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Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower



The study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in different genotypes of maize, soybean and sunflower from 2002 to 2006, in two types of storage conditions which differ in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75% and 12°C/60%, respectively. Aff ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sunflower. Differences in oil content affected by storage longevity were significant among tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize), 1.30% (soybean) and 1.75% (sunflower) than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were in sunflower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage conditions, particularly for soybean and sunflower.
e study was aimed to examine the changes in seed oil content in di erent
genotypes of maize, soybean and sun ower from 2002 to 2006, in two types
of storage conditions which di er in air temperature and humidity: 25°C/75%
and 12°C/60%, respectively. A ected by storage longevity, in average, seed oil
content decreased by 0.82% in maize, 2.19% in soybean and 8.53% in sun ower.
Di erences in oil content a ected by storage longevity were signi cant among
tested crops and genotypes within crops. Storage longevity was negatively
associated with oil content. At storage conditions at 12°C/60%, decreasing
of seed oil content was less by 0.55% (maize), 1.30% (soybean) and 1.75%
(sun ower) than in storage conditions at 25°C/75%. In summary, the lowest
seed quality losses were in maize, then in soybean and the highest losses were
in sun ower. Decreasing of seed quality losses is possible with suitable storage
conditions, particularly for soybean and sun ower.
Key words
oil content, genotypes, maize, soybean, sun ower, storage conditions,
storage longevity
Agriculturae Conspectus Scienti cus | Vol. 72 (2007) No. 3 (211-213)
In uence of Storage Condition on Seed
Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and
Sun ower
Branimir ŠIM 1( )
Aleksandra SUDARIĆ 1
Vlatka ROZMAN 2
Jasenka ĆOSIĆ 2
1 Agricultural Institute Osijek, Južno predgrađe 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
2 University of J.J. Strossmayer, Faculty of Agriculture,
Trg sv. Trojstva 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Received: November 3, 2006 | Accepted: April 5, 2007
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 72 (2007) No. 3
212 Branimir ŠIMIĆ, Ruža POPOVIĆ, Aleksandra SUDARIĆ, Vlatka ROZMAN, Irma KALINOVIĆ, Jasenka ĆOSIĆ
Seed quality is a multiple criterion that encompasses
several important seed attributes: genetic and chemical
composition, physical condition, physiological germi-
nation and vigor, size, appearance and presence of seed-
borne pathogens, crop and varietal purity, weed and crop
contaminants and moisture content. During storage, seed
quality can remain at the initial level or decline to a level
that may make the seed unacceptable for planting purpose.
is is related to many determinants: enivronment condi-
tions during seed production, pests, diseases, seed oil con-
tent, seed moisture content, mechanical damages of seed
in proccessing, storage longevity, packaging, pesticides, air
temperature and relative air humidity in storage, biochemi-
cal injury of seed tissue and similar (Al-Yahya, 2001; Šimić
et al., 2004; Guberac et al., 2003; Heatherly and Elmore,
2004). Storage longevity may vary from six months (usu-
ally for maize, soybean and sun ower), up to 20 months
or longer if the seeds are to be carried over. Longevity of
seed in storage is in uenced by the initial quality of stored
seed as well as storage conditions. Irrespective of initial
seed quality, unfavourable storage conditions, particu-
larly air temperautre and air relative humidity, contribute
to acceleration of seed deterioration in storage. Hence, it’s
di cult to assess the e ective storage period because the
storability of the seed is a function of initial seed quality
and the storage conditions (Wych, 1988; Fabrizius et al.,
1999; Heatherly and Elmore, 2004). Intensity of quality
decrease of stored seed is di erent among plant species
and within plant species (genotypic variability), imply-
ing considerable in uence of genetic (heritable) compo-
nent on phenotypic expression of traits which determine
seed quality (Al-Yahya, 2001; Guberac et al., 2003; Vieira
et al., 2001). e objective of this study was to examine
the changes in seed oil content in maize, soybean, and
sun ower a ected by storage longevity under two levels
of storage conditions di ered in terms of air temperature
and relative air humidity.
