراوحت أعمارهم ما بين (14- 16) عاماً، ممن حصلوا على أعلى الدرجات في مقياس العناد، وأقل الدرجات في مقياس الثقة بالنفس، واستخدم الباحث المنهج التجريبي، وتم تطبيق مقياسي العناد، والثقة بالنفس، وبرنامج إرشادي نفسي من إعداد: الباحث على أفراد المجموعة التجريبية. وأظهرت النتائج وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مقياسي العناد، والثقة بالنفس بين القياسين القبلي والبعدي لدى أفراد المجموعة التجريبية، لصالح القياس البعدي والذى أوضح تخفيف سلوك العناد، وزيادة الثقة بالنفس لدى أطفال المجموعة التجريبية، وبينت عدم وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية في مقياسي العناد، والثقة بالنفس بين القياسين البعدي والتتبعي لدى أفراد المجموعة التجريبية. الكلمات المفتاحية: برنامج إرشادي، العناد، الثقة بالنفس، أطفال الشوارع. The Effectiveness of a Psychological Counseling Program in Alleviating the stubborn behavior of street children and its Impact on Developing Their Self-confidence Abstract The study aimed to identify the effectiveness of a psychological counseling program in alleviating the stubbornness behavior of street children and its impact on developing their self-confidence. The sample consisted of 14 children aged between 14 and 16 who obtained the highest scores on the stubbornness scale and the lowest score on the self-confidence scale. The researcher used the experimental method, and administered stubbornness, and self-confidence scales in addition to a psychological counseling program prepared by the researcher on the members of the experimental group. The results showed statistically significant differences in the pre-and post-administration of stubbornness and self-confidence scales in favor of the post application. In the experimental group, which proved the effectiveness of the program in alleviating the behavior of stubbornness and increasing self-confidence among the children of the experimental group. The findings also showed no statistically significant differences in the stubbornness, and self-confidence scales between the post and delayed administration in the experimental group.
Book
Neurocriminology: Forensic and Legal Applications, Public Policy Implications explores the dramatic impact of advances in neuroscience research and practice to our present understanding of criminality and crime control. Contemporary, cutting-edge research in neuroscience is cited and explained. Studies and cases are clearly and concisely outlined with potential uses for practical applications detailed. This will be framed in the context of criminological foundations, theory, and the notion of the nature of crime itself. This comprehensive and engaging book also delves into recent developments in modern neurology, and connections between neuroscience and its criminal, legal, and forensic implications and ramifications. The book poses various questions about what insight neurology can provide to human cognition, to motivation and-in particular-criminal motivation. From biological observations is there a pattern, or are there similarities, in what the brainscan of a criminal looks like? What are the treatment implications and are their valid assessments or treatments that can be used in a corrections environment to curb, or even modify, behavior definitively? And, ultimately, what are the moral, legal and social implications of all? Coverage throughout incorporates leading research that links neurological and biological factors to heightened risk for criminality. This includes coverage of suboptimal arousal (low heart rate), testosterone, neurotransmitters, and variations in MAOA-the so-called "warrior gene"-and more. Neurocriminology will offer a thought-provoking analysis of the broad-reaching implications of this science to better inform the prevention, investigation, monitoring, and control of crime. This includes the remarkable potential for neuroscience to serve as a resource and potential tool to criminology and penology researchers, psychologists, forensic psychologists, forensic scientists, legal professionals, and investigators of crime and criminal behavior.
Article
Poor fetal growth is associated with long-term behavioral, metabolic and psychiatric alterations, including impulsivity, insulin resistance, and mood disorders. However, the consumption of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) seems to be protective for this population, improving inhibitory control and behavioral reactivity. We investigated whether the presence of the A allele of rs8887 SNP (PLIN4 gene), known to be associated with increased sensitivity to the consumption of n-3 PUFAs, interacts with fetal growth influencing inhibitory control. 152 five-year-old children were genotyped and performed the Stop Signal Task (SSRT). There was a significant interaction between birth weight and the presence of the A allele on SSRT performance, in which lower birth weight associated with poorer inhibitory control only in non-carriers. These results suggest that a higher responsiveness to n-3 PUFAS protects small for gestational age children from developing poor response inhibition, highlighting that optimizing n-3 PUFA intake may benefit this population.
