Article

Use of cotton buds and its complications

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Abstract

Objective To evaluate the complications and effects produced by use of cotton bud tip in the ear for cleaning. All patients having history of use of cotton buds were included. A thorough examination with aural speculum and auroscope was done. Few were examined with the help of microscope. Aural toilet was done by sucking out pus and with dry moping. Hearing assessment done primarily with tuning fork with 512 HZ frequency. Pure tone audiometry used in selected cases. Out of 100 patients 58 were males and 42 females with the mean age of 38.5 years (range from 7 years to 73 years). The most common complication / effect was unspecified itching in the ear in 34 cases, followed by otitis externa in 23, otomycosis in 15, trauma in the external auditory canal in 9, impacted wax medially leading to decreased hearing in 6, cotton tip foreign body in 5, boil in 4 and traumatic tympanic membrane perforation in 4 cases.

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... Cotton bud is a simple device consisting of a small wad of cotton wool wrapped around one or both ends of a short rod, usually made of wood, rolled paper, or plastic. 1 Historically, cotton bud was invented in 1923 by Leo Gersternzang who observed his wife to have attached wads of cotton wool on toothpicks to clean his baby's ear. 2 Cleaning of ears either by self or other, such as parents and caregivers, is very common worldwide. 3 Various objects were used in ear cleaning, and one of the commonly used objects is cotton bud. Hazards effect of cotton bud usage is a common reason for otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgeon visit. ...
... This is demonstrated in other study. 1 Contrary observation was reported in other studies. 3,5 There was urban dwellers' preponderance over rural dwellers in this study. This may be attributed to availability of the center in the city and less barriers to access the institution. ...
... This is similar to result from previous study. 3 Bearing in mind, the major reasons for using cotton bud, such as personal hygiene, itching, earwax impaction, and water in the ear commonly, occurred in both ear. Furthermore, bilateral otological conditions responsible for bilateral ear cleaning may be reasons while many patients view this practice to be beneficial. ...
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AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Cotton bud usage is a common bad health practice among many patients despite associated complications. This study aimed at determining the cotton bud: usage, presentation, complications, and management among otorhinolaryngology patients in developing country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective hospital-based study of cotton bud usage. The study was carried out over a period 6 months between June and November 2017. Verbal consent was obtained from consented patients. Interview-assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain data. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 16. RESULTS: Prevalence of cotton bud usage was 83.4%. There were 45.7% male respondents and male to female ratio of 1:1. Common reasons for cotton bud usage were personal hygiene in 25.5%, itching in 23.9%, water in ear in 11.7%, and dirty/earwax in 11.3%. Cotton bud usage for ear cleaning was by self in 54.6%, parent in 32.8%, friend in 6.7%, and spouse in 5.8%. Bilateral ears were most commonly cleaned by cotton bud in 57.1%. The right ear in 25.2% was more common than left ear in 17.8%. No complications were in 37.7%. There were 28.2% injury to external ear, 23.9% impacted cotton bud, and 10.1% traumatic perforated tympanic membrane. On patients' understanding on danger of cotton bud usage, dangerous, not dangerous, and not sure were 28.5, 60.4, and 11.1%, respectively. Common clinical features were earache, itching, hearing loss, and dirty/earwax 33.7, 19.6, 19.0, and 18.7%, respectively. Long-time (chronic) cotton bud usage accounted for 63.8% while short-time (acute) ear cleaning accounted for 36.2%. Frequency of cotton bud usage in these patients was daily in 54.9%, weekly in 20.9%, monthly in 4.9%, and occasionally in 19.3%. The most common diagnosis of cotton bud usage was personal hygiene in 25.5%. Other diagnosis of cotton bud usage was allergy in 18.7%, otitis externa in 18.1%, earwax impaction in 13.2% foreign body impaction in 11.3%, and hearing impairment in 8.3%. No information, information from family, and information from neighborhood were 31.6, 43.6, and 24.8%, respectively. Treatments offered were health education in all the patients, conservative/medical treatment in 88.7%, and cotton bud removal in 11.3%. KEYWORDS external ear canal, cotton bud, Ekiti, otology RESEARCH ARTICLE 2 | Adegbiji and Aremu MedLife Open Access (ENT-Otolaryngology)
... The patients with FBs may present asymptomatically, or with unilateral purulent ear discharge, ear pain, bleeding from the ear, conductive hearing loss, tinnitus, itching, cough and offensive smell, cerebrospinal fluid leak from the ear, vertigo and facial nerve paralysis [3]. Most FBs in the EAC are asymptomatic especially in adults, which are found incidentally during otoscopic examination. ...
