Article

Water infrastructure in Libya and the water situation in agriculture in the Jefara region of Libya

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Information about the current state of water institutional frameworks, water infrastructure and water management policies in Libya enable the identification and evaluation of a range of options for improving water use efficiency in agriculture and the potential role of water pricing in achieving sustainability of water sources. This paper begins with an overview of the agricultural sector. In order to assess the current water situation in Libya, the water infrastructure will be examined through a review of water legislation, its institutional framework and the infrastructure surrounding the various water resources. The national strategy for the management of water resources and the suggested plans to address the inefficient use of water in the Jefara Plain Region (JPR) will be discussed. The last section will be devoted to the Great Man-made River Project (GMRP) and water investment in JPR's agriculture, and conclude by identifying the problems and obstacles facing the outcomes for these investments.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This high demand is due to the population explosion. Domestic water consumption account for 12% of all water consumed in Libya [1]. The GMRP, regional groundwater, and desalinated water are the three major sources of water supplied to urban areas in Libya. ...
... Industries use 135.64 mm3 of water for air conditioning, refrigeration, manufacturing and the infrastructural development, and operations of factories. Within the industry, the oil and gas sector consumed most of the water (for 76%) in injectors, processors and for other domestic purposes [1]. CPPAP (2003) predicted that the population in Libya would rise to 11.7 million by 2025. ...
... The Standard Model of the variables studied is formulated by converting the relationship between these variables to a standard formula, which is consistent with previous literature, studies and reality. The DW dependent variable can be expressed as independent variables in its traditional form as follows: [1] By converting this function to a linear formula, the model form in the multi-regression function will take the following formula: [2] [3] ...
... This high demand is due to the population explosion. Domestic water consumption account for 12% of all water consumed in Libya [1]. The GMRP, regional groundwater, and desalinated water are the three major sources of water supplied to urban areas in Libya. ...
... Industries use 135.64 mm3 of water for air conditioning, refrigeration, manufacturing and the infrastructural development, and operations of factories. Within the industry, the oil and gas sector consumed most of the water (for 76%) in injectors, processors and for other domestic purposes [1]. CPPAP (2003) predicted that the population in Libya would rise to 11.7 million by 2025. ...
... The Standard Model of the variables studied is formulated by converting the relationship between these variables to a standard formula, which is consistent with previous literature, studies and reality. The DW dependent variable can be expressed as independent variables in its traditional form as follows: [1] By converting this function to a linear formula, the model form in the multi-regression function will take the following formula: [2] [3] ...
... The average annual rainfall for the whole country is only 26 mm. The highest falls are recorded in the northern Tripoli region ( Jabal Nafusah and Jefarah plains) and in the northern Benghazi region (Al-Jabal al-Akhdar), making them the only areas of the country exceeding the minimum value of 250-300 mm considered necessary to sustain rainfed agriculture (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;FAO, 2016). ...
... In Libya, there are four water resources including: groundwater (providing almost 95 per cent of the country's needs), surface water (including rainwater and dams), desalinated sea water and waste water recycling ( Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;Wheida and Verhoeven, 2007). The major sources of groundwater in Libya come from five water basins: Al-Sarir, Murzek, Al-Hamada, Al-Jabal al-Akhdar and Al-Jefarah plain. ...
... Al-Jefarah in the northwest and Al-Jabal al-Akhdar in the northeast both are shallow and naturally recharged from the rainfall; Al-Hamada, Murzuq and Al-Sarir-Kufra aquifers belong to the great sedimentary basins and are fossil water reserves where the water was stored during the Quaternary. There are no permanent rivers in Libya, thus the country has planned, designed and implemented the world's largest and most expensive groundwater pumping and conveyance project called the Great Manmade River Project (GMRP) to transport water from large aquifers under the desert to coastal cities, as illustrated in Figure 1 ( Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;Eljadid, 2009;FAO, 2016). ...
