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Process and reality. An essay in cosmology

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... Throughout its history, the philosophy of nature has entertained a curious relation with mythology, religion, and theology, especially before the emergence of modern science, mathematical physics, and ontology [1]. This is especially true in the philosophy of A. N. Whitehead, whose classic book Process and Reality ended up with a surprisingly strong ontotheological-or even cosmogenic-coda [2]. In fact, such a relation between what-at least presently-is often treated as a "fairly scientific" discipline, the philosophy of nature, with other, allegedly "less scientific" areas, such as theology, ontotheology, mythology, cosmogony, theogony, etc., should not be surprising. ...
... However, in several philosophical circles nowadays and the recent past, there seems to be a desire to move back to ontology through ontotheology [3][4][5][6]. 1 This is also happening within a general long-term revival of interest in the philosophy of nature both within the Continental [7][8][9][10] and Analytic Traditions [2,[11][12][13][14]. In both cases, it appears that a return to ontology must be conducted through the infamous Heideggerian "destructive reconstruction" of the history of metaphysics [15][16][17][18][19][20][21], especially his very formulation of the concept of ontotheology as a negative or limitative construction of ontology as such [22][23][24][25][26][27]. 2 Heidegger's early attitude toward theology is most often discussed in terms of his relation with figures such as Paul, Luther, and Eckhart [24,25,33], and the manner by which the standard Heideggerian ontological categories of releasement, unconcealment, comportment, had been influenced by such religious roots. ...
... In both cases, it appears that a return to ontology must be conducted through the infamous Heideggerian "destructive reconstruction" of the history of metaphysics [15][16][17][18][19][20][21], especially his very formulation of the concept of ontotheology as a negative or limitative construction of ontology as such [22][23][24][25][26][27]. 2 Heidegger's early attitude toward theology is most often discussed in terms of his relation with figures such as Paul, Luther, and Eckhart [24,25,33], and the manner by which the standard Heideggerian ontological categories of releasement, unconcealment, comportment, had been influenced by such religious roots. However, an alternative path is also possible by which Heideggerianism, at least in its main thematic outline, is deployed in order to re-develop a philosophy of nature that bypasses Idealism and traditional theology by taking into account Heidegger's critique of the history of philosophy, in addition to his ontological concepts developed in other texts. ...
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We propose a new event ontology of the world, which is part of a general approach to philosophy based on combining ideas from science, ontology, and the philosophy of nature. While the position advocated here is grounded in science and philosophy, it attempts to move beyond each of them by devising and exploring a series of technical (naturalized or naturalistic) ontological concepts such as Interconnectedness, the Whole, the Global, Chaos, the event assemblage, and Nonspace. A central theme in our event ontology is the mapping out of a fundamental critique of the theory of the organism and organization, especially when the latter two are viewed as processes in spacetime. In particular, and following earlier leads, we criticize the spacetime doctrine by arguing that it is not ontologically fundamental, where we suggest its replacement by more primordial naturalized ontological concepts of space such as ontospace and Nonspace. The event ontology of nature can be considered a radical alternative attitude toward the relation between the human and nature, an attitude, in fact, that has been repeatedly explored, though under very different headings, by numerous scattered thinkers throughout the history of ideas. We examine some of the past thinkers who contributed to this general but still incoherent body of thought, including Leibniz, Heidegger, Simondon, Ruyer, Deleuze, Whitehead, and Guattari. The goal of this article is to provide a condensed high-level view on this very complex and still evolving subject intended for a large audience, not necessarily only philosophers, but also scientists, mathematicians, technologists, theologians, sociologists, artists, and psychologists.
... The proposed model turned out to be ideologically close to the research areas of mereotopology and qualitative geometry [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47], the idea of which was laid down by Whitehead in 1929 [30]. On the other hand, the basic ideas of the spots model are also close to the rough set theory [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55], the formal concept analysis [52,[56][57][58], and the fuzzy set theory [59], including fuzzy geometry [60,61]. ...
... The proposed model turned out to be ideologically close to the research areas of mereotopology and qualitative geometry [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47], the idea of which was laid down by Whitehead in 1929 [30]. On the other hand, the basic ideas of the spots model are also close to the rough set theory [48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55], the formal concept analysis [52,[56][57][58], and the fuzzy set theory [59], including fuzzy geometry [60,61]. ...
... Let us find rules for calculation (30), defining such ER between sinograms that are presented in Figure 3. Here, small spiking sinograms (continue lines) correspond to relatively small basis squares and oval-type sinograms (dashed lines) correspond to ellipse figure (see Section 4.3). ...
