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... Aggressive behavior has many incidence causes; especially, the ability to control and adjustment the emotions furthermore, the individual with a high emotional adjustment had better understand of their emotions, their causes, consequences and have the ability to resolve conflicts more so, they display fewer aggressive behaviors. This ability and concept called emotional intelligence (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19) Emotional intelligence is the ability to feel, understand and effectively use the power of emotions, In other words, emotional intelligence is concerned with understanding of oneself and others, relating to people and adapting into coping with the immediate environment and to be more successful on dealing with environmental demand. It consists of four domains; self-awareness, self -management, social awareness and social management (11,12) ...
... Studies examining the relationship between aggressive behavior and EI are show that emotional intelligent has effect in incidence of aggressive behavior, and that greater clarity and emotion repair are related to lower internal expression of aggression, and higher level of control. (13)(14)(15)(16)(17)(18)(19) Self-awareness is a dynamic process of self-reflection, it is the use of self-assessment to evaluate and guide behavior in an open manner. There are many approaches which can be easily lead to better self-understanding includes ; "Keeping a reflective diary, learning about body language and using models of reflection," Moreover, going through the process of self-awareness and then using it in a healthy way is important in regulating our emotions. ...
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Aggression in psychiatric hospitals considered as major workplace problems for the health care professionals especially the nurse, who is the most prone members of the hospital staff to patient's aggression. It has cognitive, emotional and personal variables. Aim: investigate the effectiveness of self-awareness program based on emotional intelligence on aggressive behavior of psychiatric hospital patients. Design: Quasi-experimental design (one group pretest posttest design) was used in this study. Setting: this study was conducted at inpatients psychiatric department in the "Psychiatry, neurology and neurosurgery center" at Tanta University hospital, Gharbeia governorate, Egypt. Subjects: A purposive sample of 41 psychiatric patients according to the inclusion criteria which include: newly admitted patients and experiencing aggressive behavior according to aggression questionnaire, their age above 18 years and duration of illness not less than six months. Tools: three tools were utilized to measure the study variables; Personal and clinical data Questionnaires, Buss and Perry Aggression questionnaire, Baron Emotional Quotient and Inventory and Emotional Self-Awareness Scale .Results: the results revealed that two third of the patients have high level of aggression, while most of them have mild level of emotional intelligence and most of the patients have mild level of emotional Self-awareness. The mean total score of aggression decreased post intervention of educational program, also, the level of emotional intelligence and self-awareness improved after implementation of the educational program. There is a negative significant relation between patient's level of aggression and level of self-awareness and emotional intelligence. Recommendations: this study recommended that, training program to psychiatric nurses regarding dealing with aggression is the key element in reducing risk and increasing safety for patients and nurses and reinforce the preventive measure in aggression management through hospital policies.
... En el ámbito de la agresividad en los estudiantes, Gutiérrez et al. (2017) descubrieron que altos niveles en las variables competencia emocional, capacidad de control cognitivo y estatus socioeconómico de los padres, inciden positivamente, relacionándose con un menor número de conductas agresivas (García et al. 2015), lo que ciertamente insta al profesorado y a las instituciones de educación a promover el desarrollo de las competencias socioemocionales y la capacidad de control cognitivo, puesto que la tercera variable, estatus socioeconómico de los padres, escapa de la esfera netamente educativa . ...
... Esto, por cuanto los avances en la investigación de la educación socioemocional y la asertividad indican resultados positivos en la conducta de las personas, puesto que sus beneficios transitan por la satisfacción y el positivismo frente a la vida, la tolerancia y conciencia entre iguales (Gómez et al., 2017); que ante un mayor nivel de competencia emocional se evidencia un menor nivel de conductas agresivas (García et al., 2015); genera un impacto positivo en el ambiente académico, adaptación social, buen desempeño laboral y prevención de conductas de riesgo; cooperatividad, apertura mental, autocontrol Martins et al., 2010;Mikolajczak et al., 2015;Rey et al., 2016;Vergara et al., 2015); una comunicación fluida, exenta de agresividad y sumisión al dialogar (Caridad et al., 2017); valida la personalidad, la seguridad en sí mismos y aumenta la autoestima (Berrio y Toro, 2018; León et al., 2009;Liranzo y Moreno, 2017); y, por ejemplo, genera redes de apoyo, huir del aislamiento, reconectarse consigo mismo y empoderarse cuando existe abuso psicológico en mujeres (Liranzo y Moreno, 2017). En resumen, el desarrollo de competencias socioemocionales y asertividad en alumnos universitarios es educar para la paz (Oueijan, 2018); para un bienestar social que se traduce en un ambiente óptimo para el aprendizaje. ...
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REFERENCIA: Leone, D. (2021). Estrategias para el aprendizaje de competencias socioemocionales frente a la intolerancia en sociedad. Modelo "MENTE" como didáctica para la asertividad. [Tesis para obtener el grado de Magíster en Docencia para la Educación Superior, Facultad de Educación y Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Andrés Bello, Chile]. Repositorio institucional UNAB. https://repositorio.unab.cl/xmlui/handle/ria/22286 RESUMEN: La presente investigación corresponde a una revisión de literatura realizada entre los años 2019 y 2021 sobre la problemática del alza de la intolerancia en contextos universitarios; hecho que promueve acciones perjudiciales para la sociedad académica y el aprendizaje de los alumnos, como por ejemplo: la censura de la libertad de expresión y de pensamiento crítico, la interrupción de clases y la violencia contra personas basadas en la discriminación arbitraria; dejando de manifiesto una necesidad en la formación de competencias socioemocionales. En razón de lo anterior, el objetivo apunta a examinar los avances en la investigación de la educación socioemocional y sus beneficios en el alumnado universitario, producto de lo cual se propone el modelo “MENTE” como una estrategia didáctica que fomente el aprendizaje de competencias socioemocionales, como la asertividad, en los estudiantes de educación superior. Los resultados contribuyen con herramientas teóricas y prácticas para la implementación de la propuesta didáctica en aula para futuros programas ligados a la educación socioemocional o en talleres como parte de asignaturas disciplinares; sumado al beneficio social que implica la prevención de la intolerancia y al desarrollo de la asertividad en la formación de profesionales en la educación superior, orientado a una comunidad libre, diversa y tolerante. PALABRAS CLAVE: intolerancia, asertividad, metacognición, educación socioemocional, didácticas en educación superior. ABSTRACT: This research corresponds to a literature review carried out between 2019 and 2021 on the problem of the rise of intolerance in university contexts; fact that promotes actions that are harmful to academic society and student learning, such as: censorship of freedom of expression and critical thinking, interruption of classes and violence against people based on arbitrary discrimination; leaving manifest a need in the formation of socio-emotional competencies. Due to the above, the objective aims to examine the advances in the research of socio-emotional education and its benefits in university students, as a result of which the “MENTE” model is proposed as a didactic strategy that encourages the learning of socio-emotional competences, like assertiveness, in higher education students. The results contribute with theoretical and practical tools for the implementation of the didactic proposal in the classroom for future programs related to socio-emotional education or in workshops as part of disciplinary subjects; added to the social benefit implied by the prevention of intolerance and the development of assertiveness in the training of professionals in higher education, aimed at a free, diverse and tolerant community. KEYWORDS: intolerance, assertiveness, metacognition, socioemotional education, didactics in higher education.
... Results of some studies (Bibi et al., 2020) suggest that emotional intelligence could be a protective factor against some aspects of aggression. Two systematic reviews claim that emotional intelligence and aggression are negatively related regardless of the ages, cultures, types of aggression (García-Sancho et al., 2014), and theoretical models of emotional intelligence . Both studies show that people with higher levels of emotional intelligence are less aggressive. ...
... What is surprising is the fact that emotional intelligence and generalized and social self-efficacy are not significant predictors, although this was expected based on previous research reporting an association between emotional intelligence and lower aggressiveness (García-Sancho et al., 2014;Vega et al., 2021) and significant negative predictor roles of self-efficacy in aggressiveness in boxers (Chen et al., 2019). Future research should focus on the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the personality-aggression relationship, as suggested by some authors (Peláez-Fernández et al., 2014), since the sample size was limited in this study. ...
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Combat sports and martial arts are often associated with aggressiveness among the general public, although data on judo and/or martial arts and aggressiveness seem to be unclear. This research aims to compare athletes who have trained judo for a prolonged time (minimum 5 years) and athletes from various team sports, primarily regarding the manifestation of aggression, but also regarding personality traits, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy. Also, the potential predictive value of personality traits, emotional intelligence, and self-efficacy for aggression within subsamples of judokas and team athletes was tested. The research findings showed that professional judo athletes are characterized by a low degree of aggression, especially low indirect and physical manifestations of aggression. In addition, the personality traits Honesty-Humility and Openness to experience are well expressed, contrary to Emotionality and Extraversion, which are less pronounced. They are also characterized by moderate general self-efficacy. On the other hand, members of team sports produced the opposite results, as they are characterized by increased aggression, pronounced traits of Emotionality and Extraversion, somewhat less pronounced traits of Honesty-Humility, Openness to new experience, and less pronounced general self-efficacy. The percentage of explained variability of aggression is slightly higher in the subsample of team sports and constitutes 49.9% of the variability, while in the subsample of judokas it constitutes 47.8% of the variability of the criteria. Practical implications, limitations, and future research directions were discussed.
... Ample evidence showed that emotional intelligence is associated with classic indicators of mental health significantly (e.g., Cejudo, 2016;Singh and Bhardwaj, 2016). For example, Lea et al. (2019) used metaanalyses method to investigate the relationships between emotional intelligence and mental health, and found that higher emotional intelligence is associated with lower levels of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress and less likely to suicide (García-Sancho et al., 2014). A follow-up study showed that the students who with high emotional intelligence had fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety over time (Antinienė and Lekavičienė, 2017), and an international research has confirmed that high emotional intelligence can significantly improve the level of mental health (Kaur, 2019). ...
... As a result of the analysis which was conducted for examining the direct role of emotional intelligence on mental health was found significant prediction. Riches of previous studies also found out that emotional intelligence had a significant relationship with mental health (e.g., García-Sancho et al., 2014;Lea et al., 2019). The present study found a direct predict effect of emotional intelligence on mental health. ...
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Compare with other professions, teachers are reported to have a higher risk of poor mental health. This study examined the relationships between emotional intelligence, perceived organizational justice, and mental health among Chinese high school teachers. Three hundred and eighty-one high school teachers, with their age range between 21 and 50 years, were administered the Emotional Intelligence Scale, Perceived Organizational Justice Scale, and Mental Health Scale. The result found that emotional intelligence and perceived organizational justice directly influence the mental health of high school teachers. In addition, perceived organizational justice mediated the association between emotional intelligence and mental health. Moreover, the present study analyzes the different role of subtypes of perceived organizational justice on the relationships between emotional intelligence and mental health, and the results showed that the mediating effects of perceived distributive justice and interactive justice on emotional intelligence and mental health are not significant, only the perceived procedural justice mediated the relationships between emotional intelligence and teachers’ mental health. The results are discussed in a conceptual context.