... The average annual rainfall for the whole country is only 26 mm. The highest falls are recorded in the northern Tripoli region ( Jabal Nafusah and Jefarah plains) and in the northern Benghazi region (Al-Jabal al-Akhdar), making them the only areas of the country exceeding the minimum value of 250-300 mm considered necessary to sustain rainfed agriculture (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;FAO, 2016). ...
... In Libya, there are four water resources including: groundwater (providing almost 95 per cent of the country's needs), surface water (including rainwater and dams), desalinated sea water and waste water recycling (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;Wheida and Verhoeven, 2007). The major sources of groundwater in Libya come from five water basins: Al-Sarir, Murzek, Al-Hamada, Al-Jabal al-Akhdar and Al-Jefarah plain. ...
... Al-Jefarah in the northwest and Al-Jabal al-Akhdar in the northeast both are shallow and naturally recharged from the rainfall; Al-Hamada, Murzuq and Al-Sarir-Kufra aquifers belong to the great sedimentary basins and are fossil water reserves where the water was stored during the Quaternary. There are no permanent rivers in Libya, thus the country has planned, designed and implemented the world's largest and most expensive groundwater pumping and conveyance project called the Great Manmade River Project (GMRP) to transport water from large aquifers under the desert to coastal cities, as illustrated in Figure 1 (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;Eljadid, 2009;FAO, 2016). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to propose a site selection method using grey system theory for a desalination plant in Libya. Design/methodology/approach In order to tackle incompleteness and imprecision of human’s judgments, grey numbers were used. This work uses a grey-based approach to represent decision makers’ comparison judgments and extent analysis method to select the best site. Therefore, a real case study of a selection problem of a site selection of desalination plant in Libya was used to illustrate the proposed approach. Findings Site selection in a desalination plant can be one of the most important decisions in planning a desalination project. The decision affects both the project cost and potentially the project schedule. Based on the results of grey model, a clear order of these sites and the degree of preference are obtained. This paper presents a way to improve a site selection by using a grey model, especially in a complex environment like Libya. Originality/value To the best knowledge of the authors, there is no literature for site selection using grey system theory in a desalination plant in Libya. This attempt may well enhance and facilitate the decision-making process of the best site in the country involved in this research.
... Rain usually occurs during the winter season, but varies greatly from place to place and from year to year. The highest rain falls are recorded in the northern Tripoli region (Jabal Nafusah and Jefarah plains) and in the northern Benghazi region (Al-Jabal al-Akhdar), making them the only areas of the country exceeding the minimum value of 250-300 mm considered necessary to sustain rainfed agriculture (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;FAO, 2016). Water resources are the sources of water that are potentially useful. ...
... Furthermore, 20 dams are planned for construction representing an additional of about 137 million m³ of storage and 45 million m³ of additional average annual storage. Libya does not share any surface water with other neighboring countries, but most of its groundwater is shared (Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;FAO, 2016). In the 1960s, Libya turned to desalination as an additional source of water, and became one of the largest users of both thermal and membrane desalination technologies in the Mediterranean region. ...
... Thus a number of desalination plants are planned or already under construction. Upon the completion of these projects, it is estimated that the production capacity of desalinated water in Libya will reach 86.5 million m³/year in 2025 (CEDARE, 2014;Abdudayem and Scott, 2014;Abufayed and El-Ghuel, 2001). Wastewater treatment plants have been implemented at varying levels of interest from the 1970s to the early 1990s for the purposes of agriculture and environmental protection. ...
Article
Full-text available
Libya is one of the arid regions of the world, and it is facing a serious water supply shortage due to the increase in both population and water consumption in various sectors. Ground water is the main source of water in Libya, but it is limited and over exploited. Desalination of sea water is one of the possibilities for Libyan government to meet the problem of water shortage. Selecting the best location of desalination plant is important and a complex process because it is related to a variety of criteria. The aim of this paper is to select the best location of desalination plant in the northwestern coast of Libya. The selection of the best location was done by two main steps. The first step based on the criterion of minimizing water transportation cost, and the second step considered the influence of the external criteria on the location selection. The results of the case study show that the best location is the capital city (Tripoli) with respect to the assessment of COmbinative Distance-based ASsessment (CODAS) method. The sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the robustness of the selected locations and it reveals that the CODAS method is stable and efficient to deal with multi-criteria decision-making problems. This study provides a suitable and useful tool for the decision makers concerning the optimum location of desalination facilities.