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This article proposes the application of a new mathematical model of spots for solving inverse problems using a learning method, which is similar to using deep learning. In general, the spots represent vague figures in abstract “information spaces” or crisp figures with a lack of information about their shapes. However, crisp figures are regarded as a special and limiting case of spots. A basic mathematical apparatus, based on L4 numbers, has been developed for the representation and processing of qualitative information of elementary spatial relations between spots. Moreover, we defined L4 vectors, L4 matrices, and mathematical operations on them. The developed apparatus can be used in Artificial Intelligence, in particular, for knowledge representation and for modeling qualitative reasoning and learning. Another application area is the solution of inverse problems by learning. For example, this can be applied to image reconstruction using ultrasound, X-ray, magnetic resonance, or radar scan data. The introduced apparatus was verified by solving problems of reconstruction of images, utilizing only qualitative data of its elementary relations with some scanning figures. This article also demonstrates the application of a spot-based inverse Radon algorithm for binary image reconstruction. In both cases, the spot-based algorithms have demonstrated an effective denoising property.
... The proposed theory turned out to be ideologically close to the research areas of mereotopology and qualitative geometry [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], the idea of which was laid down by Whitehead in 1929 [30]. On the other hand, basic ideas of the spots model are also close to the rough set theory [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56], the formal concept analysis [53,[57][58][59], and the fuzzy set theory [60], including fuzzy geometry [61,62]. ...
... The proposed theory turned out to be ideologically close to the research areas of mereotopology and qualitative geometry [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], the idea of which was laid down by Whitehead in 1929 [30]. On the other hand, basic ideas of the spots model are also close to the rough set theory [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56], the formal concept analysis [53,[57][58][59], and the fuzzy set theory [60], including fuzzy geometry [61,62]. ...
... Let us found rules for calculation (30), defining such ER between sinograms that are presented in Figure 3. Here small spiking sinograms (continue lines) correspond to relatively small basis squares and oval type sinograms (dashed lines) correspond to ellipse figure (see Subsection 4.3). ...
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This article proposes application of a new mathematical model of spots for solving inverse problems using a learning method, which is similar to using the deep learning. In general, the spots represent vague figures in abstract “information spaces” or crisp figures with lack of in-formation about their shapes and are adequate for representation human mental images and reasoning in Artificial Intelligence (AI). However, crisp figures are regarded as a special and limiting case of spots. A basic mathematical apparatus, basing on L4 numbers, has been developed for the representation and processing of qualitative information of elementary spatial relations between spots. Also, we defined L4 vectors, L4 matrices, and mathematical operations on them. Developed apparatus can be used in AI, in particular, for knowledge representation and for modeling qualitative reasoning and learning. Another application area is the solution of inverse problems by learning. For example, this can be applied to image reconstruction using ultrasound, X-ray, magnetic resonance, or radar scan data. The introduced apparatus was verified by solving problems of reconstruction of images, utilizing only qualitative data of its elementary relations with some scanning figures. This article also demonstrates application of spot-based inverse Radon algorithm for binary image reconstruction.
... Temporality has also enjoyed the uncanny habit of suddenly reemerging when it is least expected. An example of the resurgence of the temporal in mathematical thinking is the rejection by Russell and Whitehead of the concept of "spacetime point" [39,78], a critique which informed their joint entry into the subject of event ontology [79,80], which will be discussed further below (cf. Sections 3 and 4). ...
... Therefore, in modern mathematics and analytical philosophy, the creation of S is an enactment of ontogenesis in and through a universal Subject: the logical Ego or the Transcendental Kantian Subject who is in charge of completing the process of enjoining elements to their "total container", i.e., the set with which they are bonded by way of the purely formalistic relation being-in ∈ [49,50,113,114]. Now, against this fundamental formal ontological operator being-in ∈, we contrast the operator of giving-out , which is not merely a formal "inverse" of the relation ∈, but rather a fundamentally new and irreducible happening: the process of production as such, though still not in the sense of the extremely generic and broad concept of genesis already familiar in nature philosophies (for example, the natural Stoic ontologies of Schelling [115], Bergson [21], Whitehead [79], Simondon [57,58], Deleuze [63,64]). The particular process captured by the operator is in fact a form of condensation of Becoming, a "slowing down" of pre-given fluxes-not things-culminating in the production of a new fresh object. ...
... Set theory should then be at best approached as a theory of mental constructions, a field of nature belonging to the mindscape, the noosphere [149], instead of material nature's landscape. Mindscape is that parallel Platonic cosmos where only fully-formed Ideas live [79,138,149,150]. It is the Perfect Sphere of Absolute or Eternal Existence. ...
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This article concentrates on exploring the relevance of the postmodernist concept of the event to mathematical philosophy and the foundations of mathematics. In both the scientific and philosophical study of nature, and particularly event ontology, we find that space and dynamism are fundamental. However, whether based on set theory or category theory, modern mathematics faces conceptual and philosophical difficulties when the temporal is intentionally invoked as a key aspect of that intrinsic dynamism so characteristic of mathematical being, physical becoming, process, and thought. We present a multidisciplinary investigation targeting a diverse audience including mathematicians, scientists, and philosophers who are interested in exploring alternative modes of doing mathematics or using mathematics to approach nature. Our aim is to understand both the formal character and the philosophy of time as realized through a radical mode of thinking that goes beyond the spatial in mathematics. In particular, we suggest the need to transcend the purely geometrical view altogether in future foundational research in both mathematics and mathematical philosophy. We reexamine these issues at a fundamental and comprehensive level, where a detailed exposition and critique of both modern set theories and theories of space is outlined, with emphasis on how the philosophy of Idealism has been permeating much of old and new mathematics. Furthermore, toward the end of the article, we explore some possible constructive directions in mathematical ontology by providing new proposals on how to develop a fragment of mathematics for the description of dynamic events.