... Emotional intelligence refers to "the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth" (Mayer and Salovey 1997, p. 10). It plays an important role in daily life because the interpretation of emotional information and the regulation of emotion influence our cognitive decisions and behavioral patterns (Garcia-Sancho et al. 2014). Indeed, some researchers believe that emotional intelligence has extensive social adaptation functions and is a general protective factor for individual development (Engelberg and Sjöberg 2004). ...
... Specifically, a lack of the ability to recognize and moderate negative emotions greatly increases the probability of aggression (Peled and Moretti 2007). A number of "variable-centered" studies have shown that high emotional intelligence is associated with low aggressive behavior (e. g., Bibi et al. 2020;Garcia-Sancho et al. 2014;Gutiérrez-Cobo et al. 2018). It should be of value to verify these associations using the person-centered approach that considers the heterogeneity of the individuals. ...
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In contrast to the traditional “variable-centered” approach, this study used a “person-centered” approach to reveal the distinct profiles of aggressive behavior among 851 Chinese college students, and tested how these profiles were related to two potential protective factors (emotional intelligence and self-esteem) and one outcome (friendship quality). Our results showed five different profiles (labeled as low, hostile, indirect, moderate, and high aggression groups) that exhibited different characteristics of aggressive behavior and differential associations with the protective and outcome variables. Three groups (the low, hostile, and indirect aggression groups) had higher levels of emotional intelligence and friendship quality than the other two groups (the moderate and high aggression groups). In terms of self-esteem, the low aggression group showed higher self-esteem than did the hostile, indirect, and moderate aggression groups, who in turn showed higher self-esteem than did the high aggression group. The study suggests that using the “person-centered” approach may considerably deepen our understanding of aggressive behavior among college students and its relationship with other variables.
... En este sentido en numerosos centros se han implantado programas educativos con buenos resultados (Fernández-Berrocal y Cabello, 2021). El aprendizaje socioemocional proporciona menor agresividad (García-Sancho et al., 2014), disminuye la hostilidad y los sentimientos de enfado (Inglés et al., 2014), mejora las estrategias de afrontamiento (Resurrección et al., 2014), aumenta la satisfacción con la vida (López-Cassá et al., 2018) y contribuye al aprendizaje activo (Molinillo et al., 2018) por lo que su desarrollo en contextos virtuales también aporta importantes beneficios tanto en contextos escolares, sociales y personales. De hecho, los estudios avalan que las competencias emocionales son un factor de protección para comportamientos en el entorno virtual como la nomofobia (Díaz-Miranda y Extremera, 2020), el ciberbullying y el abuso de las redes sociales (Nasaescu et al., 2018) así como una alta autoestima protege del narcisismo en las redes sociales (Blachnio et al., 2016). ...
... No podemos olvidar que los adolescentes se suelen evaluar en estos procesos potenciando respuestas emocionales como la envidia y la vergüenza que se asocia a conductas de burnout (Lim y Yang, 2015) por lo que el aprendizaje de una sana comparación social sin depender del número de seguidores y el número de likes (Rosenthal-von der Pütten et al., 2019) los hace menos vulnerables emocionalmente. Por último, la mayor consciencia del mayor efecto dañino que las bromas online tienen debido a la amplificación que sufren a través de las redes sociales favorece la competencia prosocial en línea y por tanto puede favorecer que disminuyan situaciones de agresividad (García-Sancho et al., 2014), de hostilidad y el número de enfados (Inglés et al., 2014) así como la reducción de situaciones de ciberbullying ). ...
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En la actualidad, educar a los adolescentes a gestionarse emocionalmente en las redes sociales es un desafío y un campo incipiente de investigación. Internet ofrece numerosos beneficios, pero también potencia, entre otros, problemas emocionales y de relaciones sociales. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo valorar el aprendizaje en gestión emocional en la comunicación online que puede llevarse a cabo a través de la metodología de Aprendizaje Servicio. En este estudio participaron 84 estudiantes de 4º ESO que impartieron actividades a 108 alumnos de 2º ESO en un colegio de Zaragoza. Estos talleres implicaban la creación de materiales digitales. El proyecto se evaluó a su término con cuestionarios a todos los agentes implicados. Entre otros resultados relevantes se constata que el 73% ha aprendido a gestionar emocionalmente las tensiones y malentendidos que se crean en las redes sociales y el 94% afirma que ha aprendido a identificar las emociones que se producen en la interacción virtual. Este estudio exploratorio muestra que en los estudiantes que realizaron el proyecto ApS se potenciaron la responsabilidad, la conducta prosocial y la motivación. Se discute el aprendizaje significativo y la formación integral que aporta el ApS.
... Individuals with greater EI seem to prefer collaborative conflict resolution strategies [34,35], and a study by Castillo and colleagues [36] found that a group of students who underwent EI training reported lower levels of physical/verbal aggression, anger, hostility, personal distress, and fantasy than the students in the control group. Moreover, identifying emotions (particularly negative emotions) allows for a decision as to whether to regulate them and is key to facilitating and making this process more effective [37][38][39][40][41]. ...
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On 24 February, Russian President Vladimir Putin gave the order to invade neighbouring Ukraine; a typical trend during the war is considering events in a one-sided way, emphasising the exclusive contribution of one opponent over the other for the outbreak of war. War may trigger the experience of emotions, such as anger, shame, and disgust. The present study reproduces previous studies on the influence of emotional regulation in support of aggressive reactions (AR) in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. A questionnaire referring to the Russian–Ukrainian conflict has been implemented and spread in the Italian territory. A multiple moderated mediation model was proposed to evaluate the effect of emotional cognitive reappraisal on the propensity for AR, including conflict-related emotions (anger, shame, disgust) as mediators and political alignment and the appraisal of one’s own emotions subscale of the brief emotional intelligence scale as moderators. The results show that cognitive reappraisal of emotions has a negative effect on AR; moreover, recognising and regulating emotions decreases anger, while taking sides with Ukraine or not siding seems to have an effect on AR depending on the emotion felt (anger or shame). The results are discussed according to the current literature on the topic, highlighting the practical implications and limits of the research.
... This act of aggression shows that the EI (emotional intelligence) of adolescents is low. Based on research conducted by García-Sancho, Salguero, and Fernández-Berrocal (2014) [8], someone who has a high EI will not act of aggression. According to Mayer, Caruso & Salovey (2000) [9] emotional intelligence is a person's ability to understand the meaning of emotions and relationships, and solve problems based on these emotions. ...
... and monitoring treatment progress. Researchers in forensic psychiatry have only recently increased their interest in emotion regulation, however, and studies on emotion regulation in forensic populations remain scarce (Roberton et al., 2012;García-Sancho et al., 2014;Garofalo et al., 2016;Garofalo and Velotti, 2017). Increased knowledge on NSSI and its functions in relation to emotion regulation seems especially important in forensic psychiatric settings, to avoid misconceptions of patients' intent behind NSSI such that the behavior rather functions to manipulate or control the environment instead of being an expression of psychological dysfunction and suffering. ...
Article
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Emotion regulation has been specifically linked to both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and attempted suicide. It is also known that self-harm is disproportionally higher (30–68.4%) in forensic samples than in the general population, yet knowledge about the association between emotion regulation and self-harm in forensic settings is scarce. The purpose of this study was to describe emotion regulation in a sample of forensic psychiatric patients, to explore dimensions and levels of emotion regulation between forensic psychiatric patients with and without self-harm, and to explore associations between forensic psychiatric patients’ self-reported emotion regulation and self-reported functions of NSSI. A cohort of forensic psychiatric inpatients (N=98) was consecutively recruited during 2016–2020 from a high-security forensic psychiatric clinic in Sweden. Data were collected through the self-report measures Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) and Inventory of Statements About Self-injury (ISAS). In relation to the first aim, median total and subscales scores for DERS were reported. Results showed a statistically significant difference in emotion regulation between participants with and without self-harm (p=0.004), with a medium effect size (Cohen’s d=0.65) for the DERS total scale. The DERS subscales returned large differences for Impulse (p=0.001, d=0.86), Goals (p=0.014, d=0.58), and Strategies (p=0.012, d=0.54) between participants with and without self-harm. Finally, DERS scores were correlated with both the interpersonal (rs=0.531, p<0.001, n=43) and intrapersonal factors (rs=0.503, p<0.001, n=43) of NSSI as reported on the ISAS. Participants with self-harm (NSSI and/or suicide attempts) demonstrated significantly more difficulties with emotion regulation than those without self-harm. Emotion dysregulation was associated with both interpersonal and intrapersonal functions of NSSI in the participants. We suggest further studies on forensic psychiatric patients’ maladaptive behaviors that focus on substance abuse, self-harm, and aggressive behaviors in relation to the regulation and expression of emotion.
... EI is also used to manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s) [2]. High EI is associated with positive effects -among others-on mental health [3], stress management [4], aggressive behavior [5], leadership skills [6], academic [7] and job performance [8]. ...
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Significant efforts have been allocated over the last thirty years towards the definition and measurement of the Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct. Several EI theories and models have been produced to support psychological assessment processes. However, barriers are identified for their wide adoption and exploitation by social scientists. The absence of a common structured format to represent concepts in EI models has resulted in lack of clarity and consistency, while hindering comparison, validation and extensive evaluation processes. Provision of open access to such models and measurement instruments has not been promoted so far, however, considered crucial for their wide adoption. Furthermore, the inclusion of indexes from the sociometry domain can facilitate participatory modeling by multidisciplinary scientists during the development of social and emotional training programs. To address these challenges, we propose EmoSocio, an open access Emotional Intelligence Model, built upon a detailed comparison and synthesis of the main constructs represented in widely accepted EI models and enriched with sociometric indexes at an individual and group level. Upon detailing the methodological approach followed for the development of the EmoSocio model, we present the EI and social constructs of the model, followed by an assessment of the EI part in terms of reliability and validity. EmoSocio is also represented in a semantically-enriched format in the form of an ontology. Our ambition is to provide an open access EI model that can be used by multidisciplinary scientists to evaluate psychological assessment processes and develop interventions, aiming to strengthen interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies.
... Las evidencias empíricas acerca de la eficacia y los beneficios de la educación emocional son abrumadoras (Pérez-González, 2012). Se ha relacionado la educación emocional con la mejora en diferentes variables como el bienestar y consumo de sustancias (Serrano y Andreu, 2016), la salud física y mental (Martins, Ramalho y Morín, 2010), las conductas agresivas (García, Salguero y Fernández, 2014) y el rendimiento académico (Lanciano y Curci, 2014). Además, cabe resaltar que un análisis costes-beneficios realizado por el economista Belfield et al. (2015) estimó que los beneficios de los programas de educación emocional superan los costes en una proporción de 11 a 1. ...
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La inclusión de colectivos vulnerables en la sociedad, concretamente en los centros educativos, está recibiendo una atención especial en los últimos años. Siguiendo esta línea, en este trabajo se presenta una propuesta de formación, dirigida al profesorado, con el objetivo de facilitar la adquisición y desarrollo de herramientas y recursos de educación emocional, para afrontar el proceso de acogida y atención psicopedagógica al alumnado refugiado de primaria. Para diseñar la propuesta de formación, se aplica previamente un cuestionario de conocimientos y necesidades sobre educación emocional y alumnado refugiado a 27 profesores y profesoras que imparten clases en diferentes provincias españolas. Gracias a la información aportada por el profesorado, la propuesta de formación que se propone adopta los siguientes objetivos específicos: conocer y comprender la situación del alumnado refugiado; formarse en el proceso de acogida del alumnado refugiado; y acompañar emocionalmente al alumnado refugiado en su proceso de inclusión y adaptación a las nuevas condiciones de educación y socialización. Para lograr dichos objetivos, se propone entrenar al profesorado en acciones y actividades prácticas durante nueve sesiones tipo taller. Para valorar esta formación, se realiza la consulta de una profesional experta en el trabajo con personas refugiadas.
