Consideration of Sex in Clinical Trials of Transdermal Nicotine Patch: A Systematic Review
Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology (Impact Factor: 2.71). 08/2014; 22(5). DOI: 10.1037/a0037692
Transdermal nicotine patch (TNP) is 1 of the most commonly used smoking cessation treatments; however, the efficacy of TNP by sex is not yet clear. The purpose of the current review was to synthesize how sex has been considered in published clinical trials of TNP for smoking cessation. The specific aims of the study were to examine the inclusion of sex in analyses of cessation outcomes, TNP-related variables (compliance, side effects), and quit- related variables (withdrawal, cravings); to review the consideration of sex-related variables (menstrual cycle phase, pregnancy); and to identify needs for future research. Potential articles published through December 31, 2013 were identified through a MEDLINE search of the terms "clinical trial," "nicotine patch," and "smoking cessation." Forty-two studies used all 3 terms and met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of the studies reported that they considered sex in smoking cessation outcomes, with 15 studies finding no difference by sex and 7 studies finding better outcomes for men versus women. Only 5 studies reported data on outcomes by sex in their publications. No studies reported analysis of TNP compliance or withdrawal by sex. In the 1 study that examined side effects by sex, more women than men reported discontinuing TNP because of skin irritation. No study examined the association of cessation outcomes with menstrual cycle phase. There is a need to include sex in research on TNP, as well as other pharmacological and behavioral smoking treatments, to clarify the picture of treatment efficacy for women compared with men. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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ABSTRACT: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for both women and men in the United States, and women often experience poorer smoking cessation outcomes than men. Preliminary evidence suggests there are sex differences in medication effectiveness for smoking cessation. However, current medications do not take into account gender-sensitive treatment development and efficacy, underscoring the importance of this underdeveloped area of research. We reviewed preclinical and clinical evidence for gender differences in the inability to quit smoking by examining (a) the effect of increased negative affect and stress reactivity on smoking outcomes in women and (b) smoking for nicotine reinforcement in men. We also reviewed the current literature targeting the noradrenergic system as a novel gender-sensitive treatment strategy for tobacco dependence. We hypothesize that noradrenergic agents that normalize noradrenergic activity may differentially attenuate stress reactivity in women and nicotine-related reinforcement in men, indicating that targeting the noradrenergic system for smoking cessation may be effective for both genders, with benefits operating through sex-specific mechanisms. Converging lines of preclinical and clinical evidence suggest that gender-sensitive approaches to medication development for smoking cessation are a critical next step for addressing low quit rates and exacerbated health risks among women. Evidence reviewed indicates that smoking activates different brain systems modulated by noradrenergic activity in women versus men, and noradrenergic compounds may preferentially target these gender-sensitive systems. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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