... I know precisely because I am informed. Stones incorporate information from which geologists can glean knowledge 14 . Similarly, Oliver Sacks [49] (p.255) observed that information, however "wide-ranging . . . ...
... Nicolescu correctly attacks the idea that it is possible to completely separate "subject" from "object", but still thinks that the "three axioms of the methodology of transdisciplinarity" may establish his (transdisciplinary) discipline. Clearly, his is a valuable contribution, but here we are saying something different: that meaning is necessarily poetic. 2 A.N.Whitehead is famous for saying, "the safest general characterisation of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato" [14]. Everyone (including Whitehead himself) who comments on this aphorism hedges it about with qualifications, but nevertheless the Socratic analytical style is thought to be properly "philosophical" where the poetical (or "mystical" or "religious") styles of other ancient peoples is not. ...
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Physics has been thought to truly represent reality since at least Galileo, and the foundations of physics are always established using philosophical ideas. In particular, the elegant naming of physical entities is usually very influential in the acceptance of physical theories. We here demonstrate (using current developments in thermodynamics as an example) that both the epistemology and the ontology of physics ultimately rest on poetic language. What we understand depends essentially on the language we use. We wish to establish our knowledge securely, but strictly speaking this is impossible using only analytic language. Knowledge of the meanings of things must use a natural language designed to express meaning, that is, poetic language. Although the world is really there, and although we can indeed know it truly, this knowledge is never either complete or certain but ultimately must rest on intuition. Reading a recently discovered artefact with a palaeo-Hebrew inscription as from the first century, we demonstrate from it that this ontological understanding long predates the Hellenic period. Poetic language is primary, both logically and temporally.
... Confronting the entanglement of forces, the human "I" and the abject figure, together, can produce affective consciousness that, in turn, furnishes the self "with the feeling of being an object" for the other (Anderson, 2022, p. 161). Furthermore, the process of reflecting and generating knowledge lies in the process of ontology (Whitehead, 1978), opening up new insights and possibilities for the self to see their own being and becoming. 9 The dialogic self, speaking as an abject, leads to a dynamic of "self-as-subject" and "self-as-object": the feeling of being an object, then, conflicts with their feeling of being a subject, and this tension catalyses the dynamic of selfhood (Anderson, 2022). ...
Article
This article argues for ventriloquism as a method of (post)qualitative inquiry for appropriating the voice of the Other and amplifying multi-voiced selves. Thinking with embodied figures, ventriloquism captures philosophical conceptions of the subject and object through the self and other. To sustain the existence of “abject” voices, we orient readers’ attention to the creative feature of the “material dimension” through literary devices. The deliberate uses of bold italicized text and footnotes are one instance. We propose that the intention of ventriloquial writing is not to find something that exists in that lived experience, but to re-orient our thought to understand be(com)ing the Other within a liminal space. By refusing conventional methodologies, ventriloquism may serve as an ontological response to St. Pierre’s (2021) call for experimenting and creating other “new forms of inquiry” (p. 7).
... Alfred North Whitehead (1929) made processes the primary entities in his ontology. According to his approach, the world is composed of deeply interdependent processes and events, and we can look at all the objects from a process point of view, as they undergo changes. ...
... Di samping relasi manusia dengan manusia, relasi manusia dengan alam pun mendapat tempat yang sama. Filsuf seperti Alfred N. Withehead telah mengembalikan posisi alam setara kedudukannya sebagai satuan aktual yang sama dengan manusia (Whitehead 1978). ...
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Artikel ini menganalisis kisah penciptaan sumber Y dalam kejadian 2:4b-25 dari perspektif ekologi. Salah satu permasalahan utama dari kerusakan alam seperti perubahan iklim adalah manusia menganggap dirinya di luar ciptaan dan menjadi pusat segala ciptaan. Melalui perspektif ini, alam dilihat hanya sebagai objek yang menguntungkan bagi manusia sehingga konsep berdasarkan laba yang diperankan oleh ekonomi-kapitalistik menjadi hal sentral dalam kesejahteraan manusia. Kesejahteraan ini hanya melibatkan manusia dan kesejahteraan alam dikorbankan demi manusia. Tulisan ini menggunakan metode kritik-historis dan digabungkan dengan perspektif ekologis untuk melihat kisah penciptaan sumber Y dan menggali nilai-nilai ekologis yang terdapat di dalamnya. Hasilnya, kisah penciptaan Y memiliki dimensi ekologis yang kuat dimana kesejahteraan bersama antara alam dan manusia harus dijaga layaknya kesejahteraan di taman Eden. Pembacaan ekologis sangat diperlukan demi terciptanya perspektif yang utuh terhadap kehidupan dan memberikan dampak positif terhadap upaya pencegahan krisis iklim.