Material and methods
is study was carried out from 2002 to 2006 at the
Agricultural Institute Osijek (Croatia) using basic seed of
three agricultural crops: maize, soybean and sun ower.
Selected maize hybrids (‘OSSK 596’, ‘OSSK 602’-FAO group
600), sun ower hybrids (‘Fakir’, ‘Apolon’-middle-early) and
soybean cultivars (‘Tisa’-maturity group (MG) I; ‘Kaja’-
MG 0) are creations of the Institute.  e testing began
a er harvest of sun ower, maize and soybean in 2002.
Samples of dried, cleaned and processed seeds for each of
tested crops were taken as follows: 2x500 kg for maize and
soybean, and 2x200 kg for sun ower. Before storage, seed
oil content of all tested genotypes were determined. Seed
samples were packed in bags and stored separately in two
small storages with controlled conditions: Storage 1– 75%
relative air humidity; 25oC air temperature and Storage 2
– 60% relative air humidity, 12oC air temperature. A er
four years of storage, from both storages, average seed sam-
ples were taken from each genotype for laboratory analy-
sis. Seed oil contents (% in absolutely dry matter-ADM)
were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
analyzer.  e obtained experimental data were statisticly
processed using the Statistical Analysis System Version
8.2 computer program (SAS Institute, 1989).
Results and discussion
e means of seed oil content for tested genotypes of
maize, soybean and sun ower before and a er storage
in both type of storages with results of statistical analysis
are presented in Table 1. From the analysis of presented
data, it is obvious that analyzed seed quality traits varied
amongst tested agricultural crops as well as within crops
(genotype variation), with statistically high signi cant
di erences (P<0.01).  e mean value of seed oil content
before storage was 4.45% in maize, 23.29% in soybean and
50.55% in sun ower. A er four years for both storages,
average seed oil content was 3.63% in maize, 21.10% in
soybean and 42.02% in sun ower. By comparison of the
means of this trait before and a er storage, greater decline
of oil content was in sun ower (decreasing by 8.53%), than
in soybean (by 2.19%) and maize (by 0.82%). Di erences
in seed oil content a ected by storage longevity (between
years of storage) were statistically highly signi cant (P<0.01)
and consistent with tested crops. In Storage 1 the aver-
age decrease of oil content was 1.10% in maize, 2.84% in
soybean and 9.40% in sun ower. In Storage 2 the average
decrease of oil content was 0.55% in maize, 1.54% in soy-
bean and 7.65% in sun ower. It is obvious that changes in
oil content were less signi cant in Storage 2 by 0.55% in
maize, 1.30% in soybean and by 1.75% in sun ower than
in Storage 1. Di erences in the oil content a ected by dif-
ferent storage conditions were highly signi cant at level of
P<0.01 during the same period of storage consistent with
all tested crops. Analysis of variance showed that interac-
tion between tested crops and examined storage longevity,
and also between storage longevity and storage type were
highly signi cant (P<0.01).