Article
Although prefrontal brain impairments are one of the best-replicated brain imaging findings in relation to aggression, little is known about the causal role of this brain region. This study tests whether stimulating the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reduces the likelihood of engaging in aggressive acts, and the mechanism under lying this relationship. Inadouble-blind, stratified, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, randomized trial, 81 human adults (36 males, 45 females) were randomly assigned to an active (N = 39) or placebo (N = 42) condition, and then followed up 1 d after the experiment session. Intentions to commit aggressive acts and behavioral aggression were assessed using hypothetical vignettes and a behavioral task, respectively. The secondary outcome was the perception of the moral wrongfulness of the aggressive acts. Compared with the sham controls, participants who received anodal stimulation reported being less likel to commit physical and sexual assault (p<0.01). They also judged aggressive acts as more morally wrong (p<0.05). Perceptions of greater moral wrongfulness regarding the aggressive acts accounted for 31% of the total effect of tDCS on intentions to commit aggression. Results provide experimental evidence that increasing activity in the prefrontal cortexcan reduce intentions to commit aggression and enhance perceptions of the moral wrongfulness of the aggressive acts. Findings shed light on the biological underpinnings of aggression and theoretically have the potential to inform future interventions for aggression and violence.
Article
Objective To describe features of nutritional interventions implemented in Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the past 20 years. Methods A rapid scoping review was conducted by searching PubMed and Web of Science databases for interventions conducted in SIDS that sought to improve the nutrition of their populations between 2000 and 2019 inclusive. The Noncommunicable diseases progress monitor 2020 was also examined to assess nutritional policies in SIDS. Results A total of 174 interventions were implemented in 49 of the 58 SIDS. The greatest proportion were conducted in the Caribbean (75 interventions; 43%), with the Pacific region, and the Atlantic, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea region each implementing about 30% of interventions. Using the NOURISHING framework, most interventions (67%) were implemented at the community and national or policy level, using multiple components of the framework. The greatest proportion of interventions (35%) were educational and awareness raising. Restrictions on physical availability of and increased taxation on alcohol were the most commonly reported policies that were partially or fully achieved; restrictions on fats were the least commonly reported. These findings were generally consistent across the SIDS regions. Conclusions There is a paucity of nutritional policies in SIDS; the reasons may be linked to their social, economic, and environmental vulnerabilities. Interventions should be expanded beyond education to encompass multiple components of the NOURISHING framework, with multisectoral inclusion to ensure stronger stakeholder collaboration and buy-in. A systematic review is warranted using a fuller range of sources to assess the effectiveness of interventions.
Chapter
In the penultimate chapter, biosocial interactions are the focus. Very little research has been done directly on the biosocial approach in Japan, but studies from the fields of psychology and psychiatry on Japanese populations indicate promising future avenues in examining these interactions. Psychopathy and sexual offending are examined within the context of biosocial explanations. Specifically, studies have examined the applicability of findings on the brain and personality of psychopaths and sex offenders. Studies of sex offenders have evaluated the effectiveness of prison rehabilitation programmes, in particular, cognitive-behavioural therapy. The effectiveness of omega-3 supplements in reducing violence and offending is discussed, as Japan was found to have the comparatively highest seafood consumption and lowest homicide rate.