... Essa rede é complexa, heterogênea (composta por humanos e não humanos), e muda com o tempo. Mais especificamente, em Esperança de Pandora, Latour (2017a) parte da filosofia das proposições de Alfred Whitehead (1978) para sustentar a noção de que a realidade é relativa a uma rede sociotécnica. ...
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Vivemos em um período extremamente desafiador, em que o aumento das desigualdades sociais, o avanço da mutação climática e proliferação de situações climáticas extremas, bem como os resultados impostos pela pandemia de covid-19, demandam uma reflexão muito profunda sobre as bases que sustentam a organização social moderna. Resgatamos, nesse artigo, a noção de que os diferentes colapsos que se acumulam no mundo contemporâneo são consequências de uma cosmovisão extrativista subjacente ao mundo moderno. Defendemos, entretanto, que há uma diferença entre o discurso epistemológico oficial e o que encontramos nas práticas das ciências. Partindo de uma metafísica perspectivista e relacional, advinda dos estudos antropológicos de eduardo viveiros de castro e da antropologia do laboratório, propomos que as histórias das ciências oficiosas têm o potencial de contribuir para sonharmos outros mundos, justos e habitáveis. Para tanto, é necessário fundar uma pedagogia antinarcísica, no sentido discutido por castro, em que a valorização da autonomia dos sujeitos envolvidos, seja no processo histórico, ou na prática da sala de aula, deve ser tomada como princípio fundamental, em contraposição à imposição de uma proposta de mundo pré-definida, típica do pensamento hegemônico.
... Pemahaman mengenai taksonomi bloom ini semakin diperkuat oleh filsuf dan pemikir pendidikan, Whitehead (1979), yang mengatakan bahwa everything is always in process of becoming, yang artinya "manusia selalu berproses menjadi…" karena aktivitas berpikir memang bersifat terus menerus. Kontinuitas berpikir manusia yang merajai lautan makna mendapatkan afirmasi yang terkandung dalam pilar-pilar pendidikan UNESCO berjenjang, kongruen dengan taksonomi karya Bloom. ...
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Artikel ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan permasalahan pendidikan pada ruang lingkup pembangunan karakter kepribadian bangsa dalam ranah kognitif afektif dan psikomotor yang dikaji dari segi ontologis, epistemologis, dan aksiologis. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode library research yaitu menelaah berbagai sumber pustaka terkait kajian filosofis pendidikan mengenai permasalahan pendidikan dan disusun secara runtun dan terarah. Hasil penelitian menunjukan Pendidikan dapat menghidupkan sebuah karakter bangsa yang dapat dijadikan sebuah alternatif untuk memperbaharui hasil dari terlaksanannya sebuah pendidikan tersebut. UNESCO sebagai komisi pendidikan Internasional mengemukakan empat pilar pendidikan, yaitu Learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, learning to live together. Konsep pendidikan nasional menempatkan bentuk-bentuk pendidikan tersebut dalam tiga ranah yang meliputi pengetahuan (kognitif), sikap (afektif), dan keterampilan (psikomotor) yang dikembangkan dan disesuaikan dengan tingkat pendidikan. Kata kunci: Filsafat pendidikan, karakter, kepribadian bangsa. This article aims to describe educational problems in the scope of the development of the nation's personality character in the cognitive, affective and psychomotor aspects which are studied from an ontological, epistemological, and axiological perspective. The research was conducted using the library research method, which is to examine various library sources related to philosophical studies of education regarding educational problems and are arranged in a sequential and directed manner. The results of the study show that education can revive a nation's character which can be used as an alternative to renew the results of the implementation of an education. UNESCO as the International Education Commission put forward four pillars of education, namely Learning to know, learning to do, learning to be, learning to live together. The concept of national education places these forms of education in three domains which include knowledge (cognitive), attitudes (affective), and skills (psychomotor) which are developed and adapted to the level of education.
... Commuting-SWB relationships are manifested as a process where commuting and SWB are interdependent with each other over time and, at a certain point, individuals' wellbeing statuses are shaped by their past experiences and situational contexts (Schwanen, 2018;Whitehead, 1929). To apply this processual way of thinking, the first and foremost agenda for future longitudinal research is to differentiate and integrate different processes of commuting changes, whether they occur spontaneously as the travel-related environment evolves over time or require an intervention to inform or direct alternative commuting choices, and whether they are exogenous or endogenous to the commuting-SWB relationship. ...
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This paper discusses affective methodologies within a practice-based PhD research project using plant-based and bacterial biopolymers (bioplastics) for painting, site- responsive intervention, and collaborative video. Biopolymers have long material histories with a range of material qualities and affects that inform adventurous working methods. These methods and associated affects could be said to produce a biopolymer aesthetics and an empathetic materialism forms of onto-aesthetics involving what Elizabeth Grosz (2017) and Félix Guattari (2000) respectively term an onto-ethics and an ethico-aesthetics. In this paper, new materialisms are used to understand the pedagogical qualities of worlding through the artworks of the author, where biopolymer aesthetics generate adventure and bewilderment—aligning withJack Halberstam’s (2020) idea of an aesthetics of bewilderment.