... People vary in their "ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought" (Mayer et al., 2008, p. 511), a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI; Mayer & Salovey, 1997). High EI individuals are typically more socially competent, experience less conflicts in social relationships, and report greater psychological well-being (Brackett et al., ,2011(Brackett et al., , , 2019Cabello & Fernandez-Berrocal, 2015;Mayer et al., 2016;Schutte et al., 2001), while lower levels of EI are related to socially problematic behaviors such as interpersonal aggression (García-Sancho, Salguero, & Fernández-Berrocal, 2014García-Sancho et al., 2017). Given the key role of emotions underlying outgroup prejudice and intergroup bias, the ability to manage one's emotions may allow individuals to process intergroup emotions more effectively (e.g., regulating negative emotions toward outgroups), leading to greater tolerance and positivity toward outgroups and reducing negative attitudes associated with negative intergroup emotions. ...
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People vary in their ability to understand, process, and manage information about one's own and others’ emotions, a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI). Past research highlighted the importance of EI in interpersonal relations as well as the key role of emotions underlying outgroup prejudice. Remarkably, hardly any research has investigated the associations between EI and outgroup prejudice. In three studies (total N = 922) conducted in Spain and the United Kingdom, we measured emotional intelligence using self‐report and performance tests and prejudice toward a variety of outgroups. Results showed that those with stronger performance‐based emotion management skills expressed lower generalized ethnic prejudice (Studies 1–3), more positive attitudes toward immigrants (Study 2a) and refugees (Study 2b), and less homophobic attitudes (Study 3). This negative association between emotion management and prejudice was found with different performance‐based EI measures and held after controlling for self‐perceived EI (Study 1) and self‐reported abilities to regulate emotions (Study 3). Study 3 further demonstrated that higher empathy partly accounted for the association between emotion management and prejudice. The findings suggest that emotion management abilities play an important, but so far largely neglected role in generalized prejudice.
... The capacity to understand others' mental states is an advantage to navigate in the social world (Amodio and Frith, 2006). An adequate interpretation of others' minds is associated with better social and role functioning (Brackett et al., 2006;Perera and DiGiacomo, 2013;Miao et al., 2017), higher quality of social interaction (Lopes et al., 2004), and sociometric status (Slaughter et al., 2015;Lonigro et al., 2018), less inter-personal conflicts (García-Sancho et al., 2014), more secure attachment style (Fonagy and Bateman, 2016), and higher social support (Di Fabio, 2015). Because our social and role functioning occur in the social world, it was hypothesized that mentalization regarding others' mental states might be more associated with social and role functioning than self-mentalizing. ...
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Research suggests that the ability to understand one’s own and others’ minds, or mentalizing, is a key factor for mental health. Most studies have focused the attention on the association between global measures of mentalizing and specific disorders. In contrast, very few studies have analyzed the association between specific mentalizing polarities and global measures of mental health. This study aimed to evaluate whether self and other polarities of mentalizing are associated with a multidimensional notion of mental health, which considers symptoms, functioning, and well-being. Additionally, the level or depth of mentalizing within each polarity was also analyzed. A sample of 214 adolescents (12–18 years old, M = 14.7, and SD = 1.7; 53.3% female) was evaluated on measures of self- (Trait Meta-Mood Scale or TMMS-24) and other- mentalizing (Adolescent Mentalizing Interview or AMI), multi-informed measures of psychopathology and functioning based on Achenbach’s system, and measures of psychological well-being (self-esteem, happiness, and motivation to life goals). Results revealed no association between mentalizing polarities and higher-order symptom factors (internalizing, externalizing, and global symptoms or “ p ” factor). Self-mentalizing was associated with self-esteem ( B = 0.076, p < 0.0005) and motivation to life goals ( B = 0.209, p = 0.002), and other-mentalizing was associated to general, social and role functioning ( B = 0.475, p < 0.0005; B = 0.380, p = 0.005; and B = 0.364, p = 0.004). This association between aspects of self-other mentalizing and self-other function has important implications for treatment and prevention. Deeper mentalizing within each polarity (i.e., comprehension beyond simple attention to one’s own mental states, and mentalizing referred to attachment figures vs. mentalizing referred to the characters of a story) revealed stronger associations with functioning and well-being. Because mentalizing polarities are associated with functioning and well-being but not with symptoms, a new hypothesis is developed: mentalizing does not contribute to resiliency by preventing symptoms, but by helping to deal with them, thus improving functioning and well-being independently of psychopathology. These findings support that promoting mentalizing across development may improve mental health, even in non-clinical population.
... This study follows the general protocol of a systematic review, summarized as planning the study, selecting the documents, analyzing/synthesizing the information, and reporting the results (Denyer & Tranfield, 2009;Pérez-Rave, 2012;Torgerson, 2003). Three inclusion/exclusion criteria supported by previous systematic reviews were used: C1 -peer review (one of the requirements for indexing in Scopus and the Web of Science -WoS); C2language (following Amor et al. (2019) and García-Sancho, Salguero and Fernández (2014)), we included documents in English and Spanish, which are in the authors' domain); and C3 -empirical studies (with original data and the IMRaD structure). These three criteria were also use by Barber-Westin and Noyes (2011), Li and Siegrist (2012), and Wagman and Håkansson (2019). ...
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Purpose: This article addresses the main concerns of existing literature about resistance to change (RC) in organizations, namely the limited interpretative position regarding RC focusing mainly on negative aspects and excluding potential benefits, and the poor consensus or even understanding of RC sources in organizations. Design/methodology/approach: To approach our goal, a systematic literature review will be carried out. The initial sample, obtained using reproducible search algorithms on Scopus and Web of Science, comprises 65 papers. After applying five inclusion/exclusion criteria supported by previous systematic reviews, the final sample consists of 30 papers. Findings: This article demonstrates the prevalence of a negative position toward RC and reveals efforts to harness the potential benefits of RC. In addition, from 126 specific RC sources extracted from the analyzed papers, it discovers and discusses 22 sub-typologies of RC sources, which are grouped into five typologies. Practical implications: The paper enables the future identification of, evaluation of, and intervention in 22 potential RC sources in organizations distinguished into five typologies. The taxonomy also enables researchers to organize and summarize study topics/subtopics regarding RC in the organizational arena. Social implications: This paper draws attention to the need to recognize the meaning and implications of three alternative positions relating to RC in organizations (positive, negative, and neutral). Originality/value: The paper provides a comprehensive taxonomy of RC sources beyond the traditional classification of individual/organizational factors.
... Unfortunately, group work does not come naturally (individuals do not know how to work within a group effectively), and regulation within groups can shift from one group member adopting a leading role to a more co-regulatory context where all group members share leadership [36]. Previous research in educational contexts found positive connections between emotional intelligence and the development of positive social skills [37], higher academic achievement and better psychosocial adjustment [38]. ...
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Previous research highlighted the effectiveness of cooperative learning in the four learning domains: physical, cognitive, social and affective. However, recent reviews have called for more empirical research on social and emotional learning based on contemporary theories, frameworks and assessment tools. Little is known about the links between cooperative learning and two strong contemporary frameworks: the achievement goal theory and the four-branch model of emotional intelligence. The goal of this study was to assess the connections between cooperative learning, task and self-approach goals, and emotional intelligence in physical education classes. Forty primary education students (21 girls, 19 boys), 10–12 years (Mage = 10.87; SD = 0.85), enrolled in two different classes in only one school, participated. None of them had experienced cooperative learning as a pedagogical model before. The study followed a one group, pre-test-post-test, pre-experimental design. Both classes experienced the same cooperative learning intervention programme conducted in physical education, which included two consecutive learning units for a total of 16 sessions (2 per week/50 min each). The same physical education teacher, an expert in cooperative learning, conducted all sessions. Results showed that the cooperative learning framework helped increase students’ self-approach goals and their emotional control and regulation, and empathy. In conclusion, the present study reinforced the use of cooperative learning in physical education, because it can guide students to more adaptive motivational patterns and to develop their emotional intelligence. Furthermore, it contributes to the students’ social and emotional learning building quality relationships, learning to manage stressors, and evolve individually and in groups.
... Kemampuan-kemampuan tersebut akan berkembang sejalan dengan berkembangnya aspek yang lain. Penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Woods & Pretorius (2016) menunjukakan kemampuan motorik akan mempengaruhi kemampuan bayi saat dewasa dan aspek pekembangan aspek kognitif akan mempengaruhi perkembangan tingkat emosi dan perilaku anak (Sancho, Salquero, & Berrocal, 2014). Oleh karena itu untuk mencapai tingkat perkembangan bayi yang optimal diperlukan adaptasi kemampuan emosi, berperilaku, dan kondisi lingkungan yang mendukung baik dari dalam maupun luar keluarga. ...
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Infancy is the starting point according to the capabilities and abilities that are formed. The age of the baby has a developmental task that must be questioned, namely trust and suspicion, which is not fulfilled so that it can cause fear there will be no comfort from the environment so that this baby develops suspicion for others and does not trust other people as well. Therapeutic group therapy (TKT) is one type of therapy that helps complete the development of infants, one of which is the development of motor skills. The purpose of reporting this case is to further resolve the application of TKT in improving infant motor development. The method used in this scientific work is a case report. The intervention was carried out on six family that has babies 0-6 months with a priority nursing diagnosis that is enforced is the readiness to increase the infant's age. Interventions were carried out in groups where each group consisted of 6-10 people. Improving the ability of infants through discussion and interviews after the intervention is carried out. The interventions given were generalist therapy and therapeutic group therapy (TKT). The author uses a workbook and a therapeutic evaluation book for Therapeutic Groups (TKT) to determine the understanding of baby's abilities. The results obtained are group therapy that can provide increased motor skills in infants.
... The silent aggressiveness of emotionally intelligent students might lead to one of the most hazardous problems in school, bullying. In general, EI is negatively related to bullying (García-Sancho et al., 2014), suggesting that students with high emotional intelligence can perceive and understand others' feelings and thus avoid doing what is disliked by others. However, some kinds of bullying such as social exclusion and relational bullying require high levels of social and emotional cognition (Sutton et al., 1999). ...
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In recent years, educational practitioners have become more aware of the importance of cultivating students' social and emotional skills, in order to facilitate adaptation beyond academic contexts. Emotional intelligence (EI), the ability to regulate one's own and others' emotions appropriately, has often been targeted in educational interventions. Previous studies suggest that EI promotes various positive social outcomes such as social support, prosocial behaviour, and subjective well-being. However, a growing body of research has also shown that EI may sometimes lead to antisocial behaviours such as indirect aggression and support for others' retaliation, but this "darker side" of EI tends to be overlooked. We argue that emotional intelligence without empathy can bring about manipulative or aggressive behaviour, and highlight the need to explore further how EI interacts with other personality traits in determining different social outcomes. This review addresses both the "bright" and the "dark" side of EI, aiming to offer a comprehensive, balanced perspective on its adaptive functions. Based on Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), our paper proposes that there might be a common mechanism by which EI links to both prosociality and aggression. Our analysis leads to the conclusion that researchers need to elaborate on the motivational mechanism underlying the behaviours of emotionally intelligent individuals, while teachers would be well-advised to pay attention to the motivations that support students' socially adaptive behaviours.