... FBs in ear may be organic-inorganic, animate-inanimate, metallic-nonmetallic, hygroscopic-nonhygroscopic, regular or irregular, soft or hard, and so forth, according to their nature [4]. However, tries of removal made outside the healthcare setting by unqualified persons can cause serious complications like trauma to external meatus and tympanic membrane perforation resulting into conductive hearing loss [3]. The method of removal also depends on the type, position of FBs and cooperation of the patient. ...
... Vegetative FB in the external meatus like beans, popcorn, grains etc. is usually difficult to remove and more complicated due to their swelling in the EAC and increasing in volume. While small non-irritative graspable inorganic foreign bodies are usually simple to remove and come out complete without complications [3,5]. ...
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Objective To describe the types of aural foreign bodies (FBs) among patients in Ibn Sina Teaching Hospital (ISTH) and to study the patient’s symptoms, duration, complications and procedures used to extract them. MethodsA record based descriptive study was looked at patients with aural FBs at ISTH for 5 years between 2009 and 2015. The diagnosis of aural FBs was based on personal history, and otoscopic findings. The data were obtained from the records. ResultsPatients with aural FBs were 154, (age 1–70 years). Inorganic aural FBs were 100 (65%) and 54 (35%) were organic. Unilateral purulent aural discharge was in 72 (46.75%) patients, pain in 27 (17.53%), ear bleeding in 12 (7.8%), conductive hearing loss and tinnitus each was 8 (5.19%) and itching in 7 (4.55%). Duration of symptoms was <1 week in 55 (35.7%) cases, 1–2 weeks in 64 (41.6%) and 2–4 weeks in 29 (18.8%). Forceps, syringing, hook and suction were the tools used for removal of the FBs, 56 (36.4%), 40 (26.0%), 36 (23.4%), 14 (9.1%) respectively. FBs were removed under G.A. were 30 (19%). Complications were otitis externa in 38 (24.7%) cases, tympanic membrane perforation in 29 (18.85%) and external meatus laceration in 28 (18.20%). Conclusion The most common aural FBs found were inorganic (cotton tip, stone and eraser) and organic (fly, lice and bee). Complications were unilateral purulent discharge followed by pain and ear bleeding. FBs duration was from <1 to 4 weeks. The common procedures used were forceps, syringing, hook and suction. Particularly, organic vegetative FBs were removed under general anesthesia.
... The most frequently seen ear injuries in the ENT practices are the ends of cotton buds and matchstick ends stuck in the ear canal, often inserted to relieve itchiness. 25 According to Kumar and Ahmed (2008), 26 cotton bud use is unnecessary and can cause some dangerous complications. ...
... The most frequently seen ear injuries in the ENT practices are the ends of cotton buds and matchstick ends stuck in the ear canal, often inserted to relieve itchiness. 25 According to Kumar and Ahmed (2008), 26 cotton bud use is unnecessary and can cause some dangerous complications. ...
Article
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Self-ear cleaning is the insertion of objects into the ear canal to clean it, a widespread practice that has the potential to compromise its integrity as a natural, selfcleansing mechanism, and a risk factor for possible injuries. The practice is common among young adults and highest in university than any other graduates. This study aimed to determine the self-ear cleaning practices and associated risk of injury and related symptoms in undergraduate students at KwaZulu-Natal University. The descriptive survey utilized a self-administered questionnaire. Of the 206 participants that responded, 98% engaged in self-ear cleaning, with 75% indicating that it was beneficial. The commonest method (79.6%) being the use of cotton buds, with an associated injury rate of 2.4%. There was no statistically significant associations between those who used or did not use cotton buds and the symptoms experienced. The complications indicate that self-ear cleaning does pose a risk for injury, necessitating more community information and education.
... Both ears are frequently cleaned as reported by the respondents; this accounts for 91% of the responses while a few of the respondents clean either the right or the left ears. This is corroborated by previous studies [7,21,22] where majority of their respondents, also cleaned both ears. It is perhaps unusual, for one to pick up cotton bud to clean only one ear while leaving the other. ...
... Similar reports of these complications have also been reported by several other studies. [22,24] Conversely, during a recent study (22.5%) of the respondents admitted to having had any complications following the use of cotton buds. [19] There is a significant statistical association between the department where the respondents are working and cotton bud use. ...