... This high demand is due to the population explosion. Domestic water consumption account for 12% of all water consumed in Libya [1]. The GMRP, regional groundwater, and desalinated water are the three major sources of water supplied to urban areas in Libya. ...
... Industries use 135.64 mm3 of water for air conditioning, refrigeration, manufacturing and the infrastructural development, and operations of factories. Within the industry, the oil and gas sector consumed most of the water (for 76%) in injectors, processors and for other domestic purposes [1]. CPPAP (2003) predicted that the population in Libya would rise to 11.7 million by 2025. ...
... The Standard Model of the variables studied is formulated by converting the relationship between these variables to a standard formula, which is consistent with previous literature, studies and reality. The DW dependent variable can be expressed as independent variables in its traditional form as follows: [1] By converting this function to a linear formula, the model form in the multi-regression function will take the following formula: [2] [3] ...
Article
Full-text available
This article analyzes the effect of several economic, environmental and social determinants for the per capita demand for water in Libya. Besides prices, income and population size, the article reflects the impact of urban population size, the temperature, summer temperature, and precipitation. The article also explores why the current per capita residential water demand in the urban areas is about more than in the other areas in Libya. In this study, the econometric model based on E-views method, instrumental-variable procedures, the ARDL model and the demand equation are applied. The co-integration analysis has shown a significant positive effect of temperature on water demand over the short and long term with partial flexibility of long-term temperature (5.44). Also, there is a positive relationship between rainfall and water demand in the long term and its less impact in the short term. There is a significant positive relationship between urban population and water demand. The greater urban population is greater the water demand and vice versa, partial flexibility of the urban population in the long term is at 0.23. On the other hand, there is a significant negative effect of income on water demand. Therefore, water demand is inflexible to changes in income. The study demonstrated that there is a negative effect on water price in relation to water demand. The estimated long-term variable of water value is 220.98, indicates that if the water price increases by 100%, the demand for water will go down by 221%.
... All these, plus natural differences in water availability, make its rationalistic planning and management a very complex and difficult task under the best of circumstances [4]. The current state of water institutional, infrastructure and water management policies in Libya permit the recognitions and evaluation of a range of options for improving water use capacity in agriculture and the potential role of water pricing in accomplishing sustainability of water sources [5]. The condition of water supply has turned into more problematic with quickly increasing population and minimum rainfall. ...
... In comparison, the main water sources in Libya come from four sources which are groundwater supplies almost 95% of Libya's needs; surface water only with 2% comprising rainwater and dam constructions; desalinated from sea water provides 2% and wastewater recycling 1% ( Figure 1). A research divided the major sources of groundwater in Libya into five water basins namely Jabal al-Akhdar, Kufra as-Sarir, Jefara plain region, Nafusah Al-Hamada and Murzek [5]. Groundwater in the country can be grouped into renewable resources, mainly found in superficial aquifers, and the non-renewable resources (fossil water) come up against in deep aquifers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Water shortage or scarcity is becoming a major concern for many nations across the world. The situation is worsened by rapid urbanization and population growth in developing countries, thus increase competition for water used for irrigated agriculture. Various efforts have been made by the authorities in the developing countries to provide sufficient water and improve the quality of water resources. Yet, there are still many developing countries facing shortages of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, especially during the dry months of the year. Libya is one of the Northern African countries that have been experiencing water shortages especially in urban areas. This paper aims to identify the current situation and constraints of water resources management in Libya. The latter part is devoted to the solutions and recommendations at individual, community, state and government levels that can help solving the water problems in Libya. A number of previous studies on the water resources management and challenges perceived by both developed and developing countries were critically reviewed. It was found that water scarcity in developing countries is expected to be worsen as their population are expected to increase gradually year by year and it can be summarized from the reviewed previous studies that lack of government planning, industrial and human wastes along with government intervention and mismanaging water resources are some of the critical constraints towards achieving sustainable management in most of the countries including Libya. Potential solutions such as improving supply demand and good quality management of water resources must be taken into consideration. In addition, active participation from the local residents by enhancing awareness amongst them would be one of the supportive strategies to minimize the constraints. Sustainable economic and environmental management together with efficient use of water is required to conserve our clean water supply.
