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Livestock production in central Mali: Long-term studies on cattle and small ruminants in the agropastoral system

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  • Bartridge Partners

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ILCA has been conducting a long-term study on livestock production in central Mali since the beginning of 1976. This report presents results based on data collected over a 6-year period from 1978 to mid-1984. In Part I the livestock production systems in the zone, management practices and herd and flock demog­ raphy are described. Cattle and small ruminant productivity is discussed in detail in Parts II and III and recommendations based on the results of the studies are given in Part IV.
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... Cows are only sold when they are old (often more than 9 yr) and are no more producing. (Ayantunde et al., 2007;Wilson, 1986). The average body weight of matured cattle in the Sahel varies but it generally ranges from 220 to 300 kg (Wilson, 1986). ...
... (Ayantunde et al., 2007;Wilson, 1986). The average body weight of matured cattle in the Sahel varies but it generally ranges from 220 to 300 kg (Wilson, 1986). It is difficult to estimate conception rate (conception at first service) or pregnancy rate (percentage pregnant per service) for smallholder production systems in the Sahel, as the systems are extensive, and mating is not often monitored. ...
... The bull used for mating heifer or cow may be selected especially in pastoral herd to breed for certain desirable traits, but the actual mating is often not monitored (Ayantunde et al., 2007). For cattle breeds in the Sahel, the calving rate is about 60% and parturition rate for cow of 4 yr and older is between 0.54 and 0.71 (Wilson, 1986). ...
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Limited supply of quality feed is the most important factor limiting livestock productivity in many sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Having a systematic inventory of available feed resources, identifying main challenges and potentials for improvement is the first step towards designing development strategies to improve feed quality and quantity. The objective of this study was to review the available feed resources and their quality in West African Sahel across different agro-ecological zones and to identify the research gaps and strategies to improve feed resource availability. The West African Sahelian zone is home to 135 million people who herd 173 million head of ruminant livestock. The main feed resources for grazing ruminants are pastures and crop residues; commercially formulated feeds are increasingly being used in poultry and pig production, particularly in peri-urban areas. Feed resources for livestock are diverse and vary markedly across agro-ecological zones in the West African Sahel and across seasons in terms of type, quantity, and quality. Given that crop residues are among the most important feed resources, there is need to invest in promoting adoption of proven methods for improving their quality and preserving it. Given poorly developed feed markets in the Sahelian rural areas and cities, strengthening the feed value chain is critical for improving the feed resource base in West Africa. Additional critically important needs are to increase awareness about the importance of feed quality, to create quality-based feed marketing systems, and to appreciate and enhance women's roles in feed production.
... • Research on management and productivity of extensive mixed systems in semi-arid central Mali (Wilson et al., 1983;Wilson, 1986;Wagenaar et al., 1986), with data collection from 1978 to 1984. ...
... The main reports were those of Wilson (1986) and Wagenaar et al. (1986). Wilson (1986) was a research project on cattle and small-ruminant productivity among agro-pastoralists 39 near Niono in north-central Mali with field work over the period 1976-1983. ...
... The main reports were those of Wilson (1986) and Wagenaar et al. (1986). Wilson (1986) was a research project on cattle and small-ruminant productivity among agro-pastoralists 39 near Niono in north-central Mali with field work over the period 1976-1983. The study by Wagenaar et al. (1986) from 1979 to 1983 covered cattle productivity among agro-pastoralists in the Inner Delta of the Niger River in central Mali. ...
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This book contains 18 chapters that describes the evolving and multi-faceted roles of ILRI in addressing these and other global challenges in nearly a half century of research. ILRI researchers and partners took leading roles, for example, in the following. This volume can serve as a reference and resource for all interested in the role of livestock in agricultural transformation and sustainable development. It should be useful for distilling, learning from, and building on past work and lessons hopefully to inform and inspire students, researchers and research managers and their investors.
... A second trait shared by all pastoral breeding is that animal reproduction is the main objective, implying the dominance of reproductive females in the herd composition as in the example of pastoralist compared to agropastoralist herds in Western Niger (Figure 1), whereas young males prevail in sales (Wilson, 1986). The large share of reproductive females brings an opportunity for milk production. ...
... This is particularly true for livestock reproduction performances based on female condition over longer periods than just one season. Fertility rates of adult females are already low, which strongly affects pastoral breeding productivity (Wilson, 1986). The quality of optimizing livestock grazing selection by organizing daily grazing circuits and season transhumance is acknowledged in pastoral breeding (Ayantunde et al., 1999). ...
