The Effects of Free-Living Interval-Walking Training on Glycemic Control, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Diabetes Care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 01/2012; 36(2). DOI: 10.2337/dc12-0658


OBJECTIVEdTo evaluate the feasibility of free-living walking training in type 2 diabetes patients, and to investigate the effects of interval-walking training versus continuous-walking training upon physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD
SdSubjects with type 2 diabetes were randomized to a control (n = 8), continuous-walking (n = 12), or interval-walking group (n = 12). Training groups were prescribed five sessions per week (60 min/session) and were controlled with an accelerometer and a heart-rate monitor. Continuous walkers performed all training at moderate intensity, whereas interval walkers alternated 3-min repetitions at low and high intensity. Before and after the 4-month intervention, the following variables were measured: VO 2 max, body composition, and glycemic control (fasting glucose, HbA 1c , oral glucose tolerance test, and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]). RESULTSdTraining adherence was high (89 6 4%), and training energy expenditure and mean intensity were comparable. VO 2 max increased 16.1 6 3.7% in the interval-walking group (P , 0.05), whereas no changes were observed in the continuous-walking or control group. Body mass and adiposity (fat mass and visceral fat) decreased in the interval-walking group only (P , 0.05). Glycemic control (elevated mean CGM glucose levels and increased fasting insulin) wors-ened in the control group (P , 0.05), whereas mean (P = 0.05) and maximum (P , 0.05) CGM glucose levels decreased in the interval-walking group. The continuous walkers showed no changes in glycemic control. CONCLUSION
SdFree-living walking training is feasible in type 2 diabetes patients. Con-tinuous walking offsets the deterioration in glycemia seen in the control group, and interval walking is superior to energy expenditure–matched continuous walking for improving physical fitness, body composition, and glycemic control.

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Available from: Sine Haugaard Knudsen, Aug 25, 2014
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    • "To significantly increase VO2 max in healthy older adults, aerobic exercise intensity should be ≥60% of their pretraining VO2 max and last at least 16 weeks15,31 Larger improvements in VO2 max are typically observed with longer training periods (20–30 weeks) but not necessarily higher training intensities (ie, >70% of VO2 max).31,91 However, varying aerobic exercise intensity through interval training (3 minutes low intensity/3 minutes high intensity) has been shown to be more effective than 60 minutes of steady pace walking in improving VO2 max and glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.92 "
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