... ): Major basins in Libya (AfterAbdudayem and Scott, 2014) ...
Article
Full-text available
In general securing food is affected by economy and related phenomena. Food scarcity affects food prices and hence affect social and political instability, which rise civilized crisis. Accordingly, to study securing food this work adopted the definition of food security given by Rome Declaration on World Food Security in 1996 and the Sustainable Development Goals given by the United Nation in 2000. The definitions used to depend concepts which were used as a guide to face the challenges in implementing food security planning in Libya. The problem of underinvestment in agriculture and the bad practice of agricultural process form a major issue in securing food in Libya. In addition, the planning for securing water and energy not cop with the program set for securing food. Therefore, and in order to plan a better strategy, water, energy and food nexus approach must be adopted. The three sectors are inextricably linked and protecting vital ecosystem.
... The rates of renewable water and surface water per capita in Libya are considered very low compared with others. Population growth in Libya has been accompanied by a growth of irrigated agricultural areas, making an increase in the volume of water used in agriculture inevitable, as well as increasing domestic and industrial water consumption [10]. So in general the deficiency of water in Libya can be referred to the following reasons: excessive groundwater exploitation, decreased annual average of rainfall, intensive agricultural activities in the coastal plains, seawater intrusion, low water tariffs, lack of institutional framework, lack of clear strategy related to the local water sector, lack of awareness in the public of the need for the rational use and management of water resources, poor management in the General Water Authority (GWA) [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Article information The current paper is to investigate the shortage problem of fresh water in Libya and to propose alternative solutions by renewable and sustainable energies. This problem is not only in Libya but it is one of the most serious social and environmental challenges facing many countries in the world, especially those countries which do not have natural resources or any types of energies. Although Libya is located in a dry and semi-arid region of Africa, it is very rich in conventional energy resources, mainly the oil, and renewable energies such as solar and wind energies. In addition to that it has about 1700 km border on sea, which is very helpful to establish many desalination plants either by conventional or renewable energies. Nowadays the shortage problem of water in Libya is solved partly by ground water resources and desalination plants which are not enough. In the other hand the quantity of oil is limited to a certain period of time with other environmental impacts of this resource Here, this paper is to study the water resources as well as conventional and energy situations in Libya and suggest the most appropriate solutions for today and future by combining solar and wind energies with desalination processes. This can be done by encouraging and supporting private and de-central solar desalination technologies and establishing central desalination units for high productivity by using solar thermal or electrical processes..
... for the Libyan Djeffara, where Q D is the plant water demand while Q W is the water effectively supplied (pumping). According to Abdudayem and Scott [2014], E irr is about 0.64 which is in agreement with other estimates observed in southern parts of Libya [Shaki and Adeloye, 2006]. Given the fact that water supplied satisfies the evapotranspiration demand of cultivated plants, the water provided in excess infiltrates except a certain fraction which is evaporated from the soil surface. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Djeffara plain, extending over Tunisia and Libya (48,000 km2), experiences unsustain- able exploitation of groundwater, the severity of which needs to be determined. Here, we used data from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) to assess the groundwater storage variation (∆GWS) for the period 2002–2016. ∆GWS values, downscaled over a 0.5° × 0.5° grid using pumping wells spatial distribution and rates, were introduced in a discrete set of groundwater and salt budget equations to ascertain the recharge and the coastal fluxes. An average recharge of 4.3 ± 2.7 mm·yr−1 representing 2.2 ± 1.4% of the domain-averaged an- nual rainfall was obtained. A saline intrusion of 147.3 × 106 and 46.9 × 106 m3 ·yr−1 was calculated for the Tripoli (Libya) and Djerba (Tunisia) areas, respectively. The overall Submarine Groundwater Dis- charge (SGD) of freshwater along the 450 km long Djeffara coast represents about 339.6 × 106 m3 ·yr−1 for the 2002–2016 period.