Article
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Background: The use of cotton bud for self-ear cleaning is a common practice among many people despite its attendant ill-effects. This study examined the prevalence, attitude toward the use of cotton buds, and reasons for the use of cotton buds and problems or ill-effects associated with its use among medical doctors working at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among a randomly selected sample of 130 medical doctors working in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital spread across several departments in the hospital using a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using MINITAB statistical software and the results summarized using measures of central tendency while Chi-square test was used to assess for associations between categorical variables. Results: The respondents' age ranged from 25 to 55 years with a mean age of 33.6 ± 5.4 years. Most of the respondents were males (68.0%) The prevalence of cotton bud use was found to be 76.3% and for many, the frequency of use of cotton buds was once daily, and both ears were frequently cleaned. A common problem encountered with cotton bud use was retention of the bud as a foreign body. There was an association between owning a cotton bud and using it ( χ 2 = 38.317, P = 0.001). There was also a significant association between the use of cotton buds and the department where the respondent works ( χ 2 = 19.28, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: The use of cotton buds for self-ear cleaning is surprisingly prevalent among medical doctors working at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. There is a need for health education and promotion strategies for health workers in the hospital community that ear cleaning is best done by trained personnel.
... No prior information on self ear cleaning among the patients. This concurred with findings in other studies (Reynolds, 2004 andKumar andAhmed, 2008). Adequate management of this bad health habit require health education at all levels. ...
... No prior information on self ear cleaning among the patients. This concurred with findings in other studies (Reynolds, 2004 andKumar andAhmed, 2008). Adequate management of this bad health habit require health education at all levels. ...
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Repeated exposure to excessive noise will eventually lead to an irreversible increase in hearing thresholds. In theory, the damage reflects both the intensity of the noise and the duration of exposure. This is not linear with respect to duration of exposure; rather, the worker may experience a disproportionate loss in the early years of exposure. A prospective study surveying workers of the production section (i.e. most noise-exposed area) of a bottling factory was carried out in December 2003 and in December 2005. A self-administered questionnaire was used to extract information about worker's demographic characteristics, drug intake, and medical and occupational history, as well as information on the use of hearing protection devices. Noise mapping of the various departments of the factory was carried out. Otological examination, tympanometry and audiometry were also carried out on selected subjects. Eighty-four workers, 76 (90.5 per cent) men and eight (9.5 per cent) women, were studied. Their mean age was 33.0 +/- 7.6 years in 2003 and 35.0 +/- 7.6 years in 2005. The recorded noise levels in the factory production section ranged between 91.5 and 98.7 dBA. The prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss among workers was noted to be 64.9 and 86.9 per cent for test one (2003) and test two (2005), respectively. The degree of hearing deterioration within the two years of this study was 1.0-3.2 dB for the right ear and 1.6-3.4 dB for the left ear. This deterioration was at discrete frequencies. More than half (53.6 per cent) of the workers did not have a hearing protection device. Of the 46.4 per cent who did, only 38.5 per cent claimed to have used it regularly. These findings showed that there was a high prevalence of mild sensorineural hearing loss and significant hearing deterioration among workers, due to exposure to excessive noise over a two-year period. The study demonstrates the practical importance of serial audiometry for noise-exposed workers as a means of monitoring hearing deterioration. It is necessary to enforce existing occupational health laws in our industries in order to prevent noise-induced hearing loss, since it is eminently preventable.
... Common people do not know the natural selfcleansing ear mechanism, therefore they acquire the habit of using cotton bud to clean the ear 1,2,3 . Due to prolonged use of cotton bud, they become habituated with this act, it leads to ear injuries including tympanic membrane perforation, otitis externa and cerumen impaction [3][4][5][6] . In addition to this, use of ear phones and/or swimming without using ear plugs creates a more negative impact on external auditory canal skin. ...
Article
Objectives: To find out the complications arise from use of cotton bud in external auditory canal. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out from January 2020- December 2020 in Pabna medical college hospital. About 100 patients with complications of cotton bud use were included in this study. Diagnosis was based on the history and otoscopic examination. Results: In this study most of the cases were age group 0-10 years -30%, 10-50-years 30%, 50-60- years 10%, more than 60 years 40%. Common Complications were Infection of external auditory canal 50%, injury to external auditory canal 40% and injury to tympanic membrane 10%. Conclusion: Injudicious use of Cotton bud has injurious effect for external auditory canal and should be avoided. Bangladesh J Otorhinolaryngol 2022; 28(1): 91-95
... A study from Nigeria reported that 76.3% used cotton buds for self-ear cleaning, and 52.2% were using it for less than 10 years, the large majority 88.9% practiced it occasionally and 91% were cleaning their ears equally, also 57.6% had their own cotton buds. 2 These findings were in agreement with ours. Several previous studies 14,15 reported that the majority of their participants cleaned their ears equally. A previous study from Kaduna reported that one-third of participants had practiced selfear cleaning for more than 10 years. ...
