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Translation in Foreign Language Teaching: A Brief Overview of Pros and Cons

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In this paper I examine why translation has become an outlaw in certain circles in foreign language teaching. A list of the most common objections to using translation in the classroom will be contrasted with possible counter-objections, on the basis of which I support the view that translation can be used in a meaningful way in the teaching of foreign languages. Quite obviously, this view leads to a number of further questions concerning when, how, in what circumstances, and for what purposes translation may be usefully employed. These questions, however, cannot be discussed within the limits of the present paper. 1 Pedagogical translation versus real translation According to Klaudy (2003: 133), a discussion of translation pedagogy requires that a distinction be made between two types of translation, which she calls pedagogical translation and real translation. Pedagogical and real translation differ from each other on three counts: the function, the object, and the addressee of the translation. As regards function, pedagogical translation is an instrumental kind of translation, in which the translated text serves as a tool of improving the language learner's foreign language proficiency. It is a means of consciousness-raising, practising, or testing language knowledge. Lesznyák (2003: 61) points out two additional functions of pedagogical translation: illumination and memorisation. In real translation, on the other hand, the translated text is not a tool but the very goal of the process. The object of real translation is information about reality, contained in the source text, whereas in pedagogical translation it is information about the language learner's level of language proficiency. There is also a difference concerning the addressee of the two kinds of translation. In real translation it is a target language reader wanting some information about reality, while in pedagogical translation the addressee is the language teacher or the examiner, wanting information about the learner's proficiency.

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... For example, one of the studies conducted in Japan's training session shows that L1 application in the learning process creates confusion for students, which causes the students to find it hard to express the idea of the target language (Guerra, 2014). In contrast, Vermes (2010) contends that L1 can also be performed orally and can thus, in principle, be used to develop spoken language accuracy. Although the L1 application can hinder students' communication abilities and cause them to make mistakes in the target language, it appears to be a useful pedagogical tool for improving the accuracy of the target language acquisition. ...
... However, L1 use as a language learning tool is also considered to cause language interference and may hamper students' speaking skills. Some experts then criticize these ideas by emphasizing that L1 also helps the students establish the accuracy of their communicative skills (Vermes, 2010). Only a few errors are caused by language interference (Ali, 2012). ...
... Besides this, from the results of this study, it can be highlighted that the negative sides of using L1 in the class are it can hinder students' speaking skills, and students gain less chance to exercise their English which are still relevant to the previous study by Richards and Rogers (2001) and Pan and Pan (2012). However, the findings in this study contradict with the report from Magid and Mugaddam (2013) and Vermes (2010) as the majority of students in this study did not feel that L1 application in their English classroom disrupted their language acquisition process unlike in the two previous studies. This indicates that L1 should not be overused in an English classroom to avoid such negative perspectives as also suggested by Ali (2012) who clarified that L1 few errors might occur when using L1 but only they were minors in generating the target language. ...
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The application of the first language (L1) in English language teaching (ELT) has long been practiced, and its practice has been controversial in foreign language teaching. This research aims to investigate students’ attitudes toward the application of Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian students’ L1) in ELT. This research is framed through a quantitative survey in which the 32 participants were invited to take online self-administered questionnaires. Result suggests that the integration of Bahasa Indonesia in English language teaching as a pedagogical tool is considered beneficial to improve students’ English proficiency, enhance English vocabulary, and improve comprehension. In addition, the participants also believed that the numerous use of L1 or Bahasa Indonesia may provide less opportunity for students to develop their speaking skills. When it comes to preferences of language use in ELT, most students agreed that their English teachers should integrate both Bahasa Indonesia and English, in which the use of Bahasa Indonesia to be minimized while English to be predominated.
... In the study in which the professionally-based competencies of the translators were examined in terms of their relationship with their ICT competencies, the participants' general competencies were found to be high. (2011) and Vermes (2010). According to Amman (2008), an important prerequisite of translation education is that the translator has the ability to produce and analyze texts. ...
... In addition to a good language and cultural competence, text producers should have sufficient creativity, research skills and strategic competencies. Especially in programs that train translator candidates, inadequacies are observed in achieving the goals of Domain/thematic sub-competence, textual sub-competence, Research sub-competence and Strategic sub-competence (Tahir-Gürçağlar 2011, Vermes, 2010. In an academic translation, it is important for students to be able to analyze a written text and transfer it to the target language in accordance with the function of the text and the expectations of the target culture. ...
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In this study, it is aimed to examine the professionally-based competencies and ICT skills of translator candidates with a relational approach. Relationships between professionally-based competencies and information communication technology (ICT) skills were examined. The sample of the study was conducted in Kazakhstan with 166 translator candidate participants. In the study, information communication technologies skills scale and Translator Professionally-Based Competence test were used to collect data from translators. Independent Samples t test, One Way ANOVA and Multiple Regression Analysis techniques were used in the analysis of the research data. According to the research findings, the professionally-based competencies of the participants were found to be high in general. However, it was observed that the participants had some problems in the domain/thematic sub-competence, Textual sub-competence, Research and technological sub-competence, Strategic sub-competence, Knowledge about translation sub-competence dimensions. On the other hand, professionally-based competencies show differences according to the class level and achievement perceptions of the participants. It was found that the general ICT tendencies and software usage skills of the translator candidates were at a medium level, their hardware knowledge was at a low level, while their access and communication skills in a virtual environment were at a high level. ICT skills differ according to the gender, class and achievement perceptions of the translator candidates. Finally, significant correlations were found between the professionally-based competencies and ICT skills of the translator candidates/
... En las últimas décadas, diversos autores abogan por el uso de la traducción como herramienta pedagógica en la clase de lengua extranjera, en lo que se ha denominado como un giro traductológico en el campo de la didáctica (Carreres et al., 2018). Los argumentos utilizados por los detractores de esta herramienta han sido revisados y contestados en diversos trabajos (Malmkjaer, 2010;Sánchez Iglesias, 2009;Vermes, 2010, entre otros) que han llevado a una revalorización de la traducción y han destacado sus efectos positivos sobre el aprendizaje. ...