... Two case studies were investigated covering most of the agricultural practices in Libya, one in the eastern part and the other in the Jefara region, where the water situation in agriculture as well as its infrastructural framework was examined 4 . The study referred the problems faced by agricultural practitioners due to the absence of an integrated agricultural policy and lack of collaboration with General Water Authority and other linked authorities. ...
Article
Full-text available
The main water resources in Libya are the scarce and erratic rainfall and the fossil ground water that resides in four major aquifers. Raising and falling demand is stressing supply and coastal aquifers suffering invasion of sea water. Besides, the environmental problems encountered in Libya are the running down of ground water because of overuse mainly in agricultural developments. Agricultural performance in Libya is facing a deficiency of research in policy, its impact and consequence to the development of agriculture. The availability of water in sufficient quantity and adequate quality is a communal matter of high priority and global environmental challenge. In depth analysis of studies recognized during the desk survey conducted for awareness raising, sustainable agriculture and irrigation practiced system in relation to water and energy nexus in Libya detected that irrigation system practiced in Libya (surface irrigation, sprinkler and drip) and its related infrastructures interacted with three environmental elements (water, soil and air), resulting direct environmental impact through (emission, pollution, salinisation and alkalinisation). Another impact arises by interaction with riparian ecosystem and regional areas affecting hosting or threatening biodiversity, recycling nutrients, and mitigating wadi runoff). Awareness raising as organized communication activities should aim to create awareness on topics, behavioral change among the general population and to improve the focus on better outcomes. Promoting awareness among communities shall develop agriculture knowledge-based toward managing water and energy for the sake of sustainability. KEYWORDS Libya, Awareness, Sustainability, Environment, Agriculture and Irrigation.
Article
Full-text available
Sebha city is situated on Southwest Libya’s north edge of the Murzuk basin. Groundwater is the sole source of drinking water. Therefore, assessing its quality for drinking is an essential step. This study was conducted in 2019 to investigate the water quality of different locations in the city. Collected water samples were analyzed for major cations and anions as well as the physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total hardness (TH) using conventional standard methods. Water suitability for drinking is based on EC, TDS, and the water quality index (WQI). The abundance of the major ions was as follows: CI− > K+ > SO4−− > Na+ > Ca++ > NO3− > Mg++ > HCO3−, their concentrations were higher than the permissible limits of WHO and Libyan Standards, except in the wells of Alnaserya and Hejara. The TDS levels varied from 1400 to 3704 mg/L, suggesting that the water is mildly salty. The EC ranged from 2188 to 5632 μS/cm, indicating that the water is slight to moderately mineralized. According to the WQI, the water in Hejara and Alnaserya is of good quality, whereas in Sahba, Abedalkafi, and Aljaded, it is of poor quality. Principal component analysis (PCA) exhibited three major components of the factor analysis that accounted for 98.079% of the total variance. The key factors impacting groundwater quality are natural mineral dissolution, weathering of the carbonate system, and anthropogenic activities. Therefore, we deduce that water quality varies across Sebha city’s wells.
