Analytical Methods for the Determination of Heavy Metals in the Textile Industry


Heavy metals in textile wastewater represent a major environmental problem, and are a potential danger to human health when present on textiles. Furthermore, the presence of some metals influences the production of textiles. Heavy metals are often used as oxidizing agents, as metal complex dyes, dye stripping agents, fastness improvers, and finishers. Thus, they act as hazardous sources throughout entire textile processing. Toxic effects of heavy metals on humans are well documented. Therefore, it is important to monitor heavy metals throughout the entire production. Today, maximum permissible values for metals in textiles are given by different regulations, according to which the heavy metals have to be determined both qualitatively and quantitatively. Several analytical procedures for the determination of heavy metals were tested for their application on textiles. The advantages and disadvantages of TLC, UV-VIS, GF-AAS, ICP-OES, and ICP-MS methods are discussed.

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Available from: Michaela Zeiner
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    • "Textile industries release huge amount of effluents to aquatic systems, which contain toxic and hazardous pollutants degrading the environment [3] [4]. The major chemical pollutants present on textile effluents are dyes containing carcinogenic amines, toxic heavy metals, pentachlorophenol, chlorine bleaching, halogen carriers, free formaldehyde, biocides, fire retardants and softeners [5] [6]. Approximately, 10,000 different dyes and pigments are used industrially and over 0.7 -0.8 million tons of synthetic dyes are produced annually worldwide amongst which 10% -15% of the dyes are released into the environment [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recently industrialization has become one of the most promising contributors for economic development of Bangladesh. However, at the same time, industrial pollution has turned into one of the major problems for human being as well as for the environment. In order to understand the effect of textile effluent (TE) on environmental pollution, TE samples collected from North-west part of the capital of Bangladesh, Dhaka (Savar, Ashulia and Tongi area) were characterized biologically, biochemically and biophysically. Eight potential microorganisms were isolated (3 bacteria and 5 fungi) from the collected TE and two of them were used to de-colorization of TE significantly by bioremediation process. Among the various parameters checked here, some physicochemical properties like TDS, COD, BOD, DO and heavy metals like Cd and Cr were detected in quite high amounts. Altogether, our results indicate that TE is one of the serious pollutants, which could damage environment as well as water body severely.
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    • "Nickel (Ni) is widely used in modern industry. Its overexposure in human beings can provoke significant effects including the lung, cardiovascular and kidney diseases (Zeiner et al., 2007; Ghaedi et al., 2005; Carletto et al., 2009). More attention has been focused on the toxicity of Ni because it can cause allergic reactions and its certain compounds may be carcinogenic (Hirano et al., 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co) and lead (Pb) were simultaneously determine in water samples of fresh water canal receiving untreated effluents from an industrial area, of Sindh Pakistan. The analytes in the water sample were determined by CPE using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) as complexing and then entrapped in non-ionic surfactant, octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The surfactant rich phase was diluted with acidic ethanol prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps such as pH of sample solution, concentration of oxine and Triton X-114, equilibration temperature and time period for shaking were investigated in detail. The validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of a certified reference sample of water (CRM1634e). Reliability of the proposed method was also checked by standard addition method in a real sample at three concentration levels of all metals. Under the optimum conditions, the preconcentration of 10 mL sample solutions, allowed preconcentration factor of 20-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained for Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb as 0.42, 0.48, 0.92, 0.62, 1.42 μg L-1, respectively. The proposed procedure was successfully applied to waste and fresh water samples for simultaneously determination of different metals. The concentration of Ag, Cd, Ni, Co and Pb has showed decreased trend from 46.5-6.96, 23.0-8.92, 30.2-12.8, 14.2-4.45 and 15.3-5.32 μg L-1, respectively from initial entrance of waste water along the downstream of canal.
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    • "The presence of metals in foods is of major significance in relation to their roles in health and diseases ranging from their requirement as essential trace elements to toxicity associated with their overload (Hague et al. 2008). Most of these metals are essential (Tuzen and Soylak 2005; Yalcin, Aydin, and Elhatip 2007; Zeiner, Rezi, and Steffan 2007; Imamoglu and Gunes 2008) whereas others cannot be tolerated even at low concentrations because they are exceptionally toxic to humans (Suppin et al. 2005). Some of the free metal ions can promote the generation of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals which, in turn, can lead to oxidative damage of lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins (Marias and Blackhurst 2009). "
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