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Alfred North Whitehead (1861–1947) was a prominent multidisciplinary figure, whose intellectual interests extended over mathematics, philosophy of science, history of science, education, religion, and metaphysics. The common thread to be found in Whitehead’s work across diversified disciplines is his quest for universal connectedness, which can be found in all his theoretical frameworks. In mathematics, Whitehead pursued a generalized theoretical framework based on symbolic logic, along with Bertrand Russell. In the philosophy of science, Whitehead stated that for a natural phenomenon to exist, space and time must enable interconnection, without falling into the trap of ideal point-like abstractions, and hence of scientific materialism. In the philosophy of education, Whitehead proposed the development of interwoven literary, scientific, and technical curricula, all pointing to the single ultimate subject: life. In religion, Whitehead saw God as both primordial and consequent, giving original input to the process of organic evolution of the universe and then judging its development with benevolence. In metaphysics, Whitehead elected creativity as the ultimate principle, which brings together the multitude of the many into the uniqueness of the ever-transforming one. Importance and expression are, respectively, defined by Whitehead in view of their immanence of the infinitude into the finite and of the finitude into the infinite. Process philosophy is arguably Whitehead’s main contribution, positing a cosmological view on the universe dominated by creativity, potentiality, possibility, connectedness, and teleological value. Whitehead’s legacy is finally briefly discussed with reference to theology, eastern philosophy, quantum physics, sociology, and creativity studies.
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The traditional paradigm of causality presupposed by the natural sciences is not equipped to handle the new ways of thinking coming in the wake of what has been called the "interpretive turn" in philosophy and the social sciences. This dissertation initiates a new paradigm of causality, one that seeks to be more adequate to the needs of twenty-firstcentury philosophical and scientific thinking. The dissertation begins by reviewing the central problems of the old paradigm and attempting to indicate precisely how it is inadequate. Next, with the aid of David Hume's deconstruction of causality, this dissertation seeks to ground the proposed paradigm in the meaning of causality as accessible to everyday lived experience las opposed to basing it upon an a priori idea). Then, the analysis of causality so far achieved is brought within the phenomenological ontology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, which provides a non-dualist way of thinking the relationship between subject and object (as well as between objects and between subjects). The discussion seeks to show how a new manner of conceiving such relationships overcomes the intractable difficulties arising from thinking causality in traditional terms. Finally, the dissertation indicates some ways that the new paradigm might be deployed in both human and natural sciences and considers some of the implications of the new paradigm for changes in scientific thinking.
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The article presents a brief analysis of how the existence of various logics became possi­ble. This is shown on the example of such well-known logical theories as syllogistics, temporal, multivalued, intuitionistic, paraconsistent and quantum logics. Each of them arose not on someone’s whim, but to solve specific problems. They are based on the most general ontological assumptions about the subject area under study. In formal logic onto­logical assumptions are refined in the concept of a model structure. Since it is impossible to talk about logic in isolation from the language used, the most general epistemic as­sumptions about the nature of the relationship of linguistic expressions to those objects of extralinguistic reality that they represent are also accepted. One of the most important of these relationships is the concept of the truth of sentences, which was first formulated by Plato and Aristotle. Taking certain ontological and epistemic assumptions depending on the problem being solved, we obtain different logics. Process logic is primarily char­acterized by special ontological assumptions that are fundamentally different from the as­sumptions of other currently existing logics. The ontology of processes is an ontology of developing processes, not things. Historically, it was most vividly described in the writings of Heraclitus. In the overwhelming majority of modern approaches to the de­scription of processes, we see attempts to reduce them to sequences of states, which de­values the very concept of a process, just as a cinematic picture of the flow of time deval­ues the concept of time. Since logics are built on the basis of various ontological and epistemic assumptions, they are inherently theories of these accepted assumptions, and not universal reasoning tools that don’t depend on the characteristics of the study area and the categories of linguistic expressions. Universal logic is possible if one rises from the level of specific languages to a higher level of sign theory.
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Centred around the artistic research project Balthazar—a series of performances that consisted in the live encounter of a non-trained donkey with a group of human performers on stage—the article discusses the human-animal relation in theatre with respect to artistic, aesthetic, biological and philosophical concepts and modes of thought. The article sets out with a critique of the dualisms of human and animal, subject and object, nature and culture in modern ontology, then turns to pragmatic approaches to the living in early twentieth-century theoretical biology (Kurt Goldstein, Jakob von Uexküll), which are finally reflected conceptually through the lens of Alfred North Whitehead’s pragmatist cosmology. Guiding these explorations is the question of action and agency as a relation between the species in theatre.