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Background: Wax is the normal and healthy substance that has several functions, the quantity of production differs between individuals. Also, its components vary according to race. Most of the individuals of the population are unaware of the disorders that occur as a result of the unhygienic maintenance of ears. Using cotton buds to clean ears is very common, the insertion of these buds is unnecessary as it causes several complications such as trauma, retention of cotton buds and impacted ear wax. Aim: To assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of medical students regarding self-ear cleaning. Methods: This is an institutional based cross-sectional study which was conducted at Majmaah University in Majmaah city. The study included students from 2 nd to 6 th year of the College of Medicine. A questionnaire was used to investigate demographics of participants, knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding self-ear cleaning. Results: The present study included 258 students, 71.7% of them were males, and 28.3% were females. There were 44.6% of students had good knowledge, while 55.4% had poor knowledge. Regarding attitude, 65.5% of students were cotton bud users, the most common reason for self-ear
... Olajide., et al. noted that people did not have information about the dangers of cotton bud usage in the ear and had poor knowledge about the ear as a self-cleansing mechanism [9]. Cotton bud use is unnecessary and can cause some dangerous complications [10]. Young educated adults do engage in self-ear cleaning, which can potentially increase the risk of ear injury and ear related symptoms. ...
... Most individuals are not aware of the natural self-cleansing ear mechanism therefore, they acquire the habit of using cotton bud to clean the ear (2,3,4). Due to prolonged use of cotton bud, they get habitual; which leads to ear injuries including tympanic membrane perforation, otitis externa, and cerumen impaction (3,5,6,7). In addition to this, use of ear phones and/or swimming without using ear plugs creates a more negative impact on external auditory canal skin. ...
Article
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Background: Ear has a self-cleansing mechanism. However, most individuals are not aware of the natural self-cleansing ear mechanism therefore, they acquire the habit of using cotton bud to clean the ear. We conducted this study to determine the complications and harmful effect with the frequent use of cotton bud, ear phone and swimming on external ear canal. Methods: A descriptive observational study was conducted at the Outpatient Department of Dow University Hospital, OJHA campus, Karachi from December 2016 to December 2017. Information regarding head phone, cotton bud use and swimming along with ear infection side of infection, recent history of respiratory tract infection/trauma to ear canal, ear surgery and symptoms like pain, bleeding, itching, fever, hearing loss, pus discharge and whistling in ear were collected through a pre-structured questionnaire. Results: Median age of the individuals was 36 (27-49) years. There were 243 (76.4%) males and 75 (23.6%) females. Ear infection was found in 176 (55.3%) patients. A total of 199 (62.57%) individuals used cotton buds for ear cleaning. Age (p-value 0.010), ear infection (p-value 0.011) and itching (p-value 0.003) were significantly associated with cotton bud use. Swimming status was found positive in 11 ((3.45%) individuals. Age (p-value <0.001), gender (p-value 0.011), and marital status (p-value <0.001) were significantly associated with swimming. Headphone was used by 178 (55.97%). Ear infection (p-value 0.002), itching (p-value 0.009), and hearing loss (p-value 0.007) were significantly associated with headphone use. Conclusion: Our study confirms the association of cotton bud in the development of Otitis Externa. Nonetheless, the association between headphones and Otitis Externa need to be further assessed through larger studies.
... It is used for multiple purposes such as medical purpose, cleaning, cosmetic application and arts. However, it is most commonly used in ear for cleaning, removing of ear wax, to relieve ear itchiness, aural toilet in discharging ears and sometimes as a habit [3]. ...
... This concurred with findings in other studies. 25,26 Adequate management of this bad health habit requires health education at all levels. The health workers and otorhinolaryngologist, head-and-neck surgeon to give health talk to patients and continuous medical education of the members of the community. ...
... Previous studies revealed similar findings (Gadanya et al., 2016 andAhmed et al., 2014). Bilateral self ear cleaning were major finding in this study as in previous study (Suresh and Shamim, 2008). Major indications for self ear cleaning such as personal hygiene, dirty/earwax, itching, and water in the ear commonly occurred in both ear. ...
