A metabolic view on menopause and ageing
The ageing of the global population calls for a better understanding of age-related metabolic consequences. Here we report the effects of age, sex and menopause on serum metabolites in 26,065 individuals of Northern European ancestry. Age-specific metabolic fingerprints differ significantly by gender and, in females, a substantial atherogenic shift overlapping the time of menopausal transition is observed. In meta-analysis of 10,083 women, menopause status associates with amino acids glutamine, tyrosine and isoleucine, along with serum cholesterol measures and atherogenic lipoproteins. Among 3,204 women aged 40-55 years, menopause status associates additionally with glycine and total, monounsaturated, and omega-7 and -9 fatty acids. Our findings suggest that, in addition to lipid alterations, menopause may contribute to future metabolic and cardiovascular risk via influencing amino-acid concentrations, adding to the growing evidence of the importance of amino acids in metabolic disease progression. These observations shed light on the metabolic consequences of ageing, gender and menopause at the population level.
Available from: Rebecca C. Richmond
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ABSTRACT: Increased adiposity is linked with higher risk for cardiometabolic diseases. We aimed to determine to what extent elevated body mass index (BMI) within the normal weight range has causal effects on the detailed systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood.
We used Mendelian randomization to estimate causal effects of BMI on 82 metabolic measures in 12,664 adolescents and young adults from four population-based cohorts in Finland (mean age 26 y, range 16-39 y; 51% women; mean ± standard deviation BMI 24±4 kg/m2). Circulating metabolites were quantified by high-throughput nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics and biochemical assays. In cross-sectional analyses, elevated BMI was adversely associated with cardiometabolic risk markers throughout the systemic metabolite profile, including lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acid composition, amino acids, inflammatory markers, and various hormones (p<0.0005 for 68 measures). Metabolite associations with BMI were generally stronger for men than for women (median 136%, interquartile range 125%-183%). A gene score for predisposition to elevated BMI, composed of 32 established genetic correlates, was used as the instrument to assess causality. Causal effects of elevated BMI closely matched observational estimates (correspondence 87%±3%; R2 = 0.89), suggesting causative influences of adiposity on the levels of numerous metabolites (p<0.0005 for 24 measures), including lipoprotein lipid subclasses and particle size, branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, and inflammation-related glycoprotein acetyls. Causal analyses of certain metabolites and potential sex differences warrant stronger statistical power. Metabolite changes associated with change in BMI during 6 y of follow-up were examined for 1,488 individuals. Change in BMI was accompanied by widespread metabolite changes, which had an association pattern similar to that of the cross-sectional observations, yet with greater metabolic effects (correspondence 160%±2%; R2 = 0.92).
Mendelian randomization indicates causal adverse effects of increased adiposity with multiple cardiometabolic risk markers across the metabolite profile in adolescents and young adults within the non-obese weight range. Consistent with the causal influences of adiposity, weight changes were paralleled by extensive metabolic changes, suggesting a broadly modifiable systemic metabolite profile in early adulthood. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Available from: Thomas Illig
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ABSTRACT: -High-throughput profiling of circulating metabolites may improve cardiovascular risk prediction over established risk factors.
-We applied quantitative NMR metabolomics to identify biomarkers for incident cardiovascular disease during long-term follow-up. Biomarker discovery was conducted in the FINRISK study (n=7256; 800 events). Replication and incremental risk prediction was assessed in the SABRE study (n=2622; 573 events) and British Women's Health and Heart Study (n=3563; 368 events). In targeted analyses of 68 lipids and metabolites, 33 measures were associated with incident cardiovascular events at P<0.0007 after adjusting for age, sex, blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and medication. When further adjusting for routine lipids, four metabolites were associated with future cardiovascular events in meta-analyses: higher serum phenylalanine (hazard ratio per standard deviation: 1.18 [95%CI 1.12-1.24]; P=4×10(-10)) and monounsaturated fatty acid levels (1.17 [1.11-1.24]; P=1×10(-8)) were associated with increased cardiovascular risk, while higher omega-6 fatty acids (0.89 [0.84-0.94]; P=6×10(-5)) and docosahexaenoic acid levels (0.90 [0.86-0.95]; P=5×10(-5)) were associated with lower risk. A risk score incorporating these four biomarkers was derived in FINRISK. Risk prediction estimates were more accurate in the two validation cohorts (relative integrated discrimination improvement 8.8% and 4.3%), albeit discrimination was not enhanced. Risk classification was particularly improved for persons in the 5-10% risk range (net reclassification 27.1% and 15.5%). Biomarker associations were further corroborated with mass spectrometry in FINRISK (n=671) and the Framingham Offspring Study (n=2289).
-Metabolite profiling in large prospective cohorts identified phenylalanine, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as biomarkers for cardiovascular risk. This study substantiates the value of high-throughput metabolomics for biomarker discovery and improved risk assessment.
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ABSTRACT: Metabolomics is becoming common in epidemiology due to recent developments in quantitative profiling technologies and appealing results from their applications for understanding health and disease. Our team has developed an automated high-throughput serum NMR metabolomics platform that provides quantitative molecular data on 14 lipoprotein subclasses, their lipid concentrations and composition, apolipoprotein A-I and B, multiple cholesterol and triglyceride measures, albumin, various fatty acids as well as on numerous low-molecular-weight metabolites, including amino acids, glycolysis related measures and ketone bodies. The molar concentrations of these measures are obtained from a single serum sample with costs comparable to standard lipid measurements. We have analyzed almost 250 000 samples from around 100 epidemiological cohorts and biobanks and the new international set-up of multiple platforms will allow an annual throughput of more than 250 000 samples. The molecular data have been used to study type 1 and type 2 diabetes etiology as well as to characterize the molecular reflections of the metabolic syndrome, long-term physical activity, diet and lipoprotein metabolism. The results have revealed new biomarkers for early atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. We have also combined genomics and metabolomics in diverse studies. We envision that quantitative high-throughput NMR metabolomics will be incorporated as a routine in large biobanks; this would make perfect sense both from the biological research and cost point of view - the standard output of over 200 molecular measures would vastly extend the relevance of the sample collections and make many separate clinical chemistry assays redundant.
© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
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