... Revisiones de literatura e investigaciones meta-analíticas aportan evidencia sólida para respaldar que la IE se asocia con niveles más altos de bienestar subjetivo (Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2016), con una mejor salud mental, psicosomática y física (Martins et al., 2010;Schutte et al., 2007), con un mejor desempeño laboral (O' Boyle et al., 2011) y académico (MacCann et al., 2020) y con una más alta satisfacción con el trabajo (Miao et al., 2017). Así mismo, se ha encontrado que tener altos niveles de IE se relaciona negativamente con la depresión , el estrés (Lea et al., 2019), la agresividad (García-Sancho et al., 2014), las adicciones (Kun y Demetrovics, 2010) y el desajuste psicológico (Resurrección et al., 2014). ...
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Differentiation of self is a multidimensional construct that refers to the capacity of emotional self-regulation, which allows a person to function individually and to be emotionally connected with others. Attachment is the emotional bond we create with the people of our close environment, which looks for our needs of feeling near and secure during our life, promoting our survival and providing the necessary stimulation in children for their correct development. The objective of the present study is to understand the relation that exist between differentiation of self and adult attachment. For the making of the present study, a bibliographic review was carried out with the following metasearch engines: Jabega UMA, Google Academics and APA PsycNET. The studies appear to agree in the existence of a negative association between Differentiation of Self and anxiety and avoidance in relationships of adult attachment, and positive association between emotional cutoff and avoidance, and among emotional reactivity and anxiety in attachment.
... Las tres décadas de estudio sobre los correlatos de la IE han aportado importantes hallazgos y han arrojado luz sobre la relevancia de este constructo en diversos ámbitos aplicados de la Psicología Social (Brackett et al., 2006(Brackett et al., , 2011Extremera, 2020). Por ejemplo, se ha constatado el papel de la IE para predecir una mayor satisfacción en las relaciones de pareja (Malouff et al., 2014) o como factor protector que reduciría las agresiones interpersonales (García-Sancho et al., 2014). En el área de la Psicología Social de la Salud se ha demostrado que las personas con mayor IE presentan mejores niveles de salud física, mental y psicosomática (Martins et al., 2010;Sarrionandia y Mikolajczak, 2020). ...
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Empirical evidence has demonstrated that teaching professionals suffer from psychosocial risk factors associated with negative educational, economic, and social consequences (Iriarte-Redín & Erro-Garcés, 2020; Travers, 2017). According to the Job Demands-Resources theory, it is proposed that both contextual and personal factors are predictors of teachers’ job strain, work engagement, and numerous individual and organizational outcomes (Bakker & Demerouti, 2017; Granziera et al., 2021). Work engagement is highlighted as a key dimension in the teaching context given its positive effects on health, commitment, and performance at work. Recent studies have increasingly focused on the predictive role of teachers’ personal resources (e.g., self-efficacy, optimism, and emotional intelligence) in work engagement as well as in positive functioning outcomes (Granziera et al., 2021). Emotional intelligence (EI) has been underscored as a helpful personal resource among teachers relating to increased work-related health and well-being (Iriarte-Redín & Erro-Garcés, 2020; Mérida-López & Extremera, 2017). However, the role of EI on teachers’ work engagement has not been empirically tested based upon the Job Demands-Resources theory. Better knowledge about the relationship between EI and contextual and personal factors in explaining teachers’ work engagement and work-related and personal well-being indicators would substantially contribute to the development of effective Positive Organizational Psychology intervention programs in educational settings. Therefore, the main goal of the current dissertation was to integrate existing theoretical frameworks on emotional intelligence and work-related well-being in providing novel empirical research offering a more comprehensive view regarding the effects of EI on teachers’ work engagement. Available at: https://hdl.handle.net/10630/21914
... For example, they have fewer psychosomatic symptoms, less anxiety, stress and depression, and also make use of more adaptive emotional regulation strategies with better levels of well-being and personal happiness (Cabello & Fernandez-Berrocal, 2015;İnce et al., 2020;Martins et al., 2010;Megías-Robles et al., 2019;Sánchez-Álvarez et al., 2015). EI is also a protective factor against suicide (Domínguez-García & Fernández-Berrocal, 2018), drug use (Kun & Demetrovics, 2010), aggression (García-Sancho et al., 2014;Vega et al., 2021), and academic failure (MacCann et al., 2020). ...
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This study aimed to contribute towards understanding the extent to which the emotional intelligence (EI), measured as an ability, of biological mothers and fathers was associated with the global EI of their offspring as young adults using a performance test of ability EI: the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). These questions were assessed using a cross-sectional sample (total N = 333), which was composed of 111 biological parents (111 mothers and 111 fathers) aged between 37 and 73 years (M = 51.26; SD = 5.91), and 111 offspring (54 men and 57 women) aged between 18 and 45 years (M = 22.56; SD = 3.26). There is an intergenerational gap between parents and offspring, with offspring having higher scores in EI than their fathers and mothers. The EI of parents was associated with that of their offspring, although the link with maternal EI was greater than the link with paternal EI, even controlling for certain demographic covariates such as the gender of the offspring. Moreover, the EI of fathers has an effect on the EI of their offspring especially when the EI of the mothers was low. These findings suggest that parental EI — particularly that of the mother — was significantly associated with the ability EI of their offspring during the lifespan.
... Emotional intelligence is related to hostility and criminality. [2][3][4][5] Individuals with low emotional intelligence are more prone for risky behaviour and are less empathetic. 6 They cannot regulate their own emotions which will result in inappropriate behaviour and it is difficult to maintain high morals. ...
... Higher EI is related to mental, psychosomatic, and physical health outcomes [1]. In the educational context, higher EI is related to better academic performance and negatively related to aggressiveness [2,3]; for teachers, it is negatively related to burnout [4,5]. In the organizational context, different studies state that higher EI is related to higher scores in performance variables such as job satisfaction and team work effectiveness [6][7][8]. ...
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Emotional intelligence (EI) is related to better performance in sports. To measure this construct , many tools have been developed and validated in the sports context. However, these tools are based on an individual's ability to manage their own emotions, but do not consider the emotions of the rest of the team (teammates, coaches, etc.). In this regard, the Workgroup Emotional Intelligence Profile short version (WEIP-S) is a self-reported measure designed to measure the EI of individuals who are part of a team. The aim of this study was to validate the WEIP-S structure to measure EI in the sports context, and to analyze the psychometric properties of this tool in the sample in terms of validity and reliability. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 273 athletes to examine the reliability, factor structure, and evidence of validity (convergent, discriminant, nomolog-ical, and concurrent) of the WEIP-S. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the original four-factor structure is the most appropriate for the sports context. Composite reliability was adequate for all factors except management of one's own emotions, which also showed poor convergent validity. Evidence of convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity are discussed. This study represents an advance in the use of specific scales to measure EI in the sports context.
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This study examines consumers’ perceived risks of COVID-19 to develop a solid theoretical framework that explains their behavioral intentions relating to COVID-19. It also explores the influence of four sub-factors of perceived risk relating to COVID-19 and the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder and revisit intention. This study finds that the perceived risk from COVID-19 and post-traumatic stress disorder have severely negative impacts on revisit intention for hotels, with emotion regulation ability found to play a moderating role in this process. Because hotels are used by a diverse group of people in terms of race, nationality, age, and culture, they can rapidly transit epidemics such as COVID-19. Therefore, hotel managers must identify the risks of COVID-19 as perceived by hotel guests, potential development of PTSD, and influence of such negative phenomena on guests’ behavioral intentions to formulate a variety of strategies.
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A field study was designed with the aim of knowing if deficits in cognitive skills a common characteristic of the juvenile offenders and protection youngsters are i.e., children under social services protection (in risk of deviation), and a differential from normalized population. As for these 450 Colombian youngsters (150 juvenile offenders, 150 protection youngsters, and 150 from the normal population), aged from 14 to 19 years, were assessed in emotional intelligence, coping, responsivity attribution, and self-concept. The results showed that juvenile offenders and youngsters under protection had deficit in attention to the emotions (emotional intelligence), used more maladaptive strategies for problems solving, and shared a negative definition of their selves, were less satisfied with their sleeves and with their behaviour. Nonetheless, the expected bias to external responsivity attribution was not observed. Finally, the magnitude of the damages in cognitive skills was quantified. The implications of the results for the intervention with juvenile offenders and the design and implementation of prevention programs with protection youngsters are discussed.
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to examine the incautious usage of social media and its impact on emotional intelligence and health. After a brief introduction to the emotional intelligence and the conceptualisation and evaluation of this construct, this chapter discusses a variety of studies that shed light on the social media, emotional intelligence and health relationships. The idea of emotional intelligence (EI) is of unmatched enthusiasm for both the literature and inside scholarly world. This chapter discusses emotional intelligence and focuses on the evolution of EI by examining the different models. This chapter lists some applications of emotional intelligence in our daily life. The chapter also discusses how the abilities correlate with emotional intelligence and helps individuals cope with unsettling emotions effectively and encourage pleasurable emotions to facilitate personal development and well-being.
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Social–emotional factors associated with youth aggression have largely been studied in the context of social information‐processing models. The ability to accurately encode and appropriately interpret others' emotions has yet to be fully examined in the context of aggressive behavior, particularly during adolescence. Using cross‐sectional data from a sample of 282 at‐risk early adolescents, the present study examined associations between teacher‐reported aggression and youth performance on a task assessing two components of affective theory of mind: emotion recognition and situational attribution. Results indicated that emotion recognition, but not situational attribution accuracy, was significantly associated with teacher‐reported aggressive behavior. Over‐recognizing anger and under‐recognizing sadness were unique error patterns associated with aggression, and these associations remained significant after controlling for demographics and other key social information‐processing variables. Findings suggest that difficulties with emotion processing play an important role in the social information‐processing patterns observed in the context of youth aggression. Implications for preventive interventions for youth at risk of engaging in aggressive behavior are discussed.
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We investigated risk factors for school and campus rampages, using international case studies. The factors rejection (chronic/acute), psychological problems, fascination with guns and/or explosives as well as fascination with violence and/or death have already been found for U.S. cases in previous research. However, school rampages are not just a U.S.-American phenomenon. Therefore, we analyzed 20 international cases from six continents between 1999 and 2016 to investigate culturally independent evidence of these factors. In addition to the five risk factors, cultural characteristics of the nations involved were compared, including six universal dimensions, firearm possession rate, and the Global Peace Index. After examining non-U.S./international cases, our results also show evidence for five factors: rejection (chronic/acute), psychological problems, gun/explosives fascination, as well as violence/death fascination. These results can help to establish effective and efficient prevention of school and campus rampages all around the globe.