... El segundo ámbito en el que se desaconsejaba el uso de la TP era el de los aprendices de niveles más bajos al considerar que no están preparados para esta tarea (Vermes, 2010). Este argumento se basa en que los aprendices no disponen todavía de los conocimientos necesarios para embarcarse en esta tarea, para la que se necesita un dominio más avanzado de la lengua. ...
... However, this strategy has caused conflicts among researchers and experts and evoked clashing attitudes towards its use in the foreign/second language learning process. The arguments against the use of translation in EFL settings were based on the biased view of translation (Vermes, 2010) that was induced in the past by the poor reputation of the Grammar-Translation Method. Cook (2010) calls this an 'insidious association' that has profoundly embedded itself in the collective consciousness of the language-teaching field. ...
... School translation focuses on the language, while professional translation focuses on the content of language. Indeed, the teaching of translation for professional reasons is often substantively different from the use of translation in academic contexts, and particularly in foreign language learning (Vermes, 2010). ...
Article
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One of the foremost critical challenges that learners may face while learning a foreign language is developing a reliable lexicon and mastering words. Inadequate vocabulary knowledge may put serious barriers within the process of learning a second / foreign language (L2). Thus, students must equip themselves with different strategies to overcome these difficulties. One amongst these strategies that has been heeded by many experts is the use of the first language (L1) translation in learning the vocabulary of L2. However, the effect of this strategy on English as a foreign language (EFL) learners’ vocabulary depth remained under explored. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to examine the effect of L1 translation on the depth of vocabulary of EFL learners. To attain this goal, a total of 86 Tunisian students, at the fourth year of Secondary Education level, participated in this project. They were randomly selected and divided into a control group and an experimental group. Two Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge tests were assigned to test the research hypotheses. Data was analyzed using two independent-samples t-tests. The findings of the study showed that the participants within the experimental group, who learnt vocabulary through L1 translation strategies, outperformed their counterparts within the control group, who learnt vocabulary through strategies employing only the target language, in relation to their vocabulary depth.
... However, this strategy has caused conflicts among researchers and experts and evoked clashing attitudes towards its use in the foreign/second language learning process. The arguments against the use of translation in EFL settings were based on the biased view of translation (Vermes, 2010) that was induced in the past by the poor reputation of the Grammar-Translation Method. Cook (2010) calls this an 'insidious association' that has profoundly embedded itself in the collective consciousness of the language-teaching field. ...
... School translation focuses on the language, while professional translation focuses on the content of language. Indeed, the teaching of translation for professional reasons is often substantively different from the use of translation in academic contexts, and particularly in foreign language learning (Vermes, 2010). ...
Article
One of the foremost critical challenges that learners may face while learning a foreign language is developing a reliable lexicon and mastering words. Inadequate vocabulary knowledge may put serious barriers within the process of learning a second / foreign language (L2). Thus, students must equip themselves with different strategies to overcome these difficulties. One amongst these strategies that has been heeded by many experts is the use of the first language (L1) translation in learning the vocabulary of L2. However, the effect of this strategy on English as a foreign language (EFL) learners' vocabulary depth remained under explored. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study is to examine the effect of L1 translation on the depth of vocabulary of EFL learners. To attain this goal, a total of 86 Tunisian students, at the fourth year of Secondary Education level, participated in this project. They were randomly selected and divided into a control group and an experimental group. Two Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge tests were assigned to test the research hypotheses. Data was analyzed using two independent-samples t-tests. The findings of the study showed that the participants within the experimental group, who learnt vocabulary through L1 translation strategies, outperformed their counterparts within the control group, who learnt vocabulary through strategies employing only the target language, in relation to their vocabulary depth.
... As regards communication, translation is a kind of communicative activity which is practiced within a meaningful context (Duff, 1989). Vermes, (2010) says that translation is not only structure manipulation; it is primarily a form of communication. And as such, it necessarily involves interaction and cooperation between people, which makes it a potentially very useful device in foreign language teaching. ...
... In this line, it was considered an inadequate reminder of old teaching methodologies, especially those derived from the GTM (Grammar Translation Method), the dominant form of language teaching until the 20th century. The main arguments and assumptions that have been provided against the use of translation as a language teaching aid have been pointed by some authors (Duff, 1989;Sharma, 2006;Vermes, 2010). According to the communicative approaches, the use of L1 was considered as undesirable. ...
Article
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This work aims to determine the useful of translation in FLT and to analyze pros and cons about translation. It is argued translation as an integrative activity in non linguistic disciplines. A proposal for using translation in BPE (Bilingual Physical Education) is presented. Implementation results are subsequently shown.
... She evokes other scholars who postulate that reliance on learners' L1 benefits them regarding the development of their language awareness and sensitivity (Gozdawa-Gołębiowski, 2003) or provides them with confidence that they understood the relation between the meaning and form of particular grammar structures (Brooks-Lewis, 2009;Littlewood and Yu, 2011). Vermes (2010), in turn, revises basic negative reflections regarding translation practices in the educational milieu by providing sound counterarguments. He eventually concludes that "[t]he objections to the use of translation in foreign language teaching are all based on a limited view of translation. ...
... Widła, 2016), we extend Kramsch's sociocultural or ecolinguistic perspective to our context. Vermes (2010), considering the use of translation in the field of foreign language teaching, concludes that there are no fundamental reasons for the exclusion of translation from language education. He elaboratively quotes and comments on the voices against the use of TILT. ...
Article
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The article presents theoretical considerations pertaining to the use of trans-lation in foreign language teaching and argues for the reinstatement of trans-lation activities in language teaching to contribute to the development of in-tercultural sensitivity among language users. The authors build upon critical-ecological reflections in language education. They posit that a globalized world requires a departure from the monolingual language teaching para-digm, particularly in multicultural and multilingual contexts such as, for ex-ample, a united Europe. The argument touches upon the issues of neoliberal skills training, intercultural education, language pedagogy (glottodidactics), language acquisition and translation theories as well as observations of the practicalities imposed on L2 users by the postmodern reality and market forces. The authors present the incorporation of translation practices into foreign language teaching as a means of enhancing intercultural sensitivity and a way of fighting linguistic and cultural colonization. The ultimate goal – the new “paradigm shift” (Butzkamm and Caldwell, 2009) – is to contribute to social justice via foreign language education.