Article
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Aims and objectives: Self ear cleaning is a common bad health practice among many patients despite associated complications. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, sociodemographic, clinical presentation, associated complications and management of self ear cleaning among patients in a tertiary hospital in sub Sahara Africa. Materials and methods: This is a prospective hospital based study of patients with history of self ear cleaning. The study was carried out over a period 6 months between June and November, 2017. Informed consent was obtained from patients. Pretested interviewers assisted questionnaire was administered to obtain data. Data obtained were collated and statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 16. Results: The prevalence of self ear cleaning was 93.4%. There were 47.9% males with male to female ratio of 1:1. Common reasons for self ear cleaning were 35.1% personal hygiene, 21.8% dirty/earwax and 11.8% itching. Both ears were most commonly cleaned among the patients in 46.9%. Right ear in 31.8% was commoner than left ear in 21.3%. Commonest object used in ear cleaning was cotton bud in 44.5%. Other objects were finger, feather and key in 24.6%, 15.6% and 14.7% respectively. Common clinical presentation were dirty/earwax in 35.1%, otalgia in 29.4%, hearing loss in 27.5% and itching in 24.2%. Long time (chronic) ear cleaning accounted for 63.5% while short time (acute) ear cleaning accounted for 36.5%. Frequency of ear cleaning in these patients were daily in 49.3%, weekly in 17.1%, monthly in 13.3% and occasional in 20.4%.Major diagnosis was 34.6% personal hygiene, 22.7% allergy and 18.5% earwax impaction. No complications were recorded in 39.3%. Common complications were external auditory canal injury in 28.9%, impacted foreign body in 25.6% and traumatic perforated tympanic membrane in 6.2%. All patients had health education. Other treatment was conservative/medical treatment in 71.1% and foreign body removal in 17.5%. Conclusion: Ear cleaning was higher among the patients. Majority of the patients believed it is beneficial. This is associated with available complications.
... Ear injuries caused by cotton buds are commonly seen in ENT practice. 3,4 The first instances of medical concern over the use of cotton buds were in 1972 with reports of tympanic membrane perforation, otitis externa and cerumen impaction. 2 A large number of patients report daily to doctors and otolaryngologists Introduction 174 ...
Article
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Background: The habit of cleaning the external auditory canal with cotton buds is a common practice of the masses. It has strong association with neurodermatitis and contact dermatitis of the external ear. It is also associated with acute otitis externa, rupture of tympanic membrane causing bleeding and temporary hearing loss in some cases. In many cases the injury will heal but damage to minuscule bones deep inside the ear can cause permanent deafness. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dermatological condition of external ear with the use of cotton buds. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done from January to October 2012 in the Ear Nose Throat Department of Pakistan Level III Hospital, Darfur, Sudan. Sixty seven patients with dermatological diseases of external ear were cases and 83 subjects without dermatological diseases of external ear were selected as controls. Results: Among 67 cases, 58 were cotton bud users and among 83 controls only 29 were cotton bud users. Different types of dermatological diseases were neurodermatitis (34.32%), otitis externa (28.36%), contact dermatitis (26.87%) and wax impaction (8.95%). Ninety three percent of cotton bud users were ignorant of harmful effects of this bad habit. Conclusion: There is a strong association of dermatological diseases of external ear with the use of cotton bud which should be discouraged by fortifying the warning by manufacturers and health education at various educational levels.
... Ainda com relação a audição, observou-se que a utilização da pena de galinha para limpeza do MAE é um hábito comum nessas comunidades. Estudos apontaram o risco da utilização de objetos na limpeza do MAE sendo um fator de risco para complicações como laceração de meato, perfuração da membrana, otomicoses e otites 22,23 . ...
Article
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PURPOSE: to report the health promotion actions conducted on riverside communities by the expeditionary teams of "FOB-USP in Rondônia" project. METHODS: this is a cross-sectional, observational study, which consists in an experience report of interdisciplinary expeditions to the Tabajara-RO, Calama-RO, Demarcação-RO and Rio Preto-RO communities. Data collection has occurred by means of medical records, annotations on field diaries and participant observation. The adopted approach to guide the development of this paper lies on the work of the team during the clinical care and community attention moments. RESULTS: 1042 riverside patients were assisted, being covered also educative and human aid actions the communities have shown as main income sources fishing and subsistence agriculture. Sewer is collected in septic tanks in the open Water comes from rivers or artesian wells. The houses in all of the communities are mostly made of wood. In regards to clinical procedures, 974 in the speech, language and hearing sciences area, being the most common complaint on the hearing area, and 854 dental procedures being mostly performed dental extractions and restorations. Educative actions were taken in all of the communities. CONCLUSION: 1828 procedures were performed, of which 1100 were clinical and 728 were educative. Access conditions have proven to be precarious and health problems linked to the speech, language and hearing sciences and dental areas were presented as complaints, with dental caries and periodontal disease as main concerns. Need for improvement on access to essential services for the riverside populations has been demonstrated, maintaining regular and continuous care for the implementation of effective educative and health promotion activities.