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Celem niniejszego artykułu jest porównanie sposobów prezentowanie tej samej treści przy użyciu różnych rejestrów językowych, tj. języka naukowego i popularnonaukowego, z zachowaniem spójności informacji. Tło do rozważań stanowi tu antropocentryczna teoria języków ludzkich F. Gruczy (np. 1992) i języków specjalistycznych S. Gruczy (np. 2004). Autorzy ci uważają, iż konkretny język specjalistyczny jest zrozumiały dla członków danej wspólnoty dyskursu, a im bardziej zbieżne są idiolekty specjalistyczne mówców/słuchaczy, tym efektywniejsza będzie komunikacja specjalistyczna. Materiał badawczy stanowią oryginalne artykuły z anglojęzycznych czasopism medycznych oraz angielskie prace popularnonaukowe z czasopisma „What Doctors Don‘t Tell You‖, odwołujące się do oryginalnych prac.
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The innate violence inhibition mechanism (VIM) purportedly regulates maladaptive aggressive behavior through motor inhibition, in response to expressions of distress, and is implicated in psychopathy-related aggression. Deficiency in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; an omega-3 fatty acid) is implicated in aggression and callous-unemotional (CU) traits, however, its relationship to the VIM remains unknown. Two studies tested relationships between EPA intake, personality (aggression, CU traits), and electrophysiological indices of the VIM. In study one (N = 98), participants completed omega-3 intake (FFQ), CU traits (ICU), and aggression (BPAQ) measures. Physical aggression correlated positively with callousness and negatively with EPA intake. CU traits were unrelated to EPA. In study two (N = 47), participants completed the same measures and an electroencephalography assessment of VIM. Stop-P300 amplitude (motor inhibition success) in response to facial expressions of distress mediated the relationship between EPA intake and physical aggression. This is the first demonstration of an association between EPA intake and electroencephalographic indices of the VIM. Findings support a role of EPA in regulating aggression through networks involved in distress-cued executive control over behavior; and provide supporting data to direct future trial designs for nutritional supplementation in non-clinical, clinical and forensic arenas.
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Background Although researchers increasingly recognize the role of nutrition in mental health, little research has examined specific micronutrient intake in relation to antisocial behavior and callous–unemotional (CU) traits in children. Vitamin B6 and magnesium are involved in neurochemical processes implicated in modulating antisocial behavior and CU traits. The current study examined dietary intakes of magnesium and vitamin B6 in relation to antisocial behavior and CU traits. Method : We enrolled 11–12 year old children (n = 446, mean age = 11.9 years) participating in the Healthy Brains and Behavior Study. Magnesium and vitamin B6 dietary intake were assessed with three 24-hour dietary recall interviews in children. CU traits and antisocial behavior were assessed by caregiver-reported questionnaires. We controlled for age, sex, race, total energy intake, body mass index, social adversity, ADHD or learning disability diagnosis, and internalizing behavior in all regression analyses. Results Children with lower magnesium intake had higher levels of CU traits, controlling for covariates (β = −0.18, B = −0.0066, SE = 0.0027, p < 0.05). Vitamin B6 intake was not significantly associated with CU traits (β = 0.061, B = 0.19, SE = 0.20, p > 0.05). Neither magnesium (β = 0.014, B = 0.0020, SE = 0.0093, p > 0.05) nor vitamin B6 (β = 0.025, B = 0.33, SE = 0.70, p > 0.05) were significantly associated with antisocial behavior. Conclusions Findings suggest that low dietary intake of magnesium may play a role in the etiology of CU traits but not general antisocial behavior. More studies are needed to determine if magnesium supplementation or diets higher in magnesium could improve CU traits in children.