e obtained results of this study showed that the e ect
of storage longevity is negative on level of seed oil content
in maize, soybean and sun ower, with signi cant di er-
ences amongst these crops in intensity of decreasing qual-
ity of stored seed.  us, on the average for both storages,
decreasing of oil content was less in maize in relation with
soybean and sun ower, suggesting higher stability of ana-
lyzed quality seed attributes during storage in maize than
in both soybean and sun ower, respectively. At the same
time, di erences in seed deterioration between soybean and
sun ower also existed, particularly in oil content. It could
be connected with di erences amongst crops in expression
Agric. conspec. sci. Vol. 72 (2007) No. 3
Influence of Storage Condition on Seed Oil Content of Maize, Soybean and Sunflower
of the protective system of enzymatic and non-enzymatic
processes which in uence the intensity of seed deteriora-
tion.  us, in oil crops, such as soybean and sun ower,
autooxidation of lipids and increase of the content of free
fatty acids during storage period are the main reasons for
rapid deterioration of the oil seed as presented by Reuzeau
and Cavalie (1995), Trawatha et al. (1995), and Balašević-
Tubić et al. (2005). Longevity of stored seed of any crops
considerably depends on the storage conditions, primarily
in terms of air temperature and relative air humidity in
storage. Results of our study showed that in the worst stor-
age conditions (25°C/75%) were higher seed quality losses
than in the storage with lower temperature and lower rel-
ative humidity (12°C/60%).  ese ndings corresponded
well to those reported elsewhere that unfavorable storage
conditions (high air temperature and high humidity of air)
accelerate seed deterioration, causing seed quality losses
and therein lower germinability percentage of stored seed
(Depaula et al., 1996; Al-Yahya, 2001).
In summary, data obtained in this study indicate that
e ect of storage longevity on seed oil content is more or
less negative and considerably a ected by storage condi-
tions. If suitable storage conditions are not, provided, qual-
ity and quantity losses increase. Decreasing these losses is
possible providing suitable storage conditions and storage
management, what enables the preserving seed quality at-
tributes, such as seed oil content, on the satisfactory level
acceptable for production purposes. Furthermore, over the
same storage period and under same storage conditions,
the intensity of seed quality declining is di erent among
plant species due to genetic diversity, which implies the
importance of creating suitable storage conditions accord-
ing to crop that will be stored.
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(2005): In uence of aging process on biochemical changes in
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Depaula, M., M. Perezotaola, M. Darder, M. Torres, M. Frutos,
G. Martinezhonduvilla (1996): Function of the ascorbate-
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Fabrizius, E., D. TeKrony, D. B., Egli, M. Rucker. (1999):
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Guberac, V., S. Marić, A. Lalić, G. Drezner, Z. Zdunić. (2003):
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on Vigor and Germination. Journal of Agronomy and Crop
Science 189, 54-56.
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Table 1. Seed oil content means (% in ADM) of tested
genotypes of maize, soybean and sun ower regarding storage
longevity (2002-2006) and storage conditions: S1 (25°C/75%);
S2 (12°C/60%)
Oil content in seed (% in ADM)
Crops Genotype
Storage 1 Storage 2
Begining of storage (2002)
OSSK 596 4.70 4.70 Maize
OSSK 602 4.20 4.20
Tisa 23.18 23.18 Soybean
Kaja 23.40 23.40
Fakir 47.76 47.76 Sunflower
Apolon 53.35 53.35
End of storage (2006)
OSSK 596 3.50 4.00 Maize
OSSK602 3.20 3.80
Tisa 20.70 22.00 Soybean
Kaja 20.20 21.50
Fakir 42.10 43.20 Sunflower
Apolon 40.20 42.60
LSD test
Sources of variation F test
0.05 0.01
Crops (A) 59537.441** 0.238 0.328
Storage longevity (B) 7128.33** 0.071 0.093
Storage type (C) 35.020** 0.058 0.077
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p>This study was set to investigate the germinability and storability of the newly released cowpea genotypes and secondly the influence of different storage materials under ambient storage condition on seed vigour and germination over time. The experiment was laid in a Split-split plot design with four replicates. The main plot was duration (0, 30, 60 and 90 days), while Storage material (polyethylene bag, cotton bag and glass container) was sub plot and the four cowpea genotypes were sub-sub plot. Results from the study showed that irrespective of the cowpea genotypes and storage material used, percentage vigour and germination were significantly affected with time in storage. Seeds stored in cotton bags had the least percentage vigour (57%) and germination (65%) while the highest was recorded for seeds stored in air-tight glass containers. Among all the cowpea genotypes studied, Hewale was found to have poor storage abilities. For better storage of cowpea seeds for a period exceeding 3 months, it is preferable to use glass containers or black polyethylene bags even under ambient condition to maintain seed vigour and germinability.</p