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Podemos ver los estilos de aprendizaje como la manera en que los estudiantes prefieren aprender mientras que la Inteligencia Emocional explicaría que aprenden mejor (Silver, Strong y Perini, 2000). La Inteligencia Emocional podría ser un elemento importante para determinar la eficacia de cada estilo de aprendizaje (Fong Yeo, (2007). El propósito de este estudio es conocer la relación existente entre la Inteligencia Emocional y los estilos de aprendizaje de 73 estudiantes que cursan el primer curso del Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior de Técnico en Animación de Actividades Físicas y Deportivas (TAFAD) en el curso 2017/2018. La metodología utilizada fue ex post facto (Campbell y Stanley, 1966), descriptiva y correlacional (Hernández, Fernández y Baptista, 2010). Los instrumentos administrados fueron adaptaciones del Inventario de inteligencia emocional de Rego-Fernándes (2005) y del cuestionario CHAEA-36 de estilos de aprendizaje de Honey-Alonso (Maureira, 2015). Los resultados muestran que existe una correlación positiva baja entre las dimensiones de la Inteligencia Emocional y el estilo de aprendizaje Pragmático, y se discuten por el interés de trabajar ambas variables como competencias para el desarrollo personal y académico de los alumnos.
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This study examined associations of the General Factor of Personality (GFP) with trait emotional intelligence (EI) and emotional and behavioral problems in Japanese children and adolescents. We used self- and parent-rated personality data to extract the two GFPs using the Ten Item Personality Inventory. Participants were 10,357 Japanese children and adolescents (M = 13.99 years; SD = 2.53; range 9–18; 5177 boys, 5168 girls, 12 unknown). Correlational and multiple regression analyses revealed that the two GFPs were significantly associated with trait EI. However, the association between the self-rated GFP and trait EI was weaker than previously reported. The GFPs were also associated with emotional and behavioral problems in children and adolescents above and beyond trait EI. These findings support the notion that the GFP reflects social effectiveness and imply differences in the GFP-trait EI association between youths and adults.
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In this study, it was aimed at investigating peer bullying seen in preschool period on the basis of emotional intelligence and family variables. A total of 286 children aged between 5 and 6 participated in the study. “Storied Hypothetical Situations Form”, “Sullivan Emotional Intelligence Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Brief Empathy Scale for Children”, “Sullivan Teacher Rating Scale of Emotional Intelligence in Children”, “Parents Attitude Scale” and Demographical Information Form have been used as data collection tools. The findings indicated that variables such as emotional intelligence, gender, maternal education level, socio-economic level, father's profession, child's level of interest in violent games and television programs, and democratic and authoritarian parent attitudes were directly related to peer bullying. In addition, the results showed that peer bullying seen in preschool period could be a worth-stressing problem. The findings were discussed in the context of the related literature.
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Based on the I3 theory of aggression (Finkel & Hall, 2018), in two studies, we examined the emotional awareness as an inhibitory control factor in predicting reactive relational aggression, aggression-impelling traits (dispositional anger) and diminished inhibitory control (maladaptive anger regulation), in a non-clinical samples of 218 and 103 Polish adults. In study 1, using cross-sectional design, we showed that dispositional attention to emotions correlated negatively with anger suppression, while emotional clarity correlated negatively with both trait anger and anger suppression. Reactive relational aggression was positively linked to anger, whereas it was negatively associated with attention to emotions, emotional clarity and anger suppression. Anger suppression mediated the effects of attention to emotions on relational aggression. In study 2, we used an imagined provoking scenario. Dispositional emotional awareness was related to anger intensity experienced after provocation and anger regulation (suppression, rumination and experimental avoidance). Anger intensity and anger regulation affected situational involuntary attention to emotions after provocation which was alone a significant predictor of relational aggression. Facets of emotional awareness (both dispositional and situational) had differential effects on relationally aggressive behavior and anger regulation.
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Resumen Las manifestaciones agresivas constituyen problemáticas de elevada incidencia en Cuba y el mundo, debiéndose trabajar de forma preventiva desde edades tempranas. La investigación tuvo como objetivo caracterizar las particularidades de la comprensión emocional en los escolares con manifestaciones agresivas, por lo que se realizó un estudio descriptivo que consideró la muestra conformada por 102 niños, 51 con manifestaciones de agresividad y 51 pares etarios sin esta condición, seleccionados a partir de un muestreo no probabilístico. Como técnicas de recolección de los datos se emplearon el test de comprensión emocional de Harris y Pons y la escala de agresividad de Little et al. Para el procesamiento de la información se utilizaron estadísticos descriptivos y la prueba U de Mann-Whitney. En los niños con manifestaciones agresivas predominó la agresión reactiva directa (física o verbal). Se constataron dificultades en la comprensión emocional de manera general, fundamentalmente en el nivel reflexivo. Los componentes más afectados fueron la comprensión de las causas, creencias, pero con mayor gravedad la identificación de emociones mixtas y estrategias de regulación. Las diferencias con los niños sin manifestaciones agresivas fueron significativas en prácticamente todos los aspectos, exceptuando el nivel externo y la comprensión de la simulación emocional.
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The social educator is a social exchange agent that uses educational intervention strategies. Works mainly with groups and people at risk of social exclusion, which implies that the heterogeneity and complexity of realities are present, and where the emotional link between the professional and the individual in risk is fundamental for the development of this social process. Considering that current social contexts are progressively changing, it is important to analyze the importance of social-emotional skills in the professional activity of the social educator. In this sense, this manuscript had as objective to make a reflection approach on the value of the social educator and the social-emotional skills for the school inclusion. Projects are presented that show the relevance of these skills as training opportunities. Concluding that the social educator faces great challenges today and many success opportunities in resorting to social and emotional learning strategies to bridge racial asymmetries.
Chapter
Prevention of sexual aggression among boys and men requires an understanding of risk and protective factors across the social ecology. In the current chapter, we review individual (e.g., hostile masculinity, violence-supportive beliefs), relationship (e.g., family environment, peer attitudes and behavior), community/societal (e.g., rape culture), and situational (e.g., alcohol use environments) risk and protective factors. We use the social ecological model as a broad organizational framework and describe several theories related to sexual aggression risk, including social disorganization theory, social learning theory, social norms theory, male peer support model, the I³ model, the confluence model, and routine activities theory. This chapter yields insight into multiple potential strategies for the prevention of sexual aggression among boys and men.
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This chapter reviews literature on intersections of psychopathy, traumatic experiences, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and weighs evidence for putative causal models explaining these relationships. Existing research indicates that experiences of trauma vary with dimension of psychopathic traits, with impulsive-antisocial traits more consistently related to trauma histories, relative to interpersonal-affective traits. There is also evidence that the relationship between interpersonal-affective traits and trauma is more positively related in men than in women, though future work should investigate this possibility. Various models can help explain links between psychopathy and trauma, including those involving gene-environment correlations and interactions, modeling and learning, emotional blunting and instability, and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Though more research is needed, emotional blunting and emotional instability following a traumatic experience, and possibly as a consequence of TBI, are promising potential mechanisms for the development of interpersonal-affective and impulsive-antisocial psychopathic traits, respectively. Treatments targeting emotional dysregulation may be helpful for individuals who exhibit impulsive-antisocial traits and report experiencing trauma, as might assessment for TBI and treatment of post-concussive symptoms. Future work would benefit from investigating emotional blunting and instability as explanatory in the relationships between psychopathy and trauma, and the potential role of TBI and gender in these relationships.
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Emotional intelligence, or the ability to perceive, understand, and regulate emotions, has been identified as a protective factor for one's adaptation. Measuring emotional intelligence using performance-based approach is thought to be objective and effective. However, performance-based emotional intelligence instruments for non-Western adolescents are rarely available. To facilitate research on emotional intelligence, the present study developed and validated the emotional intelligence test for adolescents (A-EIT) using a Chinese sample. Study 1 (N = 1,536) showed that emotional intelligence consists of three subabilities (i.e., emotion perception, emotion understanding, and emotion regulation) and identified eligible items for each subtest through exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Study 2 (N = 2,568) confirmed the three-factor structure and its measurement invariance across gender and age groups by (multiple-group) confirmatory factor analyses. Both the full test and its three subtests showed acceptable internal consistencies, and their scores increased with age and showed female advantage. Also, the A-EIT scores were significantly correlated with indicators related to emotional and cognitive skills (convergent validity) and were independent of personality (discriminant validity). Additionally, higher scores on the A-EIT were related to better intrapersonal, interpersonal, and academic adaption (criterion validity), as expected. Study 3 (N = 163) provided further convergent validity evidence for each subtest by using validity tools not based on an emotional intelligence framework. Additionally, the A-EIT displayed satisfactory test-retest reliability. Generally, the A-EIT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess adolescents' emotion intelligence, especially those with relatively low level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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Adolescent aggression is a global public health with long-lasting and costly emotional, social, and economic consequences, and it is of vital importance to identify those variables that can reduce these behaviors in this population. Therefore, there is a need to establish the protective factors of aggressive behavior in adolescence. While some research has demonstrated the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and various aggressive responses in adolescence, indicating that EI-or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions-could be considered a protective factor for the development of aggressive behavior in adolescence, the strength of this effect is not clear. The aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the relationship between aggressive behavior and EI in adolescents and provide a reliable estimate of the relationship between both constructs through a meta-analysis. For this purpose, we searched for relevant articles in English and Spanish in Medline, PsycINFO, and Scopus, obtaining 17 selectable articles based on the search terms used in research in the adolescent population. These studies provide scientific evidence of the relationship between the level of EI assessed from the three theoretical models of EI (performance-based ability model, self-report ability model, and self-report mixed model) and various aggressive responses, showing that adolescents with higher levels of EI show less aggressive behavior. Implications for interventions and guidelines for future research are discussed.
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Background: Problematic smartphone use (PSU) is a public health issue that is currently rising among adolescents. The Compensatory Internet Use Theory (CIUT) poses that difficulties in handling negative life circumstances could result in PSU. Furthermore, the Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model suggests that the interaction between core characteristics and affective and cognitive responses could lead to PSU. The present study aimed to clarify the links between psychological distress and PSU by exploring rumination as a mediator and emotional intelligence (EI) as a moderator. Methods: A sample of 1882 adolescents (54% female, 46% male) completed measures of psychological distress, rumination, EI and PSU. The PROCESS macro was used to conduct a moderated mediation analysis. Results: The mediation results showed a significant indirect effect from psychological distress to PSU through rumination. Furthermore, EI was a significant moderator of this effect. Thus, in adolescents with higher EI, the effect of psychological distress on PSU through rumination was not significant. Limitations: Cross-sectional data do not imply causality and further studies should use longitudinal designs. Self-report questionnaires may be susceptible to social desirability bias and future studies including other sources of information may help to minimize such bias. Conclusions: This study contributes to the field of problematic digital technology usage, showing that the link between psychological distress and PSU depends on the EI levels, which might influence PSU indirectly through rumination. Furthermore, empirical evidence for the CIUT and I-PACE models was provided. Lastly, interventions aiming at training EI may aid in the prevention of PSU.