... As regards communication, translation is a kind of communicative activity which is practiced within a meaningful context (Duff, 1989). Vermes, (2010) says that translation is not only structure manipulation; it is primarily a form of communication. And as such, it necessarily involves interaction and cooperation between people, which makes it a potentially very useful device in foreign language teaching. ...
... In this line, it was considered an inadequate reminder of old teaching methodologies, especially those derived from the GTM (Grammar Translation Method), the dominant form of language teaching until the 20th century. The main arguments and assumptions that have been provided against the use of translation as a language teaching aid have been pointed by some authors (Duff, 1989;Sharma, 2006;Vermes, 2010). According to the communicative approaches, the use of L1 was considered as undesirable. ...
... Larson (1986) remarked that those who are learning the target language encounter two major issues when it comes to translation: firstly, learning to cope with translation-related problems is not the same as learning the language itself, although they go hand-in-hand, and secondly, it is vital to decide which translation method should be adopted for optimum teaching and learning outcomes. Vermes (2010) argued that an essential requirement to consider translation a valid didactic tool is to distinguish pedagogical from real translation in terms of their function, the object being dealt with, and the addressee. Function-wise, pedagogical translation is basically instrumental insofar as the translated text is a mere tool to improve students' L2 proficiency. ...
Article
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Translation is the communication of meaning by converting the source language to the target language. The discipline requires excellent mastery and control of both source and target language, as well as their affective values as in the cultures of both languages. As translation includes the high order thinking skills, the teaching of learning of translation is normally conducted using a traditional method. Hence, this research evaluates the effectiveness of theatre-based task in the learning of French-Malay translation. The respondents for the study were 54 French Language Studies students at Universiti Putra Malaysia. The translation theater project involves four phases, which are the translation of the Molière theater script Fourberries de Scapin to Malay, the selection of characters for the theater play, the management of the play, and the insertion of the script into the theater video. It was found that the theater task was well received by the respondents and effective as to enhance their team management skills (TS), creative thinking problem solving (CTPS), psychomotor (P6), communication skills (CS) as well as their cognitive skills (C5). Subsequently, the respondents reported putting their theoretical learning of the translation strategies into practice by performing the translation and the theater task.
... The students will also enhance their capabilities to students independently Fish, 2003). The same like above point, Vermes (2010) stated that translation activities will increase the awareness not only of the mother tongue and the foreign language, but the students will also be acquainted with culture clashes from two separated languages. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to explore the perceptions of Afghan EFL teachers towards the use of Grammar-Translation Method (GTM) in English classrooms. It aimed to investigate the use of different techniques of teaching English to students through the application of GTM in classrooms. Furthermore, the study sought to determine how GTM helped teachers to use translation technique to translate short passages and other language items and effects of GTM on Afghan teaching classrooms through students’ performance. The study also tried to find out differences in the perceptions teachers by gender, age, first language, and teaching experience. The data collected from 150 participants who were teaching English at Takhar University and other English language centers. The study employed Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 to analyze the data. The results of the study revealed that teachers liked and welcomed GTM to be applied in English classrooms. Furthermore, the results also showed that participants considered GTM a very important method of teaching because it helped them teach grammar rules properly. Another finding of the study was that teachers would often translate short passages, instructions and any language items into L1 in order to help learners to learn the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that applying Grammar-Translation Method in language classroom affected the students’ performance. It also showed that there were not any statistically significant differences by their gender, age, and teaching experience except their language.
... The students will also enhance their capabilities to students independently Fish, 2003). The same like above point, Vermes (2010) stated that translation activities will increase the awareness not only of the mother tongue and the foreign language, but the students will also be acquainted with culture clashes from two separated languages. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the present study was to explore the perceptions of Afghan EFL teachers towards the use of Grammar-Translation Method (GTM) in English classrooms. It aimed to investigate the use of different techniques of teaching English to students through the application of GTM in classrooms. Furthermore, the study sought to determine how GTM helped teachers to use translation technique to translate short passages and other language items and effects of GTM on Afghan teaching classrooms through students’ performance. The study also tried to find out differences in the perceptions teachers by gender, age, first language, and teaching experience. The data collected from 150 participants who were teaching English at Takhar University and other English language centers. The study employed Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 24.0 to analyze the data. The results of the study revealed that teachers liked and welcomed GTM to be applied in English classrooms. Furthermore, the results also showed that participants considered GTM a very important method of teaching because it helped them teach grammar rules properly. Another finding of the study was that teachers would often translate short passages, instructions and any language items into L1 in order to help learners to learn the target language. Moreover, the study revealed that applying Grammar-Translation Method in language classroom affected the students’ performance. It also showed that there were not any statistically significant differences by their gender, age, and teaching experience except their language.
... improved writing and translation skills) are based on "form-focused" activities in which translation was not a situated task, but more of an exercise targeting sentences or sentence parts (2008: 183). As Vermes (2010) noted, translation is still often used as "only structure manipulation" whereas "it is primarily a form of communication. And as such, it necessarily involves interaction and cooperation between people, which makes it a potentially very useful device in foreign language teaching." ...
... The benefits and drawbacks of being multilingual are always helpful, whether learning a new language for personal reasons or as an enterprise seeking to enter the worldwide market. It may be a surprise that more than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe (Vermes, 2010). However, knowing at least five of them would not be surprising. ...
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Possessing proficiency in many languages facilitates cultural enrichment and an appreciation of diverse views in daily life. Nevertheless, everything in the world has its limits. The benefits and drawbacks of being multilingual are always helpful, whether learning a new language for personal reasons or as an enterprise seeking to enter the worldwide market. It may be a surprise that more than 5,000 languages are spoken around the globe (Vermes, 2010). However, knowing at least five of them would not be surprising. In reality, there are several advantages to being bilingual. Possessing the ability to speak various languages is a valuable talent. It may aid one in the job by giving an advantage over others who do not speak many languages (Khan, 2011). Multilingualism refers to using two or more languages in speech or writing. However, this is not always the case with bilingual speakers of two dialects/languages of the same language. For many, multilingualism is the capacity to speak many languages at home and in public. Some individuals are multilingual because their parents exposed them to many languages growing up (Khan, 2011). Others acquire it because they relocated to a nation where a different language is spoken. Multilingualism is advantageous in practically every aspect of life. The ability to speak numerous languages has been a difficulty for a person. Knowing how to welcome in more than one language may provide a sense of accomplishment and self-worth that most people won't have until they experience it (Lark, 2016). Communicating fluently in many languages is a challenging but intriguing ability to master, and those who can do so are more valuable to society (Hamied, 2012). Additionally, as we'll see in the following section, speaking many languages has both advantages and disadvantages.