... These objects are cheap and readily available from drug stores and super markets. Cotton bud tips are not only used by adults, but also commonly used in pediatric population either by children themselves or by parents [6]. Insertion of cotton buds inside ears is not only unnecessary but also potentially dangerous and has widely been condemned worldwide by otolaryngologists. ...
Article
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Background: Self-cleaning of ears with a cotton bud is a common practice, and the hazards asso-ciated with such action are well documented. The aim of this study is to find out the knowledge, attitude and awareness on the use of cotton buds among the people of Bida community. Design and Methodology: It is a community based cross sectional descriptive study carried out among people of Bida community. Subjects were selected by multistage sampling technique. Pre-tested semistructured questionnaires were used to collect data from 278 young adults and adults’ respondents. Results: There were a total number of 278 responses out of 290 respondents interviewed (M:F = 1:1.03). Age range was from 18 to 65 years with a mean of 29.64 ± 10.06 SD. The highest response was in the age group of 20 - 29 years. About 72.3% of the respondents had tertiary education, and 40.3% were civil servants. Majority (92.8%) of the respondents had indulged in the use of cotton buds to clean their ears. Most (57.8%) of those that had used cotton buds did so because of itching in the ears. Only 44.9% of respondents agreed that cotton buds could cause damage to the ears. Many (61.2%) believed that there was benefit of using cotton buds in cleaning the ears. Majority of the respondents (74.1%) had not got information on the danger of using cotton bud in cleaning their ears. Conclusion: From our data in this study, majority of the subjects had indulged in the use of cotton bud in cleaning their ears. And the commonest reason for using cotton buds is due to itching in the ears. Their Knowledge, attitude and awareness to the use of cotton buds are very poor with erroneous believe that there is benefit to its use. There is a need to increase awareness by public enlightenment and health education and to establish school health programme in our various schools.
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Objective: To evaluate the impact of knowledge regarding cough etiquettes among the symptomatic respiratory patients as a preventive measure from airborne disease. Study Design: A cross-sectional study Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Al-Tibri Medical College between the duration of December 2019 to February 2020. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 admitted and non-admitted respiratory symptomatic patients of both genders with the age of 18 years and above were included in the study through a non-probability convenience sampling technique after taking ethical approval from concerned authorities. The researcher filled a valid questionnaire after taken verbal consent from the patients. The data were evaluated in the form of frequency and percentage through SPSS version 22.0. Results: 100% of patient's responses the coughing, sneezing, and spitting are the source of transmission. The majority of the respondent knew the preventive method and media was the principal source of information. The number of patients was unaware of respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette. To some extent, they practice cough etiquettes in their daily lives while they cannot practice these measures due to insufficient knowledge and resources. Conclusion: According to the current requirement of health sensibility among the community due to running pandemic situations of the coronavirus worldwide, the study revealed the hidden aspects of community orientation regarding the prevention form air born disease. Following the study results, they need proper education about respiratory hygiene, and by adopting which measures they can incorporate the appropriate care and cope with any health situation. Key Words: Cough etiquettes, coronavirus, air-borne disease, preventive measures
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Introduction: Cotton buds are small plastic rods with cotton‐covered tips. They have been widely misused since their development. Objectives: This study aims to determine the prevalence of cotton bud usage and examine patients’ attitudes toward their utilization. It also aims to investigate the complications associated with their misuse. Methodology: This cross‐sectional observational study was conducted in King Abdulaziz University Hospital, on patients attending the ear, nose, and throat outpatient clinics between January and March 2018. Data were collected using paper‐based questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS. Results: A total of 378 patients completed the survey. Most respondents (69.6%) confirmed that they had used cotton buds previously. However, only 18% of the respondents suffered ear canal complications associated with cotton bud use. Respondents reported ear wax impaction as the most common complication (41.2%), followed by ear pain (39.7%). The majority (63.2%) of the respondents stated that they had received at least one educational session warning them against improper cotton bud use. Almost half of the patients were unsure whether cotton buds could cause complications or not. The mean overall rating of the attitude of the patients toward using cotton buds resulted in a score of 12 out of 20, thereby denoting that these patients were slightly inclined toward using cotton buds. Furthermore, patients who reported having used cotton buds had significantly greater attitudes toward cotton bud usefulness (mean, 13.4; standard deviation, 2.8; P < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, patients seem to have relatively insufficient knowledge and lax attitudes toward cotton bud usage and the complications related to their use. Further studies on a broader scale are warranted to evaluate the extent of cotton bud use.