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Jedna z najczęściej pojawiających się w literaturze definicji inteligencji opisuje ją jako zdolność, która ułatwia człowiekowi przystosowanie do środowiska. Badania psychologiczne prowadzone już od drugiej połowy XIX w. (m.in. przez Francisa Galtona) zdają się potwierdzać adaptacyjny charakter inteligencji. Od samego początku badacze łączyli sprawność intelektualną z funkcjonowaniem szkolnym. W kontekście badania uczniów szkoły średniej zrodziła się koncepcja czynnika inteligencji ogólnej zaproponowana przez Charlesa Spearmana. Nowo powstałe testy inteligencji u progu XX w., początkowo stworzone dla celów edukacyjnych przez Alfreda Bineta, szybko wzbudziły zainteresowanie pracodawców, ponieważ stanowiły efektywne narzędzie wyboru najlepszych kandydatów do pracy. Proces rozpowszechniania się testów inteligencji przyspieszyła I wojna światowa i potrzeba szybkiej selekcji kandydatów do służby wojskowej na różnych stanowiskach. Szkoła i praca, niewątpliwie ważne obszary aktywności człowieka, nie wyczerpują jednak dziedzin, w których inteligencja okazała się ważna. Późniejsze badania, prowadzone m.in. przez zespół szkockiego badacza Iana Deary’ego, pokazały znaczenie inteligencji dla zdrowia i długości życia. Inteligencja jest ogólną zdolnością, która przesądza o sprawności funkcjonowania poznawczego człowieka. Praktycznie każda aktywność ludzka angażuje w jakimś stopniu procesy poznawcze. Nie dziwi zatem fakt, że inteligencja ma znaczenie w niemal każdej sferze życia, od samoregulacji, osobowości, przekonań o świecie, kontroli niepożądanych zachowań i emocji, po aktywność fizyczną, preferencje dobowe i funkcjonowanie w związkach. W niniejszym zbiorze przyglądamy się niektórym z tych obszarów, wskazując na różnorodność wątków związanych z inteligencją. (...) W pierwszej części książki znalazły się rozdziały odwołujące się bezpośrednio do adaptacyjnego charakteru inteligencji oraz związanymi z nią funkcjami poznawczymi. Pierwszy rozdział autorstwa Marcina Zajenkowskiego stanowi wprowadzenie do całego zbioru i przedstawia rys historyczny dociekań nad inteligencją, jej definicję oraz przegląd badań nad znaczeniem inteligencji dla osiągnięć szkolnych, funkcjonowania w pracy oraz zdrowia i długości życia. Następne trzy rozdziały opisują rolę zdolności poznawczych dla adaptacyjnego zachowania w zakresie samoregulacji (Jan Jędrzejczyk), agresywnego zachowania (Marta Bodecka) oraz uzależnień (Iwona Nowakowska, Karolina Lewandowska, Karol Lewczuk). Druga część zbioru obejmuje teksty, w których przedyskutowano związki inteligencji i zdolności poznawczych z przekonaniami i emocjami. Marcin Zajenkowski i Oliwia Maciantowicz wskazują na wagę przekonań o własnej inteligencji dla różnych obszarów życia. Kinga Szymaniak przedstawia badania nad związkami gniew–poznanie, wskazując na najnowsze teorie z zakresu psychologii emocji. Paweł Łowicki omawia powiązania inteligencji i zdolności emocjonalno-społecznych z przekonaniami religijnymi. Maria Ledzińska prezentuje obszerny przegląd badań nad metapoznaniem, a więc wiedzą na temat własnych procesów poznawczych, jej związkami z inteligencją i codziennym funkcjonowaniem. W trzeciej części zbioru przedstawiono rozdziały opisujące rolę inteligencji w specyficznych obszarach życia. Wojciech Waleriańczyk i Maciej Stolarski zebrali informacje na temat roli inteligencji w sporcie. Konrad Jankowski przedstawia badania nad związkami zdolności poznawczych z chronotypem, cechą opisującą preferencje pory dnia dla aktywności człowieka. W ostatnim rozdziale Maria Leniarska i Marcin Zajenkowski dokonują przeglądu badań nad inteligencją ogólną oraz inteligencją emocjonalną i funkcjonowaniem osób w bliskich związkach.
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La Inteligencia Emocional como predictor de la ira durante la conducción y la conducción agresiva Resumen: Los accidentes de tráfico son una de las principales causas de mortalidad en el mundo. La ira durante la conducción y la conducción agresiva son factores de riesgo frecuentemente relacionados con los acciden-tes de tráfico. La inteligencia emocional ha sido re-conocida como un factor predictivo de diversos tipos de conductas agresivas. El objetivo de este trabajo fue analizar el papel de la Inteligencia Emocional sobre la conducción agresiva y las infracciones de tráfico. 318 estudiantes universitarios con permiso de conducir (82.5% mujeres) de entre 19 y 27 años (M=20.77, SD=1.39) contestaron a una batería de pruebas que evaluaban la Inteligencia Emocional (TMMS-24), las infracciones de tráfico (DBQ), ira durante la conducción (DAS) y conducción agresiva (DAX). Los análisis de regresión jerárquica contro-lando las variables de edad y sexo respaldan la utili-dad predictiva de la Inteligencia Emocional sobre las infracciones de tráfico y la tipología de expresión de la agresividad durante la conducción, especialmente en su vertiente adaptativa. Por tanto, aumentar el nivel de inteligencia emocional de los conductores podría ser útil para disminuir estos comportamientos de riesgo.
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O educador social é um agente de mudança social que utiliza estratégias de intervenção educativa. Na sua maioria trabalha com grupos e indivíduos em risco de exclusão social, o que implica um trabalho em que a heterogeneidade e complexidade das realidades estão presentes, e onde o vínculo emocional entre o profissional e o indivíduo em risco é essencial para o desenvolvimento do referido processo social. Considerando que os atuais contextos sociais são progressivamente mais mutantes, torna-se pertinente analisar a importância das competências socioemocionais na atividade profissional do educador social. Neste sentido, o presente artigo teve por objetivo fazer uma abordagem de reflexão sobre o valor do educador social e das competências socioemocionais à inclusão escolar. Apresentam-se projetos que evidenciam a relevância destas competências como oportunidades de capacitação. Concluindo que o trabalho do educador social enfrenta na atualidade grandes desafios e muitas oportunidades de sucesso se recorrer a estratégias de aprendizagem social e emocional para colmatar as assimetrias sociais.
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The emotional intelligence construct has been introduced in recent years to the field of educational psychology. However, only a few researches have examined this topic in relation to social relationship dynamics in school contexts. Some previous studies have shown that meta-mood about one's own emotions, perceived emotional intelligence (PEI), can distinguish students involved in bullying from those not involved. Specifically, this study aims to look further into this issue by focusing on cyberbullying situations where bullying is mediated by the use of information and communication technologies. Participants were 5759 adolescent students from Andalucia (South of Spain). The results show that PEI can discriminate between the roles young people play in traditional bullying but not for cyberbullying. These results are discussed according to possible differences in emotional management across bullying and cyberbullying.
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Despite the growing body of literature on bullying behaviour, its antecedents and outcomes, few research studies have investigated bullying behaviour and its antecedents in Nigeria. In particular, there is relatively lack of substantial empirical publications on the mediating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between misconduct and bullying behaviour. This study explored the association between misconduct and bullying behaviour, and tested whether emotional intelligence mediates this association. A total of two-hundred and fifteen (n=215) secondary school students randomly selected from five secondary schools in Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State participated in the study. The participants comprised of boys (n=106, 49.30%) and girls (n=109, 50.70%) with ages ranged from 16 to 22 years and a mean age of 19 years (Sd= 3.19). The participants completed measures of misconduct, emotional intelligence and bullying behaviour. Demographics data of the participants were also obtained. Results indicated that: misconduct was positively associated with bullying behaviour, but negatively associated with emotional intelligence while emotional intelligence was negatively related to bullying behaviour. Lastly, emotional intelligence significantly mediated the relationship between misconduct and bullying behaviour. It was concluded that bullying behaviour among secondary school students directly and indirectly are under the influence of variables like misconduct and emotional intelligence. These findings imply that misconduct, emotional intelligence and bullying behaviour can be measure among incoming and old secondary school students. It is therefore recommended that psychological services should be harness in designing emotional intelligence training to be inculcated into secondary school curriculum in order to reduce incidence of bullying behaviour.
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Moffitt's developmental taxonomy of adolescence-limited and life-course-persistent offenders has received much empirical attention, with researchers focusing on the etiology and trajectory of offending between the two groups. Recently, Moffitt articulated a new hypothesis that has yet to be empirically assessed—that life-course-persistent offenders will be at high risk in midlife for poor physical and mental health, cardiovascular disease, and early disease morbidity. Using data from the Baltimore portion of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project, a longitudinal study of several thousand individuals followed from birth to ages 27 to 33, the authors test this hypothesis. We find that, compared to adolescence-limited offenders, life-course-persistent offenders are more likely to experience adverse physical and mental health outcomes. We also find that life-course-persistent offenders are more likely than their counterparts to be involved in antisocial lifestyles, which in turn increase the chances of adverse health outcomes. Future theoretical and empirical research directions are identified.
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This study analyses the relation between disruptive behaviours and the emotional abilities of children in primary education. To do this, disruptive behaviour and emotional abilities were evaluated in 1422 pupils aged between 6 and 12 years of age at 11 education centres using EQIjv. No relation was found between disruptive behaviours and age, but one was found for sex and emotional abilities. Boys presented more disruptive behaviours than girls. However, there was a significant relation between disruptive behaviours and the general index of emotional intelligence. The most related abilities were stress management and interpersonal relations. Implications of these results are discussed.
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This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
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The concept of gang aggression oftentimes elicits images of brutal intergang violence. In reality, gang-related aggression can vary widely, can have various motivations and causal factors, and includes interpersonal as well as intergroup aggression. This study examined the tendency of UK youth to engage in displaced aggression (aggression aimed at undeserving targets) and examined the relationship among gang affiliation, ruminative thought, and aggression levels. Students in three London schools were asked to complete a questionnaire that assessed levels of gang affiliation, rumination about aversive events, and a tendency to engage in displaced aggression. Our analyses found a three-way interaction between gang affiliation, rumination, and gender, such that males who were high in affiliation and rumination had the greatest tendency to displace aggression toward innocent others. Additionally, it was shown that rumination could account for a significant part of the correlation between gang affiliation and displaced aggression. Furthermore, regression analyses showed that even after controlling for trait aggression, anger, hostility, and irritability, rumination remained a significant predictor of displaced aggression. The implications for understanding gang-related aggression and for conducting future research in this area were discussed. Aggr. Behav. 38:89-97, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Previous research has suggested that sex offenders are deficient in several areas of emotional functioning such as empathy, emotional perception, emotional management and interpersonal functioning. It is unclear, however, whether sex offenders display a general deficit in emotional functioning or whether their emotional deficits are specific to the circumstances in which offences occur. The present study aimed to provide a broad assessment of the emotional functioning of sex offenders by assessing their emotional intelligence (EI) using an abilities-based emotional intelligence test. Nineteen sex offenders, 18 non-sex offending prisoners and 19 controls were administered the Perception, Assimilation and Management branch subtests from the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). The results indicated that the sex offenders were not significantly different than the control group, as assessed by these three branches of the MSCEIT. The results lend support to the suggestion that the emotional deficits displayed by sex offenders may be offence-specific. Implications for the use of the MSCEIT in sex offending populations and the role of EI in relapse prevention programmes are discussed.