... The first is 'pedagogical translation', which is instrumentally-focused because, "the translated text serves as a tool of improving the language learner's foreign language proficiency" (Vermes, 2010, p. 83). The second is 'real translation' where the translated text is the goal of the process; the object is about access to information contained in the text (Vermes, 2010). There are numerous perceived benefits to using translation as a means: Danchev (1983) argues that it has the potential to help learners to monitor their codeswitching; Machida (2011) argues that the act of translating "encourages their awareness of form and meaning in context and improves their reading and writings skills in SL/FL" (p. ...
... Somehow contradictorily, the communicative approach did not promote developing translation skills, as this would have implied acknowledging the learners' mother tongues, as well as the whole spectrum of languages present in the learners' environment. Several authors have thus advocated that translation is an essential component of the communicative competence (Vermes 2010;Cook 2010;Bratož and Kocbek 2013). Some scholars in the last decades actually argued that translation needed to be considered as the fifth language skill, along with the four traditional language skills (Naimushin 2002;Newmark 1991). ...
... can be said to have started the Reform Movement. In its second edition, Viëtor (1886: 8, 9, 24, 27, 28, 29) uses the simple term 'Methode' [method] six times in total, albeit not always with 2 See Kelly (1976: 53), Howatt and Widdowson (2004: 151-158), as well as Grünewald (2010: 95-96), Vermes (2010) and Siefert (2013: 34-6) with references to further publications on the topic. reference to different teaching concepts. ...
Article
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Considering the most significant international historical research on the history of language learning and teaching since the 1850s as a starting point, this paper builds on the four contributions to this special issue of Language & History to situate the two historical language teaching methods known as the Reform Method and the Grammar-Translation Method in more detail. Before introducing the origins of the Reform Method, the aims and approaches of these two methods are first considered. Then, based on the secondary literature, a brief investigation is made into the possible origins of the German term ‘Grammatik-Übersetzungsmethode’ and the English equivalent ’Grammar-TranslationMethod’, respectively. Finally, the question of whether the Reform Movement can be considered a success or a failure with respect to the dissemination of oral competencies is addressed.
... The Direct Method on the other hand aims to create a direct connection between experience and expression, as according to this method the learners should primarily think in English. Moreover, there should exist no intervention of the L1 in the process, so this idea aims at developing an instinctive positive language sense in the learners (Ur, 1996;Vermes, 2010). ...
Article
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There have always been different methods of teaching and learning of English language and throughout the years these methods have changed and improved. The Grammar Translation Method is one of the first and the main methods in teaching and learning of English language. This method enables the learning through the translation of various texts and the study of grammatical rules, which is its main activity. Moreover, in a class where Grammar Translation Method is used the target language is used less while the students are mainly taught in their national language, i.e. L1. Therefore, since this method was less effective in preparing the learners to use the target language communicatively, a new method was introduced. Thus, the Direct Method became used and popular among learners and teachers.
... González (2017) has a similar conclusion, where the total exclusion of the first language in the process of acquiring a new language is counter productive. Vermes (2010) in the same vein, concludes that there are good reasons to include translation in the pedagogical environment, and its non-use are based on a limited view of translation itself. Sharma (2006) also agrees that a total ban on the use of the first language is something that is counter productive, however, Sharma (2006) is against excessive or frequent use of the first language, the teacher should be careful with group work and whenever possible discourage the use of the native language. ...
Article
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This article is a literature review with the objective of characterizing bilingual physical education, to then present and discuss the biggest challenge of the discipline, which is to keep the balance between the objectives and demands of physical education along with the process of acquiring a new language, and then create concepts for how to achieve this balance. This balance proposed for the discipline is something complex and at the same time subtle, we analyzed a specific article that seeks to concentrate all the difficulties of bilingual physical education in two dilemmas, and based on this analysis, the concept of the "three pillars of bilingual physical education" is proposed. The concept of the three pillars represents, in an integral and objective way, all the demands that the teacher needs to take into consideration to teach an ideal bilingual physical education class. The first pillar represents physical education, and all its demands. The second pillar is the process of acquiring a new language. Finally, the third pillar represents the optimization of time that the teacher needs to make to adapt the new demands within the classes, where with these pillars the most common mistakes that happen in the search for an efficient bilingual physical education were presented. It was concluded that to achieve an efficient bilingual physical education there is a need to balance the objectives of physical education mixed with the acquisition process of a new language, through the concept of the three pillars.
... An unacceptable 'what for': translation used for assessment Duff (1989, p. 5), one of the first who had the courage to support translation as a language learning tool in the Eighties, complained that "it tends to be used not for language teaching, but for testing". And a lot of scholars, above all Asians, still suggest this use for translation (ITO, 2004;LAI, 2008; the whole Part II of TSAGARI; FLOROS, 2013); other researchers are more cautious (KÄLLKVIST, 1998;PORCELLI, 2007;VERMES, 2010;GARIDEL;NIETO, 2014). ...
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RESUMO: A literatura sobre tradução e aprendizagem e ensino de línguas mostra a prevalência da abordagem 'pró e contra', ao passo que uma abordagem 'para quê' seria mais proveitosa. A fim de evitar que este segundo tipo de abordagem se transforme numa lista aleatória dos potenciais benefícios do uso da tradução no ensino das línguas, o presente ensaio sugere o uso de um modelo formal de competência comunicativa, para verificar quais dos seus componentes podem tirar proveito das atividades ligadas à tradução. O resultado é um mapa dos efeitos da tradução na ampla gama de competências e habilidades que constituem a aprendizagem de uma língua. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Tradução na aprendizagem e no ensino de línguas. Competência comunicativa. RESUMEN: La literatura sobre traducción y aprendizaje y enseñanza de lenguas muestra la prevalencia de un abordaje 'pró y contra', al paso que un abordaje 'para qué' seria más provechosa. Con el objetivo de evitar que este segundo tipo de abordaje se transforme en una lista aleatoria de los potenciales benefícios del uso de la traducción en la enseñanza de lenguas, se sugiere, en el presente texto, el uso de un modelo formal de competencia comunicativa, para verificar cuales de sus componentes pueden sacar provecho de las actividades relacionadas a la traducción. El resultado es un mapa de los efectos de la traducción en la amplia gama de competencias y habilidades que constituyen el aprendizaje de lenguas. PALABRAS CLAVE: Traducción en el aprendizaje y en la enseñanza de lenguas. Competencia comunicativa. ABSTRACT: Literature about translation in language learning and teaching shows the prominence of the 'for and against' approach, while a 'what for' approach would be more profitable. In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests
... Riadi et al (2019, p237) refered to translation as the changing of words and transferring meanings from one language into another. According to Vermes (2010), translation is divided into two types: pedagogical translation and real translation. The former functions as an instrument in which the translated text serves as a tool for enhancing the language skills of learner's foreign language. ...