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Background: Most methodologists recommend intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis in order to minimize bias. Although ITT analysis provides an unbiased estimate for the effect of treatment assignment on the outcome, the estimate is biased for the actual effect of receiving treatment (active treatment) compared to some comparison group (control). Other common analyses include measuring effects in (1) participants who follow their assigned treatment (Per Protocol), (2) participants according to treatment received (As Treated), and (3) those who would comply with recommended treatment (Complier Average Causal Effect (CACE) as estimated by Principal Stratification or Instrumental Variable Analyses). As each of these analyses compares different study subpopulations, they address different research questions. Purpose: For each type of analysis, we review and explain (1) the terminology being used, (2) the main underlying concepts, (3) the questions that are answered and whether the method provides valid causal estimates, and (4) the situations when the analysis should be conducted. Methods: We first review the major concepts in relation to four nuances of the clinical question, 'Does treatment improve health?' After reviewing these concepts, we compare the results of the different analyses using data from two published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Each analysis has particular underlying assumptions and all require dichotomizing adherence into Yes or No. We apply sensitivity analyses so that intermediate adherence is considered (1) as adherence and (2) as non-adherence. Results: The ITT approach provides an unbiased estimate for how active treatment will improve (1) health in the population if a policy or program is enacted or (2) health of patients if a clinician changes treatment practice. The CACE approach generally provides an unbiased estimate of the effect of active treatment on health of patients who would follow the clinician's advice to take active treatment. Unfortunately, there is no current analysis for clinicians and patients who want to know whether active treatment will improve the patient's health if taken, which is different from the effect in patients who would follow the clinician's advice to take active treatment. Sensitivity analysis for the CACE using two published data sets suggests that the underlying assumptions appeared to be violated. Limitations: There are several methods within each analytical approach we describe. Our analyses are based on a subset of these approaches. Conclusions: Although adherence-based analyses may provide meaningful information, the analytical method should match the clinical question, and investigators should clearly outline why they believe assumptions hold and should provide empirical tests of the assumptions where possible.
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This article provides a comprehensive review of the research on the use of callous and unemotional (CU) traits for designating an important subgroup of children and adolescents with severe conduct problems. It focuses on the etiological significance of recognizing this subgroup of youths with severe conduct problems, its implications for diagnostic classification, and the treatment implications of this research. The review highlights limitations in existing research and provides directions for future research. The available research suggests that children and adolescents with severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits show distinct genetic, cognitive, emotional, biological, environmental, and personality characteristics that seem to implicate different etiological factors underlying their behavior problems relative to other youths with severe conduct problems. Recognizing these subgroups could be critical for guiding future research on the causes of severe conduct problems in children and adolescents. Further, children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits appear to be at risk for more severe and persistent antisocial outcomes, even controlling for the severity of their conduct problems, the age of onset of their conduct problems, and common comorbid problems, which supports the clinical importance of designating this group in diagnostic classification systems. Finally, although children and adolescents with both severe conduct problems and elevated CU traits tend to respond less positively to typical interventions provided in mental health and juvenile justice settings, they show positive responses to certain intensive interventions tailored to their unique emotional and cognitive characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) studies indicate that low serotonin can lower mood and also increase aggression, although results vary somewhat between studies with similar participants. Lowering of mood after ATD is related to the susceptibility of the study participants to clinical depression, and some participants show no effect on mood. This indicates that low serotonin can contribute to lowered mood, but cannot-by itself-cause lowered mood, unless other unknown systems interact with serotonin to lower mood. Studies using tryptophan supplementation demonstrate that increased serotonin can decrease quarrelsomeness and increase agreeableness in everyday life. Social interactions that are more agreeable and less quarrelsome are associated with better mood. Thus, serotonin may have direct effects on mood, but may also be able to influence mood through changes in social behaviour. The increased agreeableness and decreased quarrelsomeness resulting from increases in serotonin will help foster congenial relations with others and should help to increase social support. As social support and social isolation have an important relationship with both physical and mental health, more research is needed on the implications of the ability of serotonin to modulate social behaviour for the regulation of mood, and for future physical and mental health.
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Around one in four people suffer from mental illness at some stage in their lifetime. There is increasing awareness of the importance of nutrition, particularly omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), for optimal brain development and function. Hence in recent decades, researchers have explored effects of n-3 PUFA on mental health problems over the lifespan, from developmental disorders in childhood, to depression, aggression, and schizophrenia in adulthood, and cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in late adulthood. This review provides an updated overview of the published and the registered clinical trials that investigate effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on mental health and behavior, highlighting methodological differences and issues.