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This study explored the mediating effect of emotional intelligence (EI) and coping strategies on problem behaviours in Australian adolescents. One hundred and forty-five adolescents (60 boys and 85 girls with a mean age of 12.02 years) completed self-report instruments of EI, stress coping strategies, and problem behaviours. The relationships between Emotional Management and Control and engagement in internalising and externalising behaviours were found to be mediated by the use of non-productive coping strategies. Mediation models of the relationship between problem behaviours and the Understanding Emotions and Emotional Recognition and Expression dimensions were found to be only partially mediated by the engagement in problem-focused and non-productive coping strategies. The results are discussed in regards to how coping strategies utilised in adolescence may produce more or less adaptive patterns of coping during adulthood. The development of emotional abilities may be required to improve coping outcomes for adolescents, which in turn may produce better psychological outcomes for adolescents in the long term. © The Australian Psychological Society Ltd.
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In this study it is analysed the implications of direct (physical or verbal aggressions) and indirect forms (social exclusion, rumour spreading) of classmate violence in adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. Using longitudinal data, it is compared the effects of direct and indirect violence in some indicators of adjustment (self-esteem, depressive mood, sociometric status, and teacher’s perception). The sample was composed by 1319 adolescents at the first application of the questionnaires and 554 at the second. Results of this study showed that adolescents who are victims both direct and indirect violence have the worst psychosocial adjustment. Also, it is highlighted the special relevance of indirect forms of violence in psychosocial adjustment of adolescents.
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Recent research is mixed with regard to the nature of the association between facets of psychopathy and ability emotional intelligence (AEI). Some studies find evidence of widespread association between facets, whereas other studies find limited association between facets. The present research sought to provide clarification regarding this empirical discrepancy by measuring both constructs in a demographically homogenous sample of participants (N = 144). Analyses revealed that a number of associations between facets of psychopathy and facets of AEI were eliminated after controlling for participant gender and age. Specifically, primary psychopathy remained inversely associated with the ability to perceive emotion regardless of participant gender. Primary psychopathy and secondary psychopathy both remained inversely associated with managing emotion, but only in men. The findings demonstrate that when demographic variability is minimized non-spurious relations between psychopathy and AEI facets are relatively few in number.
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Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
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From the rapidly growing literature on bullying, it is increasingly recognised that peer relationship problems as manifested in being bullied are associated with low self-esteem. However, the literature on self-esteem in relation to children who bully others is controversial. The objective of this paper is to elucidate further our understanding of the relationship between self-concept and bullying behaviour. Data from a nationwide study of bullying behaviour carried out in Ireland during 1993-1994 have been reviewed. The relevant results from 8,249 school children aged 8 to 18 years are presented. The paper examines the global and dimensional nature of self-esteem and how it relates to children and adolescents who either have been victimised or bullied others. A distinction is made between “pure victims,” “pure bullies,” and children and adolescents who were both bullied and who bullied others. In other words, pure victims were those who had not bullied others, and pure bullies had not themselves been bullied. Those who were both bullied and bullied others were subdivided further into victims who bully occasionally, sometimes, and frequently and bullies who are victimised, occasionally, sometimes, and frequently. The results show that children of both primary and post-primary age who were involved in bullying as victims, bullies, or both had significantly lower global self-esteem than did children who had neither bullied nor been bullied. However, the pure bullies, in contrast to the pure victims, placed the same value on their physical attractiveness and attributes and on their popularity as did their peers who had not bullied others or been bullied. The bully-victims of all ages had the lowest self-esteem of the subgroups in the study. Also, the more frequently children were victimised or bullied others, the lower was their global self-esteem. The typology and frequency of bullying and the age of the children when they were involved in bullying influenced the status of the specific domains of self-esteem. There were, e.g., significant differences in anxiety between the pure bullies of post-primary age and their peers who had not bullied others or been bullied. The post-primary children who bullied most frequently were the least anxious. The results indicate that high self-esteem protects children and adolescents from involvement in bullying. Thus, in view of the strong relationship between self-esteem and bullying that has been found in the present paper, it is recommended that top priority be given by parents and teachers to preventing and reducing feelings of poor self-worth among children and adolescents. Aggr. Behav. 27:269–283, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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To date, there is no literature specifically addressing the relationship between spousal battering and emotional intelligence, a concept that captures the success, or lack thereof, of a person''s functioning in their immediate environment. Forty-four men convicted of spousal assault and 76 undergraduate students completed the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i; R. Bar-On, BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory: User''s Manual, Multi-Health Systems, Inc., Toronto, 1997), the Propensity for Abusiveness Scale (PAS; D. G. Dutton, J. Fam. Violence 10(2): 203–221, 1995), and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (D. Paulhus, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 46: 598–609, 1984; Assessing Self-Deception and Impression Management in Self-Reports: The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding, Unpublished manual, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 1988; In Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 17–59, 1991). Results of this exploratory study indicate that batterers score significantly lower than the general population on all components of EQ-i. Additionally EQ-i total and subscale scores for both samples correlate negatively and significantly with scores on PAS, suggesting that deficits in various components of emotional intelligence are related to an increase in the propensity to be abusive. Implications for batterer treatment are discussed.
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The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the reliability and validity of a modified adolescent version of the Swinburne University Emotional Intelligence Test (Adolescent SUEIT). Study 1 identified qualitative changes and rewording of items necessary to make the SUEIT more ‘adolescent friendly’. In Study 2 the adolescent modified version of the SUEIT was administered to a larger sample of adolescents (N = 1002) to gather information on internal reliability, and to perform validity testing via exploratory factor analysis. The sub-scale reliability of the Adolescent SUEIT was found to be moderate to high, and a four-factor model was most representative of the adolescent sample. It was also noted that the more basic emotional intelligence (EI) abilities were positively related to age; females reported higher levels of emotional perception; and mean scores for the adolescent sample were below the norm for an adult population. With the amount of EI research with adolescents increasing, it is important to have valid and reliable tests available for research into important social and educational outcomes for adolescents. This initial evidence suggests the Adolescent SUEIT is a reliable and valid tool, and should be used to further understand the role of EI in adolescence, and how EI relates to important life criteria.
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This study assessed the discriminant, criterion and incremental validity of an ability measure of emotional intelligence (EI). College students (N=330) took an ability test of EI, a measure of the Big Five personality traits, and provided information on Life Space scales that assessed an array of self-care behaviours, leisure pursuits, academic activities, and interpersonal relations. Women scored significantly higher in EI than men. EI, however, was more predictive of the Life Space criteria for men than for women. Lower EI in males, principally the inability to perceive emotions and to use emotion to facilitate thought, was associated with negative outcomes, including illegal drug and alcohol use, deviant behaviour, and poor relations with friends. The findings remained significant even after statistically controlling for scores on the Big Five and academic achievement. In this sample, EI was significantly associated with maladjustment and negative behaviours for college-aged males, but not for females.
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Interpersonal provocation is a common and robust antecedent to aggression. Four studies identified angry rumination and reduced self-control as mechanisms underlying the provocation-aggression relationship. Following provocation, participants demonstrated decreased self-control on an unpleasant task relative to a control condition (Study 1). When provoked, rumination reduced self-control and increased aggression. This effect was mediated by reduced self-control capacity (Study 2). State rumination following provocation, but not anger per se, mediated the effect of trait rumination on aggression (Study 3). Bolstering self-regulatory resources by consuming a glucose beverage improved performance on a measure of inhibitory control following rumination (Study 4). These findings suggest that rumination following an anger-inducing provocation reduces self-control and increases aggression. Bolstering self-regulatory resources may reduce this adverse effect.
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BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.
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This study explored concurrent and incremental validity of three trait emotional intelligence measures: the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale, Multidimensional Emotional Intelligence Assessment, and Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. A total of 307 participants were drawn predominantly from community and student populations. Concurrent criterion validity of the measures varied depending on whether emotional intelligence (EI) was assessed as a lower, middle or higher level construct, with validity coefficients being larger for the former. In all cases, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire was the superior predictor of multiple psychological criteria. At the higher level of assessment, incremental validity beyond (a) age, gender and the Big Five, and (b) the remaining two EI measures, was also superior.
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This short-term longitudinal study (N = 112) was conducted to explore the concurrent and prospective associations between teacher-reported impulsive-hyperactive behavior and observed relational and physical aggression during early childhood (M = 45.54 months old, SD = 9.07). Multiple informants and methods including observational methods (i.e., 160 min per child) were used to assess aggression and impulsivity-hyperactivity. All measures were found to be valid and reliable. Prospective hierarchical regression analyses revealed that impulsivity-hyperactivity was associated with increases in observed physical aggression across time, controlling for initial relational aggression and gender. These findings add to the growing developmental psychopathology literature that suggests that distinguishing between subtypes of aggression during early childhood may be important for understanding the course of impulsivity-hyperactivity in young children. Implications for practice are discussed.
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Psychometric review of 33 peer-reviewed studies of six self-report emotional intelligence (EI) measures supports a multidimensional conceptualization of EI. The nature and number of EI facets, however, and their distinctiveness from more established trait domains is unclear. Building on earlier efforts, three studies were undertaken (Ns = 138, 163, 152) to develop self-report measures of 10 facets of EI proposed by Salovey and Mayer (1990). Results support the reliability (internal consistency, test-retest) and validity (content, criterion, construct, structural) of the proposed scales and their distinctiveness among themselves and with respect to more established trait domains (e.g., personality). Specifically, three satisfaction and four cross-cultural adaptability facets were predicted uniquely by 9 of the 10 proposed subscales, controlling for social desirability, the Big Five, positive and negative affect, and self-monitoring. All told, results confirm that trait-EI can be measured using self-report and conceptualized as a distinct multidimensional domain.
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In this study it is analysed the implications of direct (physical or verbal aggressions) and indirect forms (social exclusion, rumour spreading) of classmate violence in adolescents' psychosocial adjustment. Using longitudinal data, it is compared the effects of direct and indirect violence in some indicators of adjustment (self-esteem, depressive mood, sociometric status, and teacher's perception). The sample was composed by 1319 adolescents at the first application of the questionnaires and 554 at the second. Results of this study showed that adolescents who are victims both direct and indirect violence have the worst psychosocial adjustment. Also, it is highlighted the special relevance of indirect forms of violence in psychosocial adjustment of adolescents.
Chapter
In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in what has been termed emotional literacy, emotional intelligence, or emotional competence. This volume evaluates these developments scientifically, pairing the perspectives of psychologists with those of educators who offer valuable commentary on the latest research. It is an authoritative study that describes the scientific basis for our knowledge about emotion as it relates specifically to children, the classroom environment, and emotional literacy. Key topics include: historical perspectives on emotional intelligence neurological bases for emotional development the development of social skills and childhood socialization of emotion. Experts in psychology and education have long viewed thinking and feeling as polar opposites reason on the one hand, and passion on the other. And emotion, often labeled as chaotic, haphazard, and immature, has not traditionally been seen as assisting reason. All that changed in 1990, when Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence as a challenge to the belief that intelligence is not based on processing emotion-laden information. Salovey and Mayer defined emotional intelligence as the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use motivated scientists, educators, parents, and many others to consider the ways in which emotions themselves comprise an intelligent system. With this groundbreaking volume, invited contributors present cutting-edge research on emotions and emotional development in a manner useful to educators, psychologists, and anyone interested in the unfolding of emotions during childhood. In recent years, innovative schools have developed courses in “emotional literacy” that making; these classes teach children how to understand and manage their feelings and how to get along with one another. Many such programs have achieved national prominence, and preliminary scientific evaluations have shown promising results. Until recently, however, there has been little contact between educators developing these types of programs and psychologists studying the neurological underpinnings and development of human emotions. This unique book links theory and practice by juxtaposing scientific explanations of emotion with short commentaries from educators who elaborate on how these advances can be put to use in the classroom. Accessible and enlightening, Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence provides ample evidence about emotional intelligence as well as sound information on the potential efficacy of educational programs based on this idea.