Technical Report
Full-text available
https://water.fanack.com/ar/libya
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report is the draft copy
Technical Report
Full-text available
Fanack Water provides accessible, well-researched information on the state of water resources in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region through peer-reviewed country files and special reports, as well as interviews and opinion pieces on latest developments in the water sector of each MENA country. https://water.fanack.com/libya
Technical Report
Full-text available
In the past decade, there has been increasing attention in research, management and media to unauthorised water use. However, actions in policy and water management to deal with it are still limited. Illegal water use has been reported in many countries, particularly in areas where water is a scarce resource. It is driven by a variety of causes. The net benefits from water use and deficiencies in governance and institutions can be considered as active drivers that foster illegal uses, whilst social norms are underlying factors that make action against illegal water use more difficult to be socially and economically accepted. Regarding its effects, illegal water abstraction can jeopardize the security of access for users having formal water rights, can have negative environmental impacts and often drives other mirror practices, such as the unauthorized transformation of protected or public lands into irrigated land. The review of the existing literature and three case studies have helped us identify five strategies to detect illegal water use: 1. Setting up of an appropriate and enforceable water rights system. 2. Improved and integrated control of water uses on the ground. 3. Development and maintenance of an inventory, register or database of water uses. 4. Improved monitoring of water abstraction via remote sensing. 5. Integrated data management. In addition, we have identified seven strategies to tackle illegal water use within management: 1. Involvement of water users in law enforcement and control. 2. Administrative action, closure of abstraction points and fines. 3. Legal actions and fines. 4. Capacity building of water users to help them comply with abstraction restrictions. 5. Establishment of cross-compliance requirements in agricultural subsidies. 6. Positive incentives. 7. Raising awareness about the consequences of over-abstraction. These strategies are described in the report with examples of their implementation and the analysis of their strengths and weaknesses. Based on the existing experiences and remaining barriers, it is hard to provide water managers with ‘silver bullets’. The complexity and local circumstances of illegal water use will require exploring different strategies and pathways, and we hope that the report and associated recommendations will be useful for water practitioners.
Article
Full-text available
The Maghreb regions (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) are facing increasing water scarcity amplified by inefficient water use and overexploitation of water resources. There is evidence that surface water is diminishing and that ground water levels are lowering rapidly. The countries are affected by climate change as rainfall is more erratic and there are longer lasting and more severe periods of drought, alternated with severe rains and catastrophic flooding. The projected climate change impact on agriculture in the Maghreb will most likely increase further. This is accompanied by salinization of soils and ground water, even strengthened by over-fertilization of soils, combined with a general low productivity and misuse of water. This paper summarized the country profile of the Maghreb regions (Mauritania, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya) of key information that gives an overview of the water resources and water use at the national level. It can support water-related policy and decision makers in their planning and monitoring activities as well as inform researchers, media and the general public. Information in the report is organized by sections: All sources used to compile the country profile are also reported in the last section of the document. Etat des ressources en eau dans les régions du Maghreb (Mauritanie, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie et Libye) Résumé Les régions du Maghreb (Mauritanie, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie et Libye) sont confrontées à une pénurie d'eau croissante amplifiée par une utilisation inefficace de l'eau et la surexploitation des ressources en eau. Il existe des preuves que les eaux de surface diminuent et que les niveaux des eaux souterraines baissent rapidement. Les pays sont touchés par le changement climatique car les précipitations sont plus irrégulières et il y a des périodes de sécheresse plus longues et plus sévères, alternant avec des pluies abondantes et des inondations catastrophiques. L'impact projeté du changement climatique sur l'agriculture au Maghreb va très probablement encore augmenter. Ceci s'accompagne d'une salinisation des sols et des nappes phréatiques, voire renforcée par une surfertilisation des sols, combinée à une faible productivité générale et une mauvaise utilisation de l'eau. Ce document résume le profil de pays des régions du Maghreb (Mauritanie, Maroc, Algérie, Tunisie et Libye) des informations clés qui donnent un aperçu des ressources en eau et de l'utilisation de l'eau au niveau national. Il peut aider les décideurs et les responsables des politiques liés à l'eau dans leurs activités de planification et de suivi et informer les chercheurs, les médias et le grand public. Les informations contenues dans le rapport sont organisées par sections : Toutes les sources utilisées pour compiler le profil du pays sont également rapportées dans la dernière section du document.