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Susanne K. Langer is best known as a philosopher of culture and student of Ernst Cassirer. In this chapter, however, I argue that this standard picture ignores her contributions to the development of analytic philosophy in the 1920s and 1930s. I reconstruct the reception of Langer’s first book The Practice of Philosophy—arguably the first sustained defense of analytic philosophy by an American philosopher—and describe how prominent European philosophers of science such as Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, and Herbert Feigl viewed her as one of the most important allies in the United States. In the second half of this chapter, I turn to Langer’s best-selling Philosophy in a New Key and reconstruct her attempts to broaden the scope of the, by then, rapidly growing U.S. analytic movement. I argue that her book anticipated various developments in analytic philosophy but was largely ignored by her former colleagues. I end the chapter by offering some clues as to why New Key did not incite the same laudatory responses from analytic philosophers as her earlier work.
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The 1977 book A Pattern Language was a landmark in the design world, introducing a methodology that has since become remarkably widespread and effective across many fields. Among them is software, where “design patterns” have since become an industry standard. Important spinoffs include peer-to-peer collaboration technologies like wiki – the basis of Wikipedia and related innovations – as well as Agile Methodology. Yet curiously, the one field where pattern methodology has lagged most conspicuously is the one where it began, the built environment. In part, the popular appeal of the 1977 book served to “freeze” the initial set of patterns, greatly slowing further peer-to-peer development – contrary to the original authors’ stated aims. As one remedy we present here, in one of many hoped-for future companion volumes to the original classic book, a new collection of 80 patterns for a new era of urban challenges. Its authors include several long-time collaborators of the original lead author of A Pattern Language. This new collection emerged in part from a five-year collaboration with UN-Habitat to address new urban challenges, including rapid urbanization, slum upgrading, sustainable urbanism, emerging technologies, and new tools and strategies to meet these and other challenges. However, there remains an urgent need to develop and share tools and strategies grounded in research evidence, and subject to revision, addition, and refinement, with new findings from new collaborators. This volume aims to meet that need – together with the launch of an online companion pattern “repository”, available at npl.wiki. Both initiatives were developed in collaboration with Ward Cunningham, wiki inventor, and pioneer of pattern languages of programming as well as Agile Methodology. Both are meant to expand the capacity of pattern languages in support of a hopeful new era of open-source, human-centered, life-enriching technology. The technology of A Pattern Language launched Wikipedia and the other programming methods we advanced. We are pleased to be a part of the cyber life of this work, returning again to have an impact on the built world. - Ward Cunningham, inventor of wiki, and co-developer of pattern languages of programming “The fact is, that we have written [the original] book as a first step in the society-wide process by which people will gradually become conscious of their own pattern languages, and work to improve them… we imagine this pattern language might be related to the countless thousands of other languages we hope that people will make for themselves, in the future...” - Christopher Alexander and co-authors, A Pattern Language (1977)
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This chapter provides an overview of current scientific worldviews. It begins with a summary of reductive physicalism and then reviews one of the most well-known emergent naturalistic visions, which is an interdisciplinary project called Big History that shares much in common with the Tree of Knowledge System. The similarities and differences between the standard Big History view and the Tree of Knowledge System are reviewed. The chapter shows why Big History does not provide a clear naturalistic ontology that can address the problem of psychology, as it does not include the emergence of the Animal-Mind dimension. It also does not make the necessary distinction between emergence processes that take place within the dimensions and emergences that give rise to whole new dimensions. This is essential to obtain a clear picture of the major “joint points” in nature and effectively map its ontological structure. The conclusion is that the ToK System gives a new and better map of Big History that can set the stage for solving the ontological problem of psychology.KeywordsBig HistoryCosmic evolutionPhilosophy of scienceReductionEmergence
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This Element discusses the relationship between Christianity and evolutionary theory, with special emphasis on Darwinian evolutionary theory (Darwinism). The Creationists argue that the two are incompatible and it is religion that is the truth and Darwinism the falsity. The New Atheists argue that the two are incompatible and it is religion that is the falsity and Darwinism the truth. Through a careful examination of both Darwinian theory and Christianity, it is shown that both extremes are mistaken. It is accepted that there are difficult issues to be solved, for example the problem of evil - which some think is exacerbated by Darwinism - and the necessarily appearance of Homo sapiens - which is problematic if evolutionary theory does not guarantee progress and the evolution of humans as the apotheosis. It is argued that there are ways forward, and Christianity and evolutionary thinking can be shown compatible.
Article
Charles Hartshorne highlights sympathy as a core element of God’s love that is undervalued in Christian theology. A detailed understanding of the relationship between loving God and loving others and loving others as oneself is developed based on God’s sympathetic love. A comparison between Hartshorne’s sympathetic love and Confucian empathetic ren is possible since both eliminate the estrangement between the subject loving and the subject loved and both expand love to others beyond the limited scope of love in human moral practice.
Article
The Extensive Continuum is most often seen as an empty form that awaits the accommodation of actuality. Contrary to this popular interpretation, I argue that extension is completely immanent to actual occasions and their prehensive relations. Whitehead’s doctrine of internal relations entails that extension cannot be separated from actual occasions, just as actual occasions cannot be separated from extension. To prehend is to extend. Furthermore, any strict separation of form and actuality is shown to bifurcate nature into publicity and privacy. Only with the immanence of extension is nature truly one.