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Theoretical models of the role of empathy in sexual offending agree on five components relevant to the experience of empathy: a respectful and compassionate orientation to others, perspective taking, affective responding, the ability to manage personal distress, and situational factors. We identify overlap between these components of the empathic process and established risk factors for sexual offending and create a model detailing potential blocks to the empathic process during sexual offending. The model has external consistency and useful implications for interventions with sex offenders. Viewed in the light of this model, we argue that current sex offender treatment programs spend a disproportionate amount of time examining empathy for past victims. We recommend, instead, that treatment aims to enhance offenders' abilities in relation to the components of the empathic process more generally, using creative and engaging techniques akin to those used to develop “victim empathy”.
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The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a two-year intervention grounded in the ability model of emotional intelligence (EI) on aggression and empathy among adolescents. Eight Spanish public schools volunteered to participate in the research. A total of 590 adolescents (46% boys) were randomly assigned to either the EI training group or control group conditions. Students in the EI training group reported lower levels of physical/verbal aggression, anger, hostility, personal distress and fantasy compared to students in the control group. Additionally, the EI program was particularly effective for males' empathic abilities. These findings confirm the effectiveness of social and emotional learning interventions in Spanish academic contexts and extend the literature of gender-related differences during adolescence. Study limitations and future research directions are also considered.
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There has been a recent renaissance in civics and moral education in the Asia-Pacific region. The need to incorporate the notion of emotional literacy into such programmes is discussed and results from the analysis of the influence that emotional literacy has on problem behaviours in Malaysian secondary school students are presented. Results indicated that emotional literacy, measured in terms of emotional intelligence, was linked to internalising and externalising problem behaviours. Emotional literacy also served as a moderating factor between parental monitoring and externalising problem behaviours. The need for developing emotional literacy programmes utilising the pedagogy of multiliteracies is discussed.
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Psychological research has documented several predictors of aggression, including adherence to hegemonic masculinity, trauma symptoms, and insecure attachment. However, at present, little is known about why these variables predict aggression. This study used acceptance theory to introduce the concept of emotional skillfulness as a counterpoint to emotion dysregulation. In an effort to better understand the pathways through which these variables predict aggression, this study used a clinical sample to test three mediational models which hold that emotional skillfulness functions as a common link between the aforementioned predictors and aggression in both men and women. Results indicated that emotional skillfulness is a mediator of aggression for both men and women, but that the predictors of aggression differed by gender.
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Associations among sense of humor, emotional intelligence (EI), and social competence were examined in 111 undergraduate students using measures of humor styles, trait cheerfulness, social competence, and an ability test of EI. Emotional management ability was positively correlated with self-enhancing humor and trait cheerfulness, and negatively correlated with trait bad mood. Ability to accurately perceive emotions was negatively related to aggressive and self-defeating humor. Positive humor styles and trait cheerfulness were positively correlated with various domains of social competence, whereas negative humor styles and trait bad mood were negatively correlated with social competence. Finally, the emotional management facet of EI was positively correlated with several social competence domains.
Article
Angry rumination is perseverative thinking about a personally meaningful anger-inducing event and is a risk factor for aggression. This article presents a new model for understanding angry rumination across five levels of analysis: cognitive, neurobiological, affective, executive control, and behavioral. The type of rumination that occurs at the cognitive level moderates affective responding and neurobiological activation, which influences executive control and aggression. Angry rumination recruits brain regions implicated in cognitive control, emotion regulation, negative affect, physiological arousal, social cognition, and self-reflection on emotional states. Moreover, angry rumination temporarily reduces self-control, which can increase aggression. The article suggests a functional account of angry rumination, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and proposes future research directions based on hypotheses derived from the model.
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Research on the relation between social information processing and social adjustment in childhood is reviewed and interpreted within the framework of a reformulated model of human performance and social exchange. This reformulation proves to assimilate almost all previous studies and is a useful heuristic device for organizing the field. The review suggests that overwhelming evidence supports the empirical relation between characteristic processing styles and children's social adjustment, with some aspects of processing (e.g., hostile attributional biases, intention cue detection accuracy, response access patterns, and evaluation of response outcomes) likely to be causal of behaviors that lead to social status and other aspects (e.g., perceived self-competence) likely to be responsive to peer status. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Explores the increasing evidence that neurochemical factors play a role in aggressive behavior in humans. Drugs may affect human violent behavior; genetic differences may also cause violence in both human and non-human species. Associations have also been found between mental illness and violent behavior, such as violence caused by the various personality disorders. Increased hostility and suicidal behavior have also been noted to cause self-directed violence, such as suicide. Biochemical variables have received particular attention in studies of aggression and violence. Monoamine transmitters, such as serotonin, the catecholamines, and hormones have all been implicated in aggression and violence studies. Studies involving the neurotransmitters are detailed, both human and primate, especially those involving personality, hyperactive children, juvenile delinquency, criminal and suicidal violent, or aggressive behaviors and impulse control. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i), a comprehensive model and measure of emotional and social intelligence. The findings presented in this chapter suggest that emotional and social intelligence is multifactorial array of interrelated emotional, personal, and social abilities that influence one's overall ability to actively and effectively cope with daily demands. The author presents data on the development and psychometric properties of the EQ-i, including internal consistency, stability reliability, factor structure, and validity. The factor structure of the construct is composed of the following 10 components: self-regard, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, empathy, interpersonal relationship, stress tolerance, impulse control, reality testing, flexibility, and problem solving. In addition to these key components, 5 facilitators of emotionally and socially intelligent behavior are described: optimism, self-actualization, happiness, independence, and social responsibility. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This chapter reviews 10 years of research into a developmental taxonomy of antisocial behavior that proposed two primary hypothetical prototypes: life-course-persistent versus adolescence-limited offenders. According to the taxonomic theory, life-course-persistent offenders' antisocial behavior has its origins in neurodevelopmental processes; it begins in childhood and continues persistently thereafter. In contrast, adolescence- limited offenders' antisocial behavior has its origins in social processes; it begins in adolescence and desists in young adulthood. Life-course-persistent antisocial behavior originates early in life, when the difficult behavior of a high-risk young child is exacerbated by a high-risk social environment. The chapter presents four groups of existing studies, which suggests that the pattern of antisocial behavior that begins early in life, is pervasive across settings, is characterized by aggressive personality traits, includes physical aggression, and persists into adulthood is associated with relatively more genetic influence than is the pattern of later-onset, situational, transient delinquency.
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The present two-wave longitudinal study addressed the role of affective empathy and parental support in aggressive and delinquent behavior in a sample of 323 adolescents (158 boys, 165 girls). Self-report questionnaires were used to assess affective empathy, perceived support from parents, delinquency, and aggression. Guided by theories on children's differential susceptibility to socialization, we expected adolescents with different levels of empathy to vary in their responsiveness to parental support. In agreement with our hypothesis, empathy moderated the relation of perceived parental support with aggressive and delinquent behavior. Controlling for the effect of gender and for the stability of aggression and delinquency, higher perceived parental support was predictive of lower levels of aggression at age 15, but only for adolescents high in empathy. Remarkably, adolescents low in empathy not only appeared to benefit less from parental support, but even showed more aggression and delinquency at age 15 when they perceived their parents to be more supportive at age 14.
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This article reports the first studies to investigate the genetic and environmental components of correlations between humor styles and trait emotional intelligence. In two independent adult-twin samples, significant phenotypic correlations were found between four humor styles (affiliative, self-enhancing, aggressive, and self-defeating) and five trait emotional intelligence (EI) variables (well-being, self-control, emotionality, sociability, and global trait EI). These observed phenotypic correlations were themselves found to be largely attributable to correlated genetic and correlated nonshared environmental factors.
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This article presents an overview of the ability model of emotional intelligence and includes a discussion about how and why the concept became useful in both educational and workplace settings. We review the four underlying emotional abilities comprising emotional intelligence and the assessment tools that that have been developed to measure the construct. A primary goal is to provide a review of the research describing the correlates of emotional intelligence. We describe what is known about how emotionally intelligent people function both intra- and interpersonally and in both academic and workplace settings.
Article
Trait emotional intelligence (‘trait EI’ or ‘trait emotional self-efficacy’) is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of personality. The present study investigated the role of trait EI in children's peer relations at school. One hundred and sixty pupils (83 girls; mean age = 10.8 years) were administered the trait emotional intelligence questionnaire and were subsequently asked to nominate all classmates who fitted each of seven distinct behavioural descriptions (‘co-operative’, ‘disruptive’, ‘shy’, ‘aggressive’, ‘dependent’, ‘leader’ and ‘intimidating’). The teachers were also asked to nominate all pupils who fitted the seven descriptions. Pupils with high trait EI scores received more nominations for ‘co-operation’ and ‘leadership’ and fewer nominations for ‘disruption’, ‘aggression’ and ‘dependence’. Factor analysis of teacher nominations revealed two orthogonal factors encompassing pro social and antisocial descriptions, respectively. High trait EI pupils scored higher on the pro social factor and lower on the antisocial factor. The discussion focuses on the construct validity of trait EI and its implications for children's peer relations at school.
Article
Recent research has indicated that Emotional Intelligence (EI) is associated with depression. However, the strength of this relationship has been demonstrated by using the method of assessing EI (ability vs. trait), with ability measures showing low correlations. Based in previous research that found gender differences in the relationship between ability EI and relevant social and health outcomes, the current study primarily aims to examine the moderator role of gender in the ability EI–depression relationship. Participants were 620 students who completed an ability measure of EI, as well as a depression inventory. Results confirmed gender differences in ability EI, with higher levels in women compared to men. Next, interaction analyzes showed that gender moderated the ability EI–depression relationship. Low levels of ability EI were related to higher depression in men, but not in women. We suggest explanations for these differences between the genders. We also discussed the importance of incorporating gender differences in both theoretical and empirical studies investigating ability EI.
Article
Researchers continue to debate the role of self-esteem in aggression, but research has shown a consistent association between narcissism and aggression in adults and adolescents [e.g., Barry et al., 2007; Bushman and Baumeister, 1998; Stucke, 2007]. The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether locus of control (LOC) moderated the relation between self-perception variables (i.e., self-esteem and narcissism) and aggression in adolescents. Participants were 174 youth (145 males, 26 females) between the ages of 16 and 19 who were enrolled in a voluntary residential program for youth who have dropped out of school. The results showed that LOC moderated the association between self-esteem and aggression such that low self-esteem was associated with higher levels of aggression for individuals with an external LOC. Contrary to expectations, LOC failed to moderate the narcissism-aggression relation. The implications of this study for understanding how self-perception is related to adolescent aggression are discussed.