Article
Despite their huge fossil fuel potential, the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region is sensitive to weakness in oil prices and hence harms the country's finances. Only 1.4% of the world's freshwater resources are found in MENA, despite having two-thirds or 66 per cent of the world's known crude oil reserves. Also, despite that the energy importing countries in the MENA region benefit from lower energy prices, many of the countries like Libya, Syria, and Yemen have been shaken by wars, civil unrest, and political crisis, and this has created immense challenges in the energy situation. Another major challenge facing the MENA region is water scarcity. This region can be described as a desert area. These delicate ecosystems are being put under stress. There is a growing need for sustainable water management in the region as water scarcity is becoming increasingly critical. The government in North Africa have over the years set up laudable renewable energy projects to solve the prevailing energy crisis and improve their energy security. However, due to increasing population growth and increasing demand, there is still a huge gap between the renewable energy potential and generation that can be tapped. This study explores an hourly feasibility analysis of renewable energy production for electricity and freshwater production through the desalination process using the EnergyPLAN simulation environment. This study utilizes the planned renewable energy target set by the countries considered: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya. The result shows that the increment of the renewable share to 52% in 2030 for Moroccos will cause a reduction in carbon emission by 52.09%. The emission recorded for the 2030 scenario for 52% renewable energy integration was 14.209 Mt. This represents a CO2 reduction of 78% from the 64.59 Mt emission in 2018. Also, for the projected 10% renewable electricity production for Libya, the model gives that solar PV, wind energy, hydropower and CSP can supply a combined 6.61 TWh/year. The estimated technical result indicates that due to the extreme intermittency of renewable energy sources, the most probable scenario for meeting the future electricity demand in North Africa through a regional transmission grid is by hybrid renewable energy installations across the countries. Conclusively, it is presented that the actualization of renewable energy targets requires analysis and implementation of different policy strategies, especially for a region like North Africa, where there is a high reliance on fossil fuels for national revenue.
Article
Full-text available
One of the biggest issues facing the global agriculture industry is the use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in crops and food products. This study compares financial performance of major GMO food companies to other industries. Findings indicate that GMO companies had an average higher return on equity but also a higher level of risk. In addition, the study presents positive and negative perspectives toward GMO foods, along with a discussion of the risks and opportunities. Agricultural studies indicate that applying GMO technology is likely the most effective way to feed many of the world's hungry. In addition, research supports the safety and nutritional benefits of GMO food products. However, concerns expressed by GMO opponents have been effective in limiting GMO acceptance by the public. Research indicates that the inconsistency between negative public opinion and positive scientific evidence supporting GMO crops is at least partly the result of misrepresentations about GMOs. The ultimate acceptance or rejection of GMO foods will greatly affect food producers, distributors, retailers, and consumers.
Article
Full-text available
In Libya there is a growing awareness of increasing demand for fresh water while fossil groundwater supply is limited. This situation of water supply has become more problematic with rapidly increasing population and low rainfall. Hence soon after the discovery of fresh groundwater in the deserts of southern Libya, the local authority has made huge efforts to address its water deficit problems, mainly through the implementation of “The Great Manmade River Project” to sustain its economy. Especially the agriculture sector exceeds its traditional supplies. The Libyan authority began to design and install the hydraulic infrastructure needed to withdraw and transport this fossil water to various demand sites along its Mediterranean coast where most of the population lives and where the water is used. There is an over-exploitation of fossil groundwater resources to meet the irrigation demands as a result of adapting a self-sufficing policy in food. Rapid development of agricultural activity, expansion of irrigated areas and over irrigation practices will lead to more depletion of water resources since most of the country's groundwater resources are non-renewable. The supply-driven approach for water management has demonstrated its inability to deliver a substantial degree of water sustainability on the national Libyan level. Despite the strenuous efforts made by the country, it still faces serious water deficits due to continuously increasing water demands beyond the limits of its available water resources. As pressure on water converges on the country's fossil water resources, an immediate reconsideration of agricultural water extractions is needed and appropriate actions have to be implemented in response to its huge consumption. This policy aims at rescuing the present water situation and at avoiding serious environmental and economical crises. Reorganisation of the water consumption pattern, to maintain the country's standard of living and to ensure the economical security for the future generation is drastically needed. This paper considers the country's water management that requires water policy reforms, with emphasis on supply and demand management measures and improvement of the legal and institutional provisions. This could be achieved by reviewing agricultural water policies in order to minimise some local deficits in water resources and to avoid water quality deterioration in the coastal areas. Developing additional non-conventional sources of water supply needs to be considered. This should be supported by creating authorised water institutions lead by a high-professional staff and enabling them in making the appropriate legislation and decisive measurements to allocate water among consumptive sectors as well as to ensure the protection of the environment.