Research
This research paper was conducted in Zawia University, College of Engineering, general department courses. The enrolled target sample in this study included twenty-two 2 nd semester students who study English Technical Vocabulary course, and 5 instructors, all taught English language to Libyan Engineering students. Students participated in this study, found a difficulty in learning English technical vocabulary. Accordingly, some of them were trying to develop their own strategy in which they resort to translation into L1 as a means of learning English technical vocabulary. The aim of the study is to investigate the extent to which Libyan EFL engineering students use translation into L1 to find out the effectiveness of using such strategy in improving the process of learning vocabulary. Two different instruments were used in the study; a questionnaire for students and an interview for teachers. The results of the study showed that most of the participants were using translation into L1 as a strategy in learning English technical vocabulary and found that their mother tongue was an important and effective tool in learning English technical vocabulary. At the end of this study, some recommendations were provided in reference to the results of this study for better learning of English technical vocabulary.
... Alekseeva (2010) critiqued traditional methods through raising the issue of inadequacy in such methods. She proposed the modern methods based on the idea that translation included the modeling of the original texts' meanings by the translator and emphasizing the role of translation within educational contexts which were defined by Vermes (2010), as the pedagogical or instrumental translations. ...
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The study was aimed at investigating the effectiveness of methods of teaching Translation Courses (TCs) used by Iranian instructors on English-major students' translation proficiency development. To this end, 156 homogeneous students were selected as the participants to undergo quantitative and qualitative data collection simultaneously through a convergent parallel mixed methods design. The data were collected using a sample language proficiency test (PET), a translation pre-& posttest, the Waddington TQA Ru-bric, and an interview as the instruments of the study. The quantitative data were analyzed using ANCOVA while the qualitative data were extracted through the procedure of content analysis by pinpointing and condensing meaning units as well as codifying and sorting the commonalities out of the comments extracted from the responses to the interviews. Finally, the two data banks were reported via SPSS software. It was concluded that the modern methods of teaching TCs had a significant effect on students' translation proficiency, the results of which were confirmed by the qualitative data analysis of the responses in the interview. The research findings contribute to translation studies via providing guidelines and solutions for the instructors to apply appropriate methods and deal with the challenging aspects of teaching TCs.
... Although use of translation in foreign language teaching and learning has been a subject of heated debate, translation could actually be helpful for foreign language learners when it is used appropriately (Hunt and Beglar, 2002;Vermes, 2010;Calis and Dikilitas, 2012). Teachers may post words, phrases, sentences to WA group and students are required to translate them into their mother tongue and post their translation back to the WA group. ...
... This is to say, the purpose of the peda gogical type-contrary to the professional type-is not to achieve a textual product that can be used by an audience or specific clients of a translation commission. It serves as a teaching method or tool for achieving the learning, consolidation, and assessment of vari ous subskills in language pedagogy, in relevant frameworks such as foreign language learning, teaching English as a foreign language, or teaching English to speakers of other languages (see, for example, Klaudy, 2003;Ladmiral, 1979;Vermes, 2010). ...
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... Although use of translation in foreign language teaching and learning has been a subject of heated debate, translation could actually be helpful for foreign language learners when it is used appropriately (Hunt and Beglar, 2002;Vermes, 2010;Calis and Dikilitas, 2012). Teachers may post words, phrases, sentences to WA group and students are required to translate them into their mother tongue and post their translation back to the WA group. ...
Article
Mobile assisted language learning offers tremendous opportunities for language learning. The use of short message service and, more recently, integration of the WhatsApp application into language classrooms has generally been reported to positively impact on language learning and learning experience for learners as well as for teachers. As a result, use of WhatsApp is gaining immense popularity in English as a foreign language classrooms across the globe. However, it is important to acknowledge that, while technology plays a critical role, it is how the tool is utilised per se that determines the successful integration of the new technology. How to use technology is prerequisite to successful integration. Despite the popularity of the potential use of WhatsApp in language learning, currently there are no guidelines on how to use it for language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to offer some practical ideas and strategies for using WhatsApp for teaching English as a foreign language as well as for teaching other languages.
... Moreover, even though teachers often use L1 in their lessons there has not been any teaching methodology created which would support it (Richards and Rodgers 1986: 4;Kerr 2011). Recently, this issue has been re-addressed and an increasing number of speeches, articles, and books were introduced in favour of the use of L1 (see Cook 2010;Vermes 2010;O'Keeffe 2011;Kerr 2011;Sampson 2012;Levine 2014). However, this topic has already been discussed as early as in 1980s (see Titford and Hieke 1985;Edge 1986;Atkinson 1987;Alexander 1987;Murphy 1988;Heltai 1989). ...
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The aging population is a worldwide phenomenon. An increasing number of older adults are interested in learning languages but they often become disheartened because of strict rules imposed on them by language teachers blindly following the trend of “foreign language only.” For many decades following the end of Grammar Translation method, students’ mother tongue has been banned from language classrooms. Fortunately, however, this trend is beginning to shift giving place to more lenient approaches to teaching based on allowing and encouraging own-language use. Indeed, recent studies prove that there are a number of advantages resulting from permitting the use of translation, whereas it seems that there are hardly any real obstacles besides the ones existing as part of teachers’ own beliefs. Adults are not a homogeneous group and yet it is rarely acknowledged in studies on the use of mother tongue in language classrooms. As in case of any other age group, younger and older adults’ abilities, needs and learning preferences should also be taken into account to make their learning process more effective and more suitable. The aim of this article is to provide a foundation for future research on the adult learners and the use of their mother tongue in the classroom environment.