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Pastoral livestock is defined as a reproduction-oriented, grazing-based familial livestock system with community-managed resources. Pastoral breeders differ from one another in the diversity of species and breeds raised, the size and management of herds and the extent of their regional mobility. The social, economic and environmental weight of pastoralist livestock in West and Central sub-Saharan Africa is evoked together with its imputation of environmental degradation. Global changes faced by pastoral livestock are sorted out by domains, climatic and societal, and by time scales, short or long. The incriminated impacts of livestock on ecosystems are assessed in the short and long terms. The functions of pastoral breeding already affected by global changes whether climatic or societal are analyzed. The capacity of two alternative livestock breeding systems, ranching and stall-feeding, to respond to these constraints is reviewed. Finally, pastoral breeding has been recognized as being able to adapt best to long-term climate change and to short- and long-term societal changes, provided that national and international investments are made. Civil security must be restored and pastoralists’ access to water and fodder resources must be secured. Professional organizations and associations should be empowered to negotiate grazing rights, and their skills should be enhanced. There is the need to complete, rehabilitate and manage hydraulic and veterinary infrastructures, but also to invest significantly in adapted health, education and communication infrastructures in long-neglected pastoral areas.
... • Recommendations #4 and #6 argued for more work on pastoralism without examining past results. The 2007/08 EPMR said nothing about the landmark books of Coppock (1994) on the Borana plateau of Ethiopia; or the monographs on Mali (Wagenaar, Diallo and Sayers, 1986;Wilson (1986) about what they imply for the EPMR' s recommendations. ...
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Executive Summary The CGIAR began as an informal international collaboration of agricultural scientists to increase food production. In its first 30 years, the success of the CGIAR was concentrated among the founding four Centers-IRRI, CIMMYT, IITA and CIAT-first in wheat and rice and later in maize. Additional productivity gains were later made in cassava, potato, sweet potato, common beans, cowpea, and pigeonpea. The environmental centers-IWMI, ICRAF, CIFOR, Bioversity-and those in marginal production subregions-ILRI, ICRISAT, ICARDA-have been less successful in economic terms though their scientific contributions have been strong in some domains. The contexts of science and rural development have changed radically since the CGIAR was organized in 1971. The national and regional programs have become stronger, the global rate of information exchange has accelerated dramatically, and the rates of growth in irrigation and fertilizer use have slowed. The production environment has changed under the influence of climate change, notably through the effects of higher temperatures on crop yields. While scientific and development progress continues in the three major cereals and have been complemented by progress in the minor cereals, roots and tubers and the grain legumes, the system's efforts have become too diffuse and are less largely effective than in the past century. Efforts to revive the system's impact through various reorganizations have failed. The long crisis of the CGIAR A comprehensive review of the CGIAR (Lele, 2003) made major recommendations to increase the Centers' impacts. The major 2003 recommendations were to: (i) reverse the trend to restricted funding; this has not succeeded; (ii) increase funding for germplasm plant breeding and animal breeding; this was not done; and (iii) devolve some of the system's natural resources work to the national programs; this was not done. Beginning in 2009, a wide-ranging reform to improve the level and sustainability of funding, improve collaboration among scientists, and raise system effectiveness and efficiency was launched, under the heading of CGIAR research programs (CRPs). The CRP reform has generally failed. The CRP effort, and other reviews and evaluations over 30 years, have not improved the system's productivity and have not diversified its successes among commodities, regions, and production systems.
... Based on the results of zootechnical and health monitoring undertaken in Mali, pneumopathies are considered responsible for 40 to 60% of deaths observed in goats and 10 to 40% in sheep [6][7][8]. ...
... (Das, 1993) revealed that the litter size increases from 1 st parity to 5 th parity and decreased in successive parity in goat. (Wilson, 1986) and (Awemu et al., 2002) also found the highest litter size at 5 th parity on Red Sakota goat. Least litter size during early parity is due to not fully maturity of the reproductive organs at the young age of goat. ...
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Goat rearing is one of the popular professions of people in the world. Maintenance of productive herds for overall productivity is important from an economic point of view for farmers. Along with the improvement of reproductive and productive performance, improvement of litter traits is also important for generating more profits from goat farming. This is the review paper prepared with the help of many collected scientific papers from journals, research papers, proceedings, annual reports, master, and Postgraduate thesis. This review paper illustrates the effect of parity as a non-genetic/environmental factor on litter traits of goat-like litter size at birth and weaning, litter weight at birth and weaning, and Pre-weaning Kids survivability based upon the finding of the previous papers. The finding of this paper focuses on the improvement of litter traits of goat that is possible with proper breeding programs, selection, and culling of an unproductive doe from the herd.
... The variation in conceptus mass as a result of in utero litter size is established effective of the first month of pregnancy (Dingwal et al., 1981). Underweight at birth is the probable reason for reduced offspring viability (Wilson, 1986) in small ruminants. ...