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Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of external ear complications among Iranian aural foreign body users attending to otolaryngology clinic of our hospital. Methods: In this cross-sectional study patients attending to Otolaryngology clinics of Baqiyatallah hospital were enrolled regardless of their age, gender and reason of attending. Patients between 15 and 60 years of age were included in the present study. Those with positive history of chronic ear diseases, ear surgery, congenital ear disorders, trauma to ear or head and neck region or shock wave trauma were excluded from the study. Demographic information as well as data on chief complaint, educational level, frequency and type of used foreign body and findings of physical examination and Otoscopy by a single otolaryngologist were recorded in a pre-designed checklist. Results: Eventually 362 patients (232 male and 130 female) with a mean age of 40.32 ± 16.90 years underwent analysis. Of all patients 244 (67.2%) were using a kind of aural foreign body frequently and Cotton bud was the most popular (63.5%) used foreign body among patients. Drying ear canal was the most common (54.9%) reason of using AFBs among study individuals followed by itching (29.5%) and pyorrhea (11.06%). Also 11 (4.5%) patients were using AFBs as a habit with no specific reason. Itching was the most prevalent symptom reported by both aural foreign body users (78%) and non-users (45.5%); however it was significantly higher among AFB users (p = 0.026). Also hearing loss was significantly more reported by AFB users (p = 0.033). A majority of patients had normal physical examination in both AFB users and non-users group. Inflammation of ear canal was significantly more detected in AFB users (p = 0.004). In addition, rate of right ear wax impaction was higher among AFB users (p = 0.016). Conclusion: In conclusion we realized that 67.2% of patients attending to Otolaryngology clinic of our hospital were using a kind of aural foreign bodies and itching was the most common chief complaint of these patients.
Article
Objective Otomycosis is a fungal infection, which leads to a damage of the external auditory meatus. The disease is worldwide in distribution but is said to be more common in tropical countries. Though otomycosis presumably occurs frequently in Africa, reports on its incidence and etiology are rare from Côte d’Ivoire. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of the disease and to identify aetiological agents as well as the risk factors. Material and methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Otorhinolaryngology Department of the University Teaching Hospital of Yopougon from September 2007 to February 2008. For laboratory investigation, specimens were collected by means of a sterile swab. Samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar with and without antibiotics and incubated at 30 °C for a period of 1 to 2 weeks. Identification was performed by direct microscopic examination on Cotton Blue Mount preparation and slide culture examination was used for differentiation of morphology. Biotyping was performed using Carbohydrate Fermentation tests, Carbohydrate Assimilation Tests (galerie Api 20 CAux TM - Sanofi Pasteur), Germ tube Test, detection of chlamydospore formation on corn meal agar. Results A total of 110 patients (sex-ratio = 1.2) with suspected cases of otomycosis were investigated. Itching, otalgia, and hypoacusis were the symptoms reported by the patients and the apparent signs were debris in the ear, scabs and inflammation of the external auditory meatus. Of these, 88 cases (80 %) were confirmed specifically of mycotic etiology on the basis of positive culture with 92 isolates consisting of yeasts (65.2 %) and moulds (34.8 %). The predominant etiological agents were Aspergillus flavus (28.4 %), Candida guilliermondii (19.3 %) and Candida parapsilosis (18.2 %). The predisposing factors included previous otological pathology (P = 0.010), frequent scratching of the external ear canal and use of ear drops (RR = 3.47; IC 95 % = 1.3–9.27). Conclusion This study revealed the great prevalence of otomycosis in Abidjan, some predisposing factors and the aetiological agents. Management of otomycosis must include mycological examination for diagnosis and information for changing behaviour patterns leading to infection.
Article
The LiCo3/5Mn1/5Cu1/5VO4 ceramic has been produced by solution-based chemical route whose electrical (electrical impedance and electrical conductivity) properties are studied using complex impedance spectroscopy technique. Complex impedance results exhibit: (i) grain interior, grain boundary and electrode-material interface contributions to electrical response and (ii) the presence of temperature-dependent electrical relaxation phenomena in the material. Electrical conductivity analysis indicates that electrical conduction in the material is a thermally activated process. The variation in ac conductivity with frequency at different temperatures obeys Jonscher’s power law.
Article
The compound [Li(Ni7/10Fe3/10)VO4] was produced by a solution-based chemical route whose electrical properties were investigated using complex impedance spectroscopy technique. X-ray diffraction study reveals an orthorhombic unit cell structure of the compound. Complex electrical impedance analysis exhibits: (i) grain interior, grain boundary and electrode-material interface contributions to electrical response and (ii) the presence of temperature dependent electrical relaxation phenomena in the material. Electrical conductivity study indicates that electrical conduction in the material is a thermally activated process.