... ), um dos primeiros autores a ter coragem de apoiar a tradução como ferramenta para a aprendizagem de línguas, nos anos oitenta, reclamou que "não costuma ser usada para o ensino de línguas, mas sim para testar o conhecimento dela". E muitos estudiosos, sobretudo os asiáticos, ainda sugerem esse uso para a tradução(ITO, 2004;LAI, 2008; toda a Parte II de TSAGARI; FLOROS, 2013); outros pesquisadores são mais cautelosos(KÄLLKVIST, 1998;PORCELLI, 2007;VERMES, 2010;GARIDEL;NIETO, 2014).O estudo de caso deKällkvist (1998), por exemplo, mostra que o número de erros lexicais na tradução é maior do que em composições livres feitas pelos mesmos alunos,e, por isso, a técnica da tradução não seria confiável nem mesmo para um de seus objetivos mais importantes na aprendizagem de línguas, ou seja, o desenvolvimento do léxico. Já a pesquisa de Garidel e Nieto (2014) levanta outra questão: qual é o significado de "erro" quando usado para avaliar uma tradução? ...
Article
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A literatura sobre tradução e ensino e aprendizagem de línguas mostra a prevalência da abordagem ‘pró e contra’, ao passo que uma abordagem ‘para quê’ seria mais proveitosa. A fim de evitar que este segundo tipo de abordagem se transforme numa lista aleatória dos potenciais benefícios do uso da tradução no ensino de línguas, o presente artigo sugere o uso de um modelo formal de competência comunicativa, para verificar quais dos seus componentes podem tirar proveito das atividades ligadas à tradução. O resultado é um mapa dos efeitos da tradução na ampla gama de competências e habilidades que constituem a aprendizagem de uma língua.
... Translation is also said to be not suitable for all learners since it can only work well with those interested in literature or with those who have already acquired a significant level of proficiency in the foreign language (Mogahed, 2011) (as cited in Guerra, 2014). Translation is not the aim of language learning, it is the aim of translator training and both are independent fields of study (Vermes, 2010). ...
Conference Paper
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In recent years, there have been many papers describing the importance of translation in EFL teaching and learning. Although translation has been very controversial in EFL teaching and learning for decades, some experts advocate the inclusion of translation in EFL teaching and learning, but some others do not. Thus, this study was aimed at investigating the use of translation and in what EFL aspects and skills translation is used as a learning strategy by EFL learners in a public university in Indonesia. The data in this study were collected through a survey questionnaire, the Inventory for Translation as a Learning Strategy (ITLS). A total of 68 first year university students majoring in English Education were selected to take part in this study. They were considered as intermediate EFL learners since they have been studying English since they were in elementary school. The results show that the first-year university students majoring in English Education still make frequent use of translation in their EFL learning. They use translation to improve their English skills in terms of reading, writing, listening and speaking, English vocabulary, phrases, grammar, to clarify the similarities and differences between Indonesian and English, to interact with other, and as their learning aids which include the use of English – Indonesian dictionary, Indonesian – English dictionary, and electronic translation machine. Keywords: translation, learning strategy, English, EFL
... Theoretical-descriptive papers in the present sample represent the results of literature reviews, among which a number of common topic can be outlined to form a certain evolutionary chain. The studies by Malmkjaer (2010) and Vermes (2010) examine the pros and cons of the re-introduction of translation into a foreign language classroom. Machida (2011) constructs a complex methodological support for the pedagogical use of translation, while the studies by Marqués-Aguado, Solís-Becerra (2013) and Matamoros-González, Rojas, Pizarro Romero, Soto (2017) provide an overview of grammar-translation method in comparison with other teaching methods in the overall didactic paradigm of foreign language learning. ...
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Communicating appropriately in a target language (English language) requires both ESL Malaysian learners and their counterparts Arab EFL learners to develop linguistic and pragmatic awareness in the target language. One aspect of such development is their use of linguistic hedges to modify their speech acts and realize politeness. However, little attention has been given to investigate these learners’ linguistic and pragmatic use of these devices. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by conducting a study that examines the use of hedges in relation to politeness between these two groups of learners while exchanging their opinions in focused group discussions created on WhatsApp application. To this end, the current study used a descriptive design that employed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the types, frequency, and pragmatic functions of hedges in relation to politeness. The sample consisted of four EFL Arab learners and five Malaysian ESL learners who study English in a Malaysian university. The data collected in forms of comments by means of focused group discussions were coded and analyzed based on Fraser’s (2010) Taxonomy of English Hedges. They were then uploaded to Excel to find the frequency and percentages of the types of hedges used. This was followed by a detailed pragmatic analysis based on Brown and Levinson’s (1987) Politeness Theory. The findings showed that both types of learners use hedges in stating their opinions. However, they use different categories and hedges types and realize politeness differently.
Article
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The study discusses the online teaching and learning of Arabic in order to evaluate students’ difficulties and the way in which to approach this language in an interactive way, overcoming the barriers of computer screens. Nevertheless, e-learning is the future of education and it is crucial to offer a quality education, implementing emotional learning consciousness within the academic community. The COVID-19 pandemic impacted practically every country in the world. It created an extremely difficult global situation, and humanity found itself faced with an emergency state of working online and swiftly adapting its routine to a new reality. This was certainly the case in Spain when, in mid-March 2020, students were forced to study from home and teachers to teach at a distance. COVID-19 - and its related restrictions arrived suddenly, and there was little to no time to acclimatise to the new way of studying. The objective of this study is to analyse the difficulties faced by students of Arabic as a foreign language, and to offer some recommendations to improve online teaching, applying the communicative framework, combined with the importance of introducing the psychology theories and emotional education which is key to obtaining positive results. First, the topic is introduced, then the way to teach and learn the Arabic language online is discussed. Afterwards, the methodology is defined, highlighting the relation between emotional education and the Communicative Approach. A hypothetical-deductive method is applied to this analysis. A questionnaire is responded to by students of the Arabic language in Spanish universities in order to get an insight into their difficulties when learning online. A qualitative study is carried out in order to analyse the problems faced by the students and offer some possible recommendations to improve the quality teaching of Arabic as a foreign language, based on the perceptions of the students, taking into account the social context experienced during the 2020-2021 academic year.