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Manipulation of corn seed from harvest throughout processing to disinfections is associated with seed damage. Such damage causes lower germination and germination energy. Seed damage, especially in the embryo and crown, are factors that decrease germination, especially under low temperatures. Also, damaged seed is inclined to infections by soil pathogens (Aspergillus, Pythium, Penicillium), causing seed and germ rotting. In some cases, plant density is seriously reduced by infestations so that resowing is required. Seed of five corn-inbred lines differing in form and type (A: shallow and round form of the dent type MO-17, Os6-2; B: deep and uniform of the semi-flint type B-73, Os84-28 and Os87-24) were tested for their quantity and damaged spots (crown, germ, back side and belly side). Seed damage following the manipulations ranged as follows: from 3.8 to 7.2% (harvest), from 36.2 to 52.8% (husking) and from 38.4 to 54.0% (the end of processing). Also, damage of different parts of seed following their processing was as follows: from 17.8 to 29.2% (crown), from 4.1 to 6.7% (germ), from 6.3 to 9.8% (back side) and from 5.7 to 8.3% (belly side). High negative correlation (from r = -0.620 to r = -0.960) between damage of seed and seed quality (germination energy, germination) and high positive correlation between germination energy and germination were found over the investigated years and for both lines.
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Reports that an Indonesian soyabean (Glycine max) line (TGm737p) shows greater seed storage longevity than an American cultivar (Bossier), and that the cross between them (TG×536–02D) is intermediate between the two parents in this regard, were investigated by growing all three genotypes under identical conditions (30°C/20°C, 12 h d-1 photoperiod) in a plastics house. Seeds were harvested when moisture content had declined naturally to 14–15% (wet basis), and then stored hermetically at five different moisture contents at 40°C. Analyses of the resultant seed survival curves revealed that the seed lot constant Ki (a measure of potential longevity) was greatest in TGm737p and least in cv. Bossier, the cross being much closer to the American parent in this regard. The negative logarithmic relation between σ (standard deviation of the frequency distribution of seed deaths in time) and moisture content did not differ (p > 0.10) among the three genotypes. Moreover, this relation was close to that predicted by earlier results for four different genotypes. Similarly, there was no significant difference (p > 0.25) among genotypes in the negative semi-logarithmic relation between σ and seed equilibrium relative humidity (rh): the regression slope was equivalent to a doubling of longevity for each 8.0% reduction in rh. Finally, comparison of the negative logarithmic relation between absolute longevity (50% viability period) and seed moisture content confirmed that TGm737p showed greatest longevity (p > 0.005), but failed to show a difference in absolute longevity between cv. Bossier and the cross (p > 0.25). The results confirm that the seed viability equation of Ellis and Roberts (1980a, b) provides a framework within which the seed longevity of different genotypes can be compared. They suggest too that there is considerable doubt as to whether or not the greater potential longevity of the Indonesian line TGm737p has been incorporated successfully into the cross TG×536–02D.Longevidad de la semilla de soja
Membrane integrity, as measured by electrical conductivity (EC), is suggested as an indicator of seed vigor in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seeds. This study evaluated the effect of storage time and temperature on EC of six soybean seed lots (two lots each of high, medium and low vigor). All seed lots were adjusted to 120 g kg-1 seed moisture, sealed in aluminum foil packets and placed in storage at 10 and 20°C or stored unsealed in multi-wall paper bags in warehouse (WH) conditions at Lexington, KY, USA for 486 days. Four of the six seed lots were also stored unsealed at 10°C. All seed lots were sampled at 3-month intervals and evaluated for seed moisture (SMC), standard germination (SG) and vigor [accelerated aging (AA) and EC]. After 91 and 204 days in storage, samples initially stored at 20°C and WH were moved to 10°C and sampled at the same intervals. Seed moisture content for unsealed samples equilibrated at 107 g kg-1 (± 9 g kg-1) in both the WH and 10°C environments. No change in SG occurred for seeds stored sealed (120 g kg-1) at 10°C, except for the low vigor seed lots which declined significantly at the last sample date. The AA germination declined significantly for all seed lots stored sealed at 10°C, however the EC did not change during the same storage period. Seeds stored sealed at 20°C and unsealed in the WH showed rapid declines in AA and SG and significant increases in EC. When these seeds were moved to 10°C, however, the AA continued to decline while the EC remained at the same level (no significant change) for the remainder of the seed storage period. Thus whilst the AA declined in all environments, the EC only increased at higher temperatures (20°C, WH) but showed little change during storage at 10°C. Thus, precautions must be taken if using EC to measure soybean seed vigor following storage at 10°C.