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This article is an attempt to examine and clarify the truth theory of American pragmatism. Three central ideas of this truth theory will be considered in light of Whitehead’s metaphysics: a rejection of the correspondence theory of truth, a defense of fallibilism, and a recognition of the temporality of truth.
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In God of Empowering Love: A History and Reconception of the Theodicy Conundrum, David Polk proposes that the power of God should be understood as love that empowers rather than overpowers and that the process-relational metaphysics of Whitehead, Hartshorne, and subsequent Whiteheadian thinkers justifies this conception of God’s power as empowering love. I argue instead that, while Polk’s thesis cannot, strictly speaking, be philosophically justified within the conventional parameters of Whitehead’s metaphysical scheme, the latter could be modestly altered so as to justify divine power as empowering love. In what follows, I lay out my argument for a systems-oriented approach to the God-world relationship in which God as Trinity is both the transcendent origin and ultimate goal of the cosmic process (understood as an ongoing structured society of finite subsocieties and nexuses).
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This article continues a long history within process thought of multi-religious engagement and analysis of the concept of God. Specifically, this article will move beyond the classical “big five” religions of Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism so as to explore in detail the relationship between Whitehead’s philosophy/theology and several thinkers and concepts in the Baha’i faith, especially the concept of the “Manifestation” of God.
Article
The incoherence is between Whitehead’s definition of “speculative philosophy” in the first section of Process and Reality’s opening chapter, which defines metaphysics as transcendental, and important moments in later chapters of the book, where he asserts that metaphysical formulations are generalizations of empirical or contingent features. In explicating this inconsistency, the article attends to Whitehead’s definition of metaphysical in distinction from cosmological features, his understandings of the “aeroplane” metaphor, the ontological principle, and especially the initial aim. The article argues that Whitehead’s account of these, and especially the initial aim, should be deleted from neoclassical metaphysics.
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Ya en su tesis doctoral, Malabou (1996) empieza a elaborar, a partir de una relectura de Hegel, una noción que recorrerá toda su obra: el concepto de “plasticidad”. En este artículo analizamos las principales apariciones de dicho concepto en los primeros trabajos de la autora francesa. En ella, dialoga especialmente, y de manera declarada, con Hegel, Heidegger y Derrida, prometiendo un concepto de la esencia o la forma que incorpore la diferencia sin negarla. Si bien el concepto de “plasticidad” en la obra de Malabou ha sufrido un giro, según el cual ha entrado en un diálogo abierto con la biología y, más concretamente, con las neurociencias contemporáneas, en el presente artículo veremos su estatuto antes de dicho giro.
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Open theism holds the view that the future is open to God and, therefore cannot be known as certainly as traditionally thought. And if God does not know the future, then His knowledge, in one sense, could be limited.
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What would waste relations be like if they were conceptualized as waste care rather than waste management? To explore this inquiry in practice, we examine two different ethnographic examples of dwelling with waste: (1) smart home technologies as part of ageing healthcare services in regional Australia and (2) bokashi composting as an alternative waste practice in urban Finland. Bringing together scholarship on infrastructures from design anthropology, and waste studies with new materialist and feminist perspectives, we propose infra-ecologies of waste care as an analytical tool to unpack complex care relations embedded in everyday waste practices.
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We humans owe our existence to a functioning biosphere, produced by almost four billion years of biological evolution. We depend on using nature to fulfil our needs, but how are our affairs organised vis-a-vis events and processes in the rest of nature? In this chapter, I ask whether the notion of infrastructure helps to identify such features of nature that are critical in human livelihood. For this perspective to be fruitful, distinctions are necessary; if everything is infrastructure, nothing is, and the term loses analytic power. I understand infrastructure along the lines presented by Susan Leigh Star and Karen Ruhleder. Accordingly, I view infrastructure as inherently tied up with how human practices grow up and become organised; it cannot be viewed as just an external support structure which is already there when humans build up organisational practice of some sort. I take up two examples that highlight the setting of human livelihood from two ends of the spatio-temporal range, as it were: the global biosphere as the largest possible frame of explicating the human ecological condition, and the garden as the smallest feasible unit of actual human practice. When I aim at identifying such events or processes of nature that can be reasonably regarded as infrastructure of human livelihood, I am not after nature “as such”; I am after elements of nature that are drawn within the sphere of human practices. For this aim I recruit conceptual resources of two main types: the “bioeconomics” of economist Nicolai Georgescu-Roegen, and the perspective of “ecology of practices” promoted by philosopher Isabelle Stengers. My conclusion is that infrastructure is a useful concept when it refers to something that mediates vital processes of human livelihood with nature’s events and processes but does not happen on its own; in other words, infrastructure is a human-constructed mediator which becomes firmly integrated with specific natural processes through practical use. Context-specificity is an important requirement; there is no way to formulate a universal “recipe” for using “infrastructure” as an analytic device across all fields and contexts of human action.