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The Reform Movement has often been framed as a “[…] remarkable display of international and interdisciplinary co-operation […]” (Howatt 1984: 169), yet adoption of the Movement’s core principle that “[…] the spoken language should be emphasized […]” (Howatt and Smith 2002: ix) met with considerable opposition in the teaching of modern languages in English schools and universities. In this paper I consider how the aims of the Reform were circulated and debated in England through the newly established professional fora of conferences and journals and I examine these aims against the discursive and structural formations that inhibited the adoption of Reform methods. In particular, I focus on the cultural belief that ‘speaking’ foreign languages was ”[…] unmanly, even unpatriotic” (Bayley 1998: 56; Cohen 2003) and on the concomitant institutional bias against native-speakers (McLelland 2018) as the teaching profession anglicized at the end of the 19th century (Radford 1985), consciously seeking to match the prestige of the classics through emphasizing modern languages as a liberal rather than a utilitarian discipline.
Article
As the main technique of grammar-centred teaching, translation apparently has no use in communicative teaching. However, this contradicts the idea that both translation and language teaching share the common goal of communication. This article argues that the underpinnings of translation coincide with the mediation skills promoted by CEFR and match the intercultural communicative objectives of EFL. The theories concerning the communicative and intercultural nature of translation will be contrasted with the CEFR guidelines. These results will be analysed to understand the translation-related techniques effectively used in the EFL classroom and discuss the role of translation in task-based intercultural communicative teaching.
Article
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As a subset of descriptive studies, the current research focused on learners' perception of the common teaching methods in translation courses. Accordingly, a multi-item Likert-scale questionnaire with 29 items was developed based on the proposed strategies applied in the three traditional, complex and modern methods of teaching for collecting the research data. Cronbach's alpha was administered for estimating the reliability of the items. Besides, experts' judgment and factor analysis were used for the coverage and relevance of content and construct validity. After administering the questionnaire among 100 homogenized participants, the answers were processed into numbers and applied in the final data analysis and reported. In conclusion, although all the methods were common in the educational context, the modern methods resolved the challenges which existed in previous methods and put emphasis on the necessity to provide a combined approach towards the existing principles of teaching translation. The results of the study would be helpful for students and instructors in teaching and translation studies via providing an interdisciplinary perspective in teaching translation and languages based on students' attitudes towards the teaching methods in translation courses.
Article
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The study was intended to provide a description of the attitudes of English-major students towards the teaching methods in translation courses to find out more about the quality and relevance of such methods to students' needs, concerning the necessary educational resources provided in the methods of teaching. Accordingly, a multi-item Likert-scale questionnaire containing 32 items was developed based on the principles applied in the traditional, complex and modern methods of teaching translation in order to collect the required data for the study. Cronbach's alpha was administered for estimating the reliability of the items which was .939. Besides, experts' judgments and item analysis were used for the coverage and relevance of content and construct validity. To collect the data, 100 questionnaires were distributed among participants to obtain their responses for each item. The responses to the items were stored as numbers. Moreover, the frequency tables were then extracted via descriptive statistics of SPSS software to generate the summary of the participants' responses to the items, based on which the final data analysis and reports were provided. The results showed that although all the methods were common, the modern methods were the superior to the other methods and emphasized the necessity for further incorporation of teaching principles for assuring the quality and relevance. The results of the study would be helpful for students and instructors in translation studies by enabling them to find out how the features of teaching methods might lead the students with various attitudes in learning how to translate.
Preprint
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Translation teaches learners about language, but not how to use it. Translation does not help learners develop their communication skills. Translation encourages learners to use L1, often for long periods of class time, when the aim of modern teaching is to remove it from the classroom. The skills involved in translation may not be suitable for all kinds of learners. It may, for example, be best for learners who are more analytical or have preferences for verbal-linguistic learning strategies. It may not be suitable either for young learners or lower levels. Learners may not see the value of translation as an activity to help them learn English, and instead see it as a specialised, and difficult, activity. Translation is a difficult skill which must be done well in order to be productive and rewarding. Learners and teachers not only have to take into account meaning but also a range of other issues, including form, register, style, and idiom. This is not easy, but too many translation activities rely on it being done well.
Conference Paper
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PROCEEDING: English in the Professional World: Issues of the teaching of English language and culture in the professional world Editors: G.M. Adhyanggono Antonius Suratno iii FOREWORD This book is a compilation of various topics highlighting "English in the Professional World: Issues of the teaching of English language and culture in the professional world." In this proceeding, linguists, teachers, researchers as well as practitioners of English for Specific Purposes express their ideas and interests on salient issues pertaining to the teaching of English language and culture for diverse fields. As communications between nations are increasing, so are the demands of university graduates and students who are capable of using English to perform their job-related tasks and communicate their professional goals. Education institutions have great responsibilities to bridge the needs of the professional world and the education of qualified graduates. Such awareness is reflected on the articles covering diverse topics that range from research, teaching, and work experience.