Lipid peroxidation is thought to be an important factor in seed deterioration. This investigation was initiated to determine if changes in free fatty acids and peroxidation products are related to changes in seed quality during soybean [Glycine max (L.), Merr.] seed deterioration. Seed lots of three soybean cultivars (Century, Pennyrile, and Pharaoh) were stored at 20, 30, and 40°C, sampled periodically, and tested for seed germination and vigor. Embryonic axes excised from deteriorated seeds were tested for contents of total and free fatty acids and C 6 -aldehydes. Seed vigor, as measured by accelerated aging, conductivity, and cold tests, was the first seed quality component lost in all cultivars and storage environments, followed by a decline in percentage germination. Conductivity of seed leachates increased about two-fold during storage for all cultivars. The amount of total fatty acids in the lipid fraction did not change, while free linoleic and linolenic acids increased about two-fold during seed deterioration. E-2-hexenal increased two-fold but hexanal did not change during storage. Both free linoleic acid and E-2-hexenal content were correlated with seed quality, but little association was shown between lipoxygenase activity and seed quality. Free fatty acids may have contributed to seed deterioration by disrupting membranes and/or by toxicity of subsequent peroxidation products.
A method for predicting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed germination during storage would benefit seed producers and the seed industry. This investigation evaluated the ability of the Ellis and Roberts deterioration model to predict seed germination after warehouse storage and the accuracy of a rapid-aging test to estimate initial seed quality (K(i). Seed lots with low levels of mechanical injury and Phomopsis longicolla (Hobbs) seed infection produced in 1990 and 1991 were stored more than 2 yr in multiwall paper bags in seed warehouses in Kentucky and Indiana. Warehouse temperature was monitored and seed moisture and germination were determined at 3-mo intervals. The rapid-aging test (40°C and 150 g kg-1 seed moisture [fresh weight basis]) was used to estimate K(i) for each seed lot. The model accurately ±10 percentage points) predicted germination of most seed lots after one carryover year of storage (1 yr after the first spring planting season, ≃430 d), when little deterioration had occurred. After 2 yr of carryover storage (≃800 d), when germination had declined, the model accurately predicted the germination of only six of 16 seed lots. The inaccurate predictions may have been related to variation in K(i) (substantial variation occurred between repeated determinations on the same seed lot) or to variation among seed lots in the rate of deterioration at constant temperature and seed moisture. These results suggest that some of the assumptions underlying the Ellis-Roberts seed deterioration model may be invalid and require further evaluation.
summaryChanges in the lipid peroxidation and the enzymatic activities of the oxygen radical detoxification were studied in dry seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and related to their germinability. There was a positive relationship between the total dehydrogenase activity extracted from whole seeds and germination at both 25 °C and 10 °C. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in embryonic axes and germination at 10 °C were negatively correlated. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and total peroxidase activities were higher in seeds showing high germination capacity. A high malondialdehyde content and a high total glutathione content, were found in cotyledons of dry seeds exhibiting no germination capacity. A net decrease (20%) in the activities of catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was found in these cotyledon fragments. Glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities were increased by 20 and 50%, respectively. Kinetic properties of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also affected; the apparent Km for NAD+ was lower in seeds unable to germinate than in seeds with a high germination ability. Oxidative stress appeared to affect seed quality by lowering antioxidant defence capacity; the collapse of the oxygen radical detoxification system appeared to be the result of the ineffectiveness of the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity; its potential role in oxidative stress tolerance and seed germination ability is discussed.