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Study aims: The article aims at reiterating the importance of a biopsychosocial approach to mental health, taking stock of the critiques that have been raised and moving forward throughout a reconsideration of the theoretical background of systems thinking and emphasizing the relevance of the concept of thick description for the promotion of an adequate reflection on methodology and case formulation. Literature review: It is our opinion that the biopsychosocial approach is still a powerful framework for making sense of the growing data collected in the different fields related to mental health and for designing proper treatment plans. A crucial challenge for mental health is that of surpassing the dichotomies and ideological disputes that still contaminate the field with detrimental effects on the advancement of knowledge and on the integration and continuity of different kind of interventions. Conclusions: The time is ripe for building bridges among neuroscience, humanities and social sciences, and this can only happen within the umbrella of a biopsychosocial perspective reinstated into its systems thinking background.
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This collection of essays explores the metaphysical thesis that the living world is not ontologically made up of substantial particles or things, as has often been assumed, but is rather constituted by processes. The biological domain is organized as an interdependent hierarchy of processes, which are stabilized and actively maintained at different timescales. Even entities that intuitively appear to be paradigms of things, such as organisms, are actually better understood as processes. Unlike previous attempts to articulate processual views of biology, which have tended to use Alfred North Whitehead’s panpsychist metaphysics as a foundation, this book takes a naturalistic approach to metaphysics. It submits that the main motivations for replacing an ontology of substances with one of processes are to be looked for in the empirical findings of science. Biology provides compelling reasons for thinking that the living realm is fundamentally dynamic and that the existence of things is always conditional on the existence of processes. The phenomenon of life cries out for theories that prioritize processes over things, and it suggests that the central explanandum of biology is not change but rather stability—or, more precisely, stability attained through constant change. This multicontributor volume brings together philosophers of science and metaphysicians interested in exploring the consequences of a processual philosophy of biology. The contributors draw on an extremely wide range of biological case studies and employ a process perspective to cast new light on a number of traditional philosophical problems such as identity, persistence, and individuality.
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Ce travail mène une double réflexion sur la place théorique de la notion d'espace en socio-anthropologie et l'usage de la littérature de science-fiction (SF) dans la méthodologie de la discipline.Des considérations historiques montrent comment la spatialité est d'abord pensée en Occident par la philosophie et les sciences de la nature pour leur propre compte, en rapport plus ou moins lointain avec les pratiques spatiales. Puis lors de la constitution des sciences sociales, la notion se retrouve au cœur de luttes interdisciplinaires, ce qui débouche sur son invisibilisation relative en sociologie. Un nouvel intérêt pour l'espace s'y fait jour depuis quelques décennies, mais sans qu'un corpus théorique n'ait encore vraiment émergé.Dans ce contexte, l'usage de la SF apparaît comme un moyen parmi d'autres de libérer l'imagination sociologique. Sa pertinence s'appuie sur deux constats : il s'agit d'une littérature de la distanciation, qui permet la mise en risque d'objets théoriques divers dans des contextes inédits ; d'autre part, elle possède une tendance caractéristique à thématiser l'espace.Ces réflexions préalables sont alors suivies d'une tentative d'expérimentation concrète de cette méthodologie sur le terrain de la constitution de la dimension verticale dans le monde occidental autour des années 1880. Après un premier cadrage théorique du vertical socio-anthropologique appuyé sur la synthèse récente de Martina Löw en sociologie de l'espace (2016), ainsi que sur les travaux de James Gibson, l'étude s'effectue grâce à trois œuvres : Robur-le-Conquérant de Jules Verne, Le Vingtième Siècle d'Albert Robida et Ignis de Didier de Chousy.En s'appuyant sur les différentes structures thématiques et narratives, on dégage alors plusieurs idéal-types de la constitution du vertical à la Belle Époque, dont les plus saillants sont les schèmes de la Parade et du Complexe vertical urbain, rassemblant à eux deux de nombreuses dimensions symboliques et sensibles du spacing et de la synthèse spatiale. Ces idéal-types sont susceptibles de devenir des guides pour une étude socio-historique empirique.
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In diesem Artikel ist die Frage „Hat Religion Zukunft?“ der Ausgangspunkt für eine zukünftige Theorie der Religion(en), oder von Religiosität als solcher, die sich als „transreligiös“ versteht. Insofern als diese Frage und eine solche Theorie unvermeidlich im Kontext gegenwärtiger Säkularität stehen, in welchem Religion, Religionen und Religiosität entweder zu Sinnlosigkeit verbannt sind oder sich zu Bewältigungsmechanismen sozialer und psychischer Natur reduzieren lassen, oder gar als primäre Feinde von (ethischer) Menschwerdung karikierbar werden, ist die These hier zunächst, dass die Zukunft von Religion nur dann fraglich ist, falls Religion als eine kontingente Erscheinung einer notwendigen Naturalisierung unterlegen und durch sie bedingt wäre. Da aber eine solche Naturalisierung nicht notwendig, sondern selbst kontingent ist, hat Religion Zukunft.
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