Thesis
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Les procédés de traduction constituent un sujet important pour les traductologues et les linguistes. Face à un certain mot ou segment difficile à traduire, les traducteurs humains doivent appliquer les solutions particulières au lieu de la traduction littérale, telles que l'équivalence idiomatique, la généralisation, la particularisation, la modulation syntaxique ou sémantique, etc.En revanche, ce sujet a reçu peu d'attention dans le domaine du Traitement Automatique des Langues (TAL). Notre problématique de recherche se décline en deux questions : est-il possible de reconnaître automatiquement les procédés de traduction ? Certaines tâches en TAL peuvent-elles bénéficier de la reconnaissance des procédés de traduction ?Notre hypothèse de travail est qu'il est possible de reconnaître automatiquement les différents procédés de traduction (par exemple littéral versus non littéral). Pour vérifier notre hypothèse, nous avons annoté un corpus parallèle anglais-français en procédés de traduction, tout en établissant un guide d'annotation. Notre typologie de procédés est proposée en nous appuyant sur des typologies précédentes, et est adaptée à notre corpus. L'accord inter-annotateur (0,67) est significatif mais dépasse peu le seuil d'un accord fort (0,61), ce qui reflète la difficulté de la tâche d'annotation. En nous fondant sur des exemples annotés, nous avons ensuite travaillé sur la classification automatique des procédés de traduction. Même si le jeu de données est limité, les résultats expérimentaux valident notre hypothèse de travail concernant la possibilité de reconnaître les différents procédés de traduction. Nous avons aussi montré que l'ajout des traits sensibles au contexte est pertinent pour améliorer la classification automatique.En vue de tester la généricité de notre typologie de procédés de traduction et du guide d'annotation, nos études sur l'annotation manuelle ont été étendues au couple de langues anglais-chinois. Ce couple de langues partagent beaucoup moins de points communs par rapport au couple anglais-français au niveau linguistique et culturel. Le guide d'annotation a été adapté et enrichi. La typologie de procédés de traduction reste identique à celle utilisée pour le couple anglais-français, ce qui justifie d'étudier le transfert des expériences menées pour le couple anglais-français au couple anglais-chinois.Dans le but de valider l'intérêt de ces études, nous avons conçu un outil d'aide à la compréhension écrite pour les apprenants de français langue étrangère. Une expérience sur la compréhension écrite avec des étudiants chinois confirme notre hypothèse de travail et permet de modéliser l'outil. D'autres perspectives de recherche incluent l'aide à la construction de ressource de paraphrases, l'évaluation de l'alignement automatique de mots et l'évaluation de la qualité de la traduction automatique.
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This book is a compilation of various topics highlighting "English in the Professional World: Issues of the teaching of English language and culture in the professional world." In this proceeding, linguists, teachers, researchers as well as practitioners of English for Specific Purposes express their ideas and interests on salient issues pertaining to the teaching of English language and culture for diverse fields. As communications between nations are increasing, so are the demands of university graduates and students who are capable of using English to perform their job-related tasks and communicate their professional goals. Education institutions have great responsibilities to bridge the needs of the professional world and the education of qualified graduates. Such awareness is reflected on the articles covering diverse topics that range from research, teaching, and work experience. All contributors of the articles in this book have genuinely shared their innovative, inspiring and insightful thoughts as well as invaluable experience.
Article
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The paper provides an overview of the forms in which translation is used in foreign language education. A tentative classification is suggested which differentiates between facilitative translation as a supporting process that helps to overcome learning constraints, deliberate translation as an independent task with a predetermined objective that targets learners’ foreign language competence and skills, and simulated translation as an activity from which additional pedagogical benefits regarding learners’ foreign language proficiency can be derived. From the side of the learner, facilitative translation constitutes a complex learning strategy that can be applied for a variety of strategic purposes (memory-related, cognitive, compensatory, metacognitive, affective, and social), while from the side of the teacher it represents a scaffolding tool that can be consolidated into a fully-fledged teaching technique. Deliberate translation can further be differentiated according to the specifics of pedagogical focus. Language-focused translation, targeting learners’ grammatical accuracy or vocabulary range and control, and skill-focused translation, targeting one of the four basic communicative language skills, can be used for both instruction-related and diagnostic purposes. The focus on the holistic use of the available linguistic repertoire results in the two complex uses of translation as an incentive for communication and as a communicative activity aimed at developing the skill of cross-language mediation. A particular type of simulated translation which appears to be particularly suited for the purposes of foreign language education is audiovisual translation.
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There has long been a question of whether learners’ first language can help with teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) when the focus is teaching meaning. This issue has always been controversial. The study, therefore, aims at exploring how learners’ first language (L1) can be applied effectively in EFL classes to help with the teaching of meaning with the minimization of L1’s potential negative impact. The study examined (a), faculty members’ general opinion about the use of L1 in EFL teaching, (b) the effectiveness of L1 use in teaching meaning, and (c) the students’ views on L1 use. The study was undoubtedly of great importance as it solved the question of how much L1 could be used in teaching meaning in EFL classes in the most practical way. The method adopted was primarily qualitative involving semi-structured interviews with lecturers and professors who had experience of language teaching. A survey conducted on the first-year students also provided the researcher with some quantitative data. The result revealed both positive and negative opinions. The positive ones remarkably outnumbered the negative ones. The findings also helped the researcher ponder some pedagogical implications. The study concludes that learners’ first language can be a fascinating and effective tool for teaching meaning provided that the teacher has full control over the class to ensure that the classroom still has the target language environment.
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Although it sounds controversial, the practice of foreign language learning tends to consist of the use of translation. Therefore, the main aims of this study are to investigate EFL learners’ belief about translation, the use of translation as their EFL learning strategy, and to find out the correlation between their belief about translation and the use of translation as their EFL learning strategy. This study was conducted through a quantitative approach in which the data were collected by using two kinds of questionnaires. Based on the findings, Indonesian EFL learners believe that translation helps them acquire English skills and other English language aspects. They use translation as their language learning strategy for learning EFL skills and aspects such as speaking, reading, writing, listening, vocabulary, grammar, and idioms and phrases. This study also reveals that there is a correlation between EFL learners’ belief about translation and their use of translation as an EFL learning strategy.
Book
This book is about intelligence and cognitive development. The choice of a conjunction is deliberate. There are many books about intelligence and many more about cognitive development. However, there are no books that are about intelligence and development. This is because intelligence and development are regarded as merely different ways of talking about the same thing. If we are interested in intelligence, we talk about the steady state structure of cognition; and if we are interested in development, we talk about how this structure changes. So, typically, psychologists theorize about intelligence, or they theorize about its development. This book is about intelligence and cognitive development because I think these terms refer to quite distinct cognitive properties. The theory [presented in this book] will attempt to specify the mechanisms that underlie individual differences and their relationship with those that underlie cognitive development. Along the way it will have to elucidate the relationship between intelligence and knowledge, accommodating both biological and cognitive conceptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Modern language teaching traditionally overuses and misuses translation in the classroom due to a failure to understand the principles which must underlie all translation activity. In contrast, translation has been largely neglected in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language. I aim to show that, with a proper regard for the principles of translation theory, judiciously used translation can play a valuable role at all but the lowest levels of student competence, and that the skill of translating should be developed as an integral part of the language learning programme.
Article
Incluye bibliografía e índice
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