Article
Ear injuries caused by cotton buds are commonly seen in ear, nose and throat (ENT) practice. We asked 1000 patients attending an ENT referral clinic whether they used cotton buds to clean the ear canal. Of the 325 who responded, 171 said they did. The frequency of use was no higher in those with ear complaints than in those with nose and other complaints. 15–20% of respondents disagreed with the statements that cotton buds can cause infections, wax impaction or perforations. On the evidence of this survey, manufacturers’ warnings need to be fortified.
Article
Three hundred and ten patients were examined by otoscopy. Age, sex, social class and use of cotton buds for aural toilet were recorded. The incidence of visually occlusive wax plugs in the external auditory canals was not significantly different between users and non-users of cotton buds, either in children or in adults.
Article
The dangers of using cotton tipped swabs are described. The authors have seen bleeding injuries of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane. No penetrating wounds of this membrane and the ossicular chain were encountered. Widespread loss of hearing caused by impaction of cerumen in the external auditory canal was seen. The swab does not clean out the cerumen but rams it further until impaction occurs. The use of these swab should be stopped. The external ear is only to be cleaned with water, soap and a towel.
Article
We studied parents' and patients' approach to earwax (cerumen) removal, patients' level of cerumen occlusion, and the association between the use of cotton-tipped swabs (CTS) and cerumen occlusion. Six hundred fifty-one consecutive patients from the general pediatric practice of the Cleveland Clinic aged 2 weeks to 20 years (57% males) answered a questionnaire with their parents' help. Of the 651, 401 (62%) had used CTS during the 2 months before the study. Examiners unaware of the questionnaire results found that 46 (7%) of both right and left ear canals were at least 75% occluded by cerumen. Cerumen occlusion of at least 75% was associated with CTS use on the left side (P = .02), but not on the right side (P = .27). We conclude that cotton-tipped swab use may be associated with cerumen accumulation.
Article
The present paper discuss the cleaning of the external auditory canal. It is purpose of this article to show that the insertion of foreign bodies in form of cotton buds, into the ear, is absolutely unnecessary and may be a dangerous practice. We conclude that cotton-tipped swab use may be associated with cerumen accumulation.
Article
Excess cerumen (earwax) in the external auditory canal is associated with symptoms of earache, fullness in the ears, and diminished hearing. These symptoms, and tinnitus, are commonly associated with whiplash injury. Eighty-six whiplash patients were examined to determine if there was a correlation between symptoms of earache, fullness in the ear, diminished hearing, and tinnitus, and the degree of cerumen occlusion. Cerumen occlusion was measured by visualisation of the tympanic membrane and graded according to a 4 point scale. Of 71 subjects reporting no acute onset (within 7 days of the collision that caused their whiplash) earache, fullness in the ears, hearing loss, or tinnitus, 62 had little or no cerenum occlusion. Of seven subjects reporting tinnitus but no other auditory symptoms, none had greater than moderate cerenum occlusion. Of eight subjects reporting one or more of acute onset earache, fullness in the ears, diminished hearing, and tinnitus, seven had complete cerenum occlusion in the affected ear. The findings suggest high grade cerumen occlusion frequently occurs in the ear affected by acute auditory symptoms. However, tinnitus alone has no apparent association with cerumen occlusion. It is possible that a significant number of acute onset auditory symptoms reported in whiplash patients have a benign cause.
Otitis externa (OE), also known as "swimmer's ear", is an inflammation or infection of the external auditory canal. Many risk factors have been identified, mainly excessive moisture in the canal from swimming. To study the leading risk factors of otitis externa. Eighty-seven children aged 3.5-12 years (mean 68+/-6.5 months) who were diagnosed with otitis externa from December 1999 to March 2001 were studied for age, sex, cerumen cleaning habits, signs and symptoms. Findings were compared to an age-matched control group of 90 children without otitis externa. Sixty-one children (70.1%) in the study group had their ears cleaned with a cotton-tip applicator (Q-tip) during the 10 days preceding the diagnosis of otitis externa. In the control group, only 31 (34%) used applicators routinely during the 10 days prior to diagnosis (P<0.001). Other risk factors for otitis externa were swimming in a pool (34%), wax removal (5.8%) and ventilation tubes (1.1%). Use of a cotton-tip applicator to clean the ear seems to be the leading cause of otitis externa in children and should be avoided.
Presentation and management of aural foreign bodies in two Australian emergency departments
  • C Ryan
  • A Ghosh
  • W B Smith
  • O Leary
Ryan C, Ghosh A, Smith WB, O'Leary S. Presentation and management of aural foreign bodies in two Australian emergency departments Emerg Med Australia 2006;18:372-8.