Article
Large increases in water demand with very little recharge have strained Libya's groundwater resources resulting in serious declines in water levels and quality, especially along the Mediterranean coast where most of the domestic, industrial and agricultural activities are concentrated. To meet these increases, Libya turned to desalination as a supplemental water resource as early as 1964. Both thermal and membrane desalination technologies have been used. MSF, MED and VS as well as ED, EDR and RO processes have been employed to provide water for domestic and industrial purposes. Applications included both brackish and seawater desalination with plant sizes ranging from less than 100 m3/d to 40,000 m3/d with a total cumulative installed capacity exceeding 0.6 MCM/d. The objective of this paper is to summarize the experience gained from operating these plants over a long period of time. To achieve this objective, design and operational data from some of these plants were analyzed with special reference to evolution of process applications, and major problems and limitations and their impacts on process performance. Based on the results of this analysis, Libya continues to be a major user of desalination technologies ranking as the world's 4th to 5th user. Thermal desalination processes (TDPs), which gained momentum in the early seventies, are the major producer accounting for about 75% of the total cumulative installed capacity. RO processes, although a relatively newcomer, come next. EDR processes account for the largest number of plants installed. Applications of all three technologies have been increasing steadily since 1972 with minor decline in the early nineties. Problems have been reported in all phases of plant development: planning, installation and start-up, operation and maintenance. These problems are administrative, technical and financial. They are presented and analyzed with due consideration to “local factors” which are usually ignored by designers/contractors. Although some of these problems are minor, if not addressed properly, their impacts on plant performance can be significant. The experience gained is invaluable on a national as well as regional level and to suppliers, end-users and professionals in the field.
Article
One of the critical problems that hinder the sustainable development in Libya is the lack of renewable water resources. Rainfall in the country is scarce and infrequent. Over-exploitation of fossil groundwater resources mostly to meet irrigation demands has already affected the northern aquifers. This paper reviews the water resources in Libya and presents an assessment of its use in the municipal, industrial, and agricultural sectors. Both review and assessment are preceded by a short description of geographic location, climate, and populations. The available data have been developed for estimating the demands on water during a 25-year projection period. The estimates are given for two percentages of population growth, natural, and modified. The different estimates are finally compared to the available water resources in 1998 and the resources that can be made feasible during the projection period. Finally the total demand capacity is estimated in case serious measures to reduce the consumption are implemented.
Article
Libya is a dry country with very limited water resources. As the population of Libya increases, so does its demand for water. The search for oil in the 1950s and 60s led to the discovery of vast amount of ‘fossil’ water in aquifers underneath Libya’s southern deserts. In 1984, the Libyan government started the largest civil engineering project ever undertaken in the world that was scheduled to complete within twenty years. The project, popularly known as the Great Man Made River Project (GMMRP), when fully completed can supply a total of 6,500,000m³ of freshwater per day to most northern Libya cities bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Eighty percent of this water is allocated for agricultural activities while the remaining is for municipal and industrial purposes. The impact of the availability of this water on the agriculture activities is tremendous and so is the projected consequences on the environment. In light of this, this study, through a questionaire survey, tries to identify such impact on the agriculture town of Abu Sheiba. Findings from the questionery survey indicate that while the impact of the GMMRP project on agriculture activities are very significant so are the concern of the people on its environmental impacts.