The function of the ascorbate‐glutathione (AsA/GSH) cycle was analyzed in seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Peredovik) subjected to accelerated ageing at 43°C and 75% relative humidity for 1 to 11 days. The study was performed using dry seeds and seeds hydrated by imbibition in distilled water for 4 h at 25°C. Lipid peroxidation was also determined by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) level. As the ageing period increased, a progressive loss of seed viability became increasingly evident. Even though high levels of MDA were detected, the MDA level did not change during accelerated ageing, suggesting that lipid peroxidation might occur to some extent. The study of the ascorbate/glutathione (AsA/GSH) cycle revealed that the GSH system is the major detoxifying mechanism in both dry and imbibed sunflower seeds. The GSH system is mainly located in the embryo, and its protective role is mediated by reactions that consume the GSH pool and, thereby, minimize the increase of the oxidized form (GSSG). Seed imbibition activates cellular metabolism and allows some antioxidant enzymes like glutathione reductase (EC to act upon toxic agents. These reactions provide a reducing status, so that repair of damage becomes possible. However, prolonged ageing conditions (11 days) result in an irreversible damage, as evidenced by the appearance of dead seeds when the germination period ended. Multiple regression analysis revealed the effectiveness of the GSH system in aged seeds, especially upon imbibition and until the AsA/GSH cycle became completely functional.
Investigations of the influence of hermetic cereal seed storage on germination were carried out in the laboratory of the Faculty of Agriculture in Osijek (Croatia) over 5 years (1992–96). Seeds of four species (winter wheat, winter barley, spring oat, and maize) were stored in hermetic glass containers at an air temperature of 20 °C and a relative humidity of 65 %. The moisture level in stored seeds was 13 %. After 5 years, statistically highly significant associations (P < 0.01) were found between storage longevity (five researched years) and seed germination of the four cereals. Germination of all investigated cereals was high (between 97.25 % for maize and 93 % for winter wheat) after harvest. The germination level decreased for all cereals, on average by 38 %, over the 5 years of storage. The highest germination values were found for wheat seeds (84.75 %) and the lowest germination values for maize seeds (36.0 %). The results showed that germination of all investigated cereals seeds was negatively correlated with storage longevity. The differences in germination found amongst the cereals were statistically highly significant (P < 0.01).
The percentage germination was determined for storage of wheat at four grain moisture contents (15, 18, 21 and 24 %). four temperature levels (4, 15, 25 and 40 degreesC) and three levels of mechanical damage (0, 15 and 30 %). The effect of each level of moisture was investigated using three replicates for each temperature and each level of mechanical damage. During storage, at 0.25, 0.5 and I % dry matter loss (DML), germination tests were carried out on samples taken from each of the above treatments. The percentage germination was compared statistically amongst treatments. The analysis showed significant differences among most of the treatments. The percentage germination decreased very slowly at a low moisture level (15 %), low temperature (4 degreesC) and low level of damage (0 %), while it decreased rapidly at a high moisture level (24 %), high temperature (40 degreesC) and high level of damage (30%). For example, the percentage germination was 41 % when the wheat was stored at 4 degreesC, 15 % mechanical damage and 24 % moisture content after a storage time of 36.5 days, while the percentage germination was 88.3 % when the wheat was stored at 4 degreesC, 15 % mechanical damage and 15 % moisture content after a storage time of 104 days.