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Increasing kid/lamb production is of paramount importance to goat and sheep producers. As a matter of one choice enhancing litter size becomes inevitable, because apart from litter size impacting on flock productivity, it is also implored as a major determinant of profitability due to its influence on kid/lamb survivability. There is a positive correlation between litter size and lifelong dam contribution and overall flock productivity. Increasing litter size to an optimal level might be crucial especially for the intensive goat and sheep production systems. A number of studies have proved that litter size is under the influence of both genetic and non-genetic factors. Currently, genome wide selection targeting established genetic markers is being employed to increase the efficiency of goat and sheep selection for reproductive traits, such as prolificity. This is on the background that litter size is lowly heritable, but on the other hand, immense genetic variability between and within breeds exist that could be exploited in breeding schemes by collaborating additive polygenic differences, breed complementarities, heterosis effects and major gene inheritance. Among the non-genetic factors that influence litter size in goats and sheep, parity order, age of dam and seasonal variation have been rated highly. Litter size tend to improve with age and parity order as a result it is highly likely that dams with large previous litter size may have high chances of producing multiple births in consecutive kidding/lambing. Environmental conditions are also an important source of variation on litter size, Seasonal influence might be confounded by other factors such as flock nutritional management and genetic improvement strategies. The adverse effect of increase in litter size has been associated with an increase in number of underweight kids/lambs which in turn lower their survival rates. Underweight at birth is the probable explanation for reduced kid/lamb viability in goats and sheep. This entails a balance should be strike on optimal litter size, where too large and/or too small litter size may be impracticable desired and/or uneconomical, respectively. Proffered suggestion is that litter size of two is economically feasible for an intensive goat and sheep enterprise. The present review gives an insight on the influence of litter on flock performance and discuss the factors that are the major determinants of litter size in goat and sheep meat production.
... In principle, there can be as many classifications as there are possible combinations of criteria. Classifying livestock production systems in central Mali, Wilson (1986b) used two main criteria: the degree of dependence on livestock and the type of cropping associated with it. Other criteria such as distance and type of movement were considered less important as they vary within the system and often divert attention away from the main criterion, which is degree of dependence on livestock. ...
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A total of 1.190 records from Shami goat kids were collected between 1993 and 2006 from Izra'a Research Station, south of Damascus, Syria. The records were used to evaluate the some environmental factors affecting kid mortality rate at birth (0 3 days) and from the forth day after birth until weaning at 90 days. The least squares means of mortality rate at birth and from birth to weaning were 0.12±0.01 and 0.06±0.01, respectively. Parity had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the mortality at birth and from birth to weaning. Year of birth had a highly significant effect (P<0.01) on kid mortality at birth, but no effect was found on the mortality from birth to weaning. Similarly type of birth significantly affected (P<0.05) kid mortality at birth, but not from birth to weaning. It was concluded that kid mortality of Shami goats could be affected by environmental factors. However, better management might reduce the effect of these factors. Suriye'de Şam'ın güneyindeki Izra'a araştırma istasyonunda bulunan 1.190 Şam keçisi oğlaklarından 1993 ve 2006 yılları arasında veriler toplanmıştır. Toplanan veriler oğlakların doğum ve doğumdan 4 gün sonra ile 90. gündeki sütten kesim arasındaki sürede ölüm oranlarına etki eden çevresel faktörleri değerlendirmek için kullanılmıştır. Doğum ve sütten kesimdeki ölüm oranlarının en küçük kareler ortalamaları sırasıyla 0.12±0.01 ve 0.06±0.01 olarak bulunmuştur. Gebelik sayısı doğum ve sütten kesimdeki ölüm oranlarını önemli düzeyde etkilemiştir (P<0.05). Yıl faktörü doğumdaki ölüm oranını etkilerken, sütten kesime bir etki yapmamıştır. Aynı şekilde doğumdaki oğlak sayısı da doğum anındaki ölüm oranını etkilerken sütten kesim dönemine bir etki oluşturmamıştır. Sonuç olarak Şam keçisi oğlaklarının ölüm oranlarının çevresel şartlar tarafından etkilendiği fakat bu oranın iyi bakımla düşürülebileceği belirlenmiştir.
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Typescript. Thesis (Ph. D.)--Cornell University, 1978. Vita. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 416-426). Photocopy.
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Etude des troupeax bovins ae laconioune de Mopti. N6moirc de fin ',dtudes
  • A Ballo
Ballo A. 1980. Etude des troupeax bovins ae laconioune de Mopti. N6moirc de fin ',dtudes. Institut polytechnique rural, Katibougou, Mali.