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Background Conduct disorder (CD) in female adolescents is associated with a range of negative outcomes, including teenage pregnancy and antisocial personality disorder. Although recent studies have documented changes in brain structure and function in male adolescents with CD, there have been no neuroimaging studies of female adolescents with CD. Our primary objective was to investigate whether female adolescents with CD show changes in grey matter volume. Our secondary aim was to assess for sex differences in the relationship between CD and brain structure. Methods Female adolescents with CD (n = 22) and healthy control participants matched in age, performance IQ and handedness (n = 20) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Group comparisons of grey matter volume were performed using voxel-based morphometry. We also tested for sex differences using archive data obtained from male CD and control participants. Results Female adolescents with CD showed reduced bilateral anterior insula and right striatal grey matter volumes compared with healthy controls. Aggressive CD symptoms were negatively correlated with right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume, whereas callous-unemotional traits were positively correlated with bilateral orbitofrontal cortex volume. The sex differences analyses revealed a main effect of diagnosis on right amygdala volume (reflecting reduced amygdala volume in the combined CD group relative to controls) and sex-by-diagnosis interactions in bilateral anterior insula. Conclusions We observed structural abnormalities in brain regions involved in emotion processing, reward and empathy in female adolescents with CD, which broadly overlap with those reported in previous studies of CD in male adolescents.
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Objective: In children with conduct problems, high levels of callous-unemotional traits are associated with amygdala hypoactivity to consciously perceived fear, while low levels of callous-unemotional traits may be associated with amygdala hyperactivity. Behavioral data suggest that fear processing deficits in children with high callous-unemotional traits may extend to stimuli presented below conscious awareness (preattentively). The authors investigated the neural basis of this effect. Amygdala involvement was predicted on the basis of its role in preattentive affective processing in healthy adults and its dysfunction in previous studies of conduct problems. Method: Functional MRI was used to measure neural responses to fearful and calm faces presented preattentively (for 17 ms followed by backward masking) in boys with conduct problems and high callous-unemotional traits (N=15), conduct problems and low callous-unemotional traits (N=15), and typically developing comparison boys (N=16). Amygdala response to fearful and calm faces was predicted to differentiate groups, with the greatest response in boys with conduct problems and low callous-unemotional traits and the lowest in boys with conduct problems and high callous-unemotional traits. Results: In the right amygdala, a greater amygdala response was seen in boys with conduct problems and low callous-unemotional traits than in those with high callous-unemotional traits. The findings were not explained by symptom levels of conduct disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, or depression. Conclusions: These data demonstrate differential amygdala activity to preattentively presented fear in children with conduct problems grouped by callous-unemotional traits, with high levels associated with lower amygdala reactivity. The study's findings complement increasing evidence suggesting that callous-unemotional traits are an important specifier in the classification of children with conduct problems.
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Overwhelming evidence shows the quality of reporting of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not optimal. Without transparent reporting, readers cannot judge the reliability and validity of trial findings nor extract information for systematic reviews. Recent methodological analyses indicate that inadequate reporting and design are associated with biased estimates of treatment effects. Such systematic error is seriously damaging to RCTs, which are considered the gold standard for evaluating interventions because of their ability to minimise or avoid bias.
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Randomization as a method of experimental control has been extensively used in human clinical trials and other biological experiments. It prevents the selection bias and insures against the accidental bias. It produces the comparable groups and eliminates the source of bias in treatment assignments. Finally, it permits the use of probability theory to express the likelihood of chance as a source for the difference of end outcome. This paper discusses the different methods of randomization and use of online statistical computing web programming (www.graphpad.com/quickcalcs or www.randomization.com) to generate the randomization schedule. Issues related to randomization are also discussed in this paper.
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Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found. In a 1st model, both histories of problem behavior were independently associated with cognitive-neuropsychological function in most domains. In a second model controlling for IQ, General Memory, and test motivation, none of the three Working Memory tests (relevant to executive function) remained associated with physical aggression or hyperactivity. These results support an additive model but no specificity to executive function [corrected].
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