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Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (Lindane, Aldrin, Dieldrin, Endosulfan, DDT and DDE) residues in beef samples from the Kumasi and Buoho abattoirs in Ghana were determined using gas chromatography. Organochlorine residues were found in all the samples. The average concentration of lindane in beef fat samples from Kumasi was 4.03 µg/kg and 1.79 µg/kg in beef fat from Buoho. The average levels of lindane were 2.07 µg/kg for lean meat samples from Kumasi abattoir and 0.60 µg/kg in lean meat samples from Buoho. Endosulfan concentration in meat samples from Buoho was 2.28 µg/kg in the fat and 0.59 µg/kg in the lean beef. 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-dichlorodiphenyl)ethylene (DDE) recorded mean concentrations of 118.45 µg/kg in beef fat and 42.93 µg/kg in lean beef samples from Kumasi abattoir. Beef samples from Buoho had DDE concentration of 31.89 µg/kg in the fat and 5.86 µg/kg in the lean beef. 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2, 2-bis-(4'-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) recorded an average concentration of 545.22 µg/kg in beef fat and 18.85 µg/kg in lean beef samples from Kumasi abattoir. The average concentration of DDT in beef fat from Buoho was 403.82 µg/kg but lean meat samples from the same sampling site recorded mean concentration of 10.82 µg/kg for DDT. Although, most of the organochlorine residues detected were below the maximum limits set by the FAO/WHO, bioaccumulation of these residues is likely to pose health problems in higher organisms like human beings.
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... Pesticides have been used in the public health sector for disease vector control and in agriculture to control and eradicate crop pests (Jehan et al., 2011). Organochlorine (OCs) and Organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides are widely used by farmers because of their effectiveness and their broad-spectrum activity (Ntow et al., 2006;Darko and Acquaah, 2007;Ashujohri et al., 2008). ...
... OCs are insecticides composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen and chlorine and are found in the environment as a result of human activities (Williams, 2011). OCs are widely used by farmers because of their effectiveness and their broad-spectrum activity (Ntow et al., 2006;Darko and Acquaah, 2007;Ashujohri et al., 2008). The use of OCs takes many forms, ranging from pellet application in field crops to sprays for seed coating and grain storage. ...
... DDT and, its metabolite, DDE were detected in all the fat samples analyzed at a mean concentration of 545.24 ± 247.06 μg/kg. This sample contained the highest amount of DDT of all the samples analyzed (Darko and Acquaah 2007). Residue levels of OCs pesticide in a total of 90 cattle samples comprising meat, liver and kidney collected from carcasses slaughtered in six towns in West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. ...
... Therefore, the OCP detected in these fishes can largely be attributed to their diets from both natural and artificial sources. Bioconcentration and/or biomagnification of OCPs are common in fishes through the organisms they feed on (Darko and Acquaah 2007). In most cases, wild fishes have been contaminated with the higher concentration of OCPs which might be because of the incorporation of various OCPs in natural waterbodies from agricultural run-off and industrial wastewater (Cheng et al. 2021). ...
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The present study was designed to determine the level of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including endrin, heptachlor epoxide, heptachlor, methoxychlor, endosulfan, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD, in four fish species from two different sources (wild and farmed) in Bangladesh. Eight different OCP residues were investigated, of which seven were detected in all the fish samples. The OCP concentrations varied widely within each species, ranging from below the limit of detection to 162 ng/g-ww in wild Heteropneustes fossilis. Among the contaminants, endosulfan was the most abundant OCP. It ranged from 3.94 to 98.4 ng/g-ww. The overall mean level of ΣOCPs in wild fish were significantly higher than the farmed fish (p < 0.05). The highest estimated daily intake (EDI) value was for endosulfan (102.66 ng/g-bw/day), observed in wild Labeo calbasu, whereas the lowest was for p,p'-DDD (0.02 ng/g-bw/day), observed in wild Anabas testudineus. Noncancerous risk estimates revealed that hazard index (HI) values for all fishes except wild L. calbasu were less than 1, which is below the level of concern. HI for wild L. calbasu was 1.1, which indicates a low level of risk for human consumption. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was also calculated; most of the OCP residues had ILCR values below 10⁻⁶ for both wild and farmed species except for p,p'-DDE in wild H. fossilis, which had an ILCR value of 4.0 × 10–5. In Bangladesh, no regulations for OCP use or guidelines for maximum admissible concentration are in place. Thus, the findings of the present study will be a baseline for regulatory authorities for developing and implementing regulations and guidelines.
... However, fruits and vegetables are an important part of our daily diet, so pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables have a great impact on our lives. Therefore, the study of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables is also a very critical part of food safety [20]. ...
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The safety of agricultural products is a guarantee of national security. The increasing variety of pesticides used on crops has led to an increasing abundance of pesticide residues in agricultural products, making pesticide residues an important factor in threatening health. Traditional indicators for evaluating the safety of agricultural products, such as pass rates and residue rates, can only qualitatively describe the level of pesticide residues. Isolated data leads to low data utilization, data is distributed between different terminals or departments and cannot be shared, while the security of private data needs to be ensured. Therefore, we propose a risk entropy model based on federated learning. The model is able to quantitatively describe the risk level of agricultural products and achieve data fusion without exposing private data in the federated learning model. In this paper, a total of 90,510 agricultural product data samples from 2015 to 2019 are collected, with each sample containing 58 indicators. The experimental results show that the developed food safety risk entropy model can quantitatively reflect the level of risk in the target region and time interval. In addition, we have developed a multidimensional data analysis tool based on federated learning, which can achieve data integration across multiple regions and departments.
... e most commonly applied pesticides in Ghana are synthetic pyrethroids (SPPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) [17,18]. Studies conducted in some basins in Ghana have shown some appreciable levels in residues of pesticide in water, sediment, and fish [26,27]. ...
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Pollution due to pesticide residues has been reported in the downstream of the Tano Basin in the rainy season and has been attributed to the anthropogenic activities upstream. However, data on the seasonal variations in pesticide residues in the upstream of Tano Basin are limited. Seasonal variations in 13 organochlorine pesticide residues, 8 organophosphorus pesticide residues, and 5 synthetic pesticide residues in water and sediment samples of River Tano upstream were assessed through extraction and Varian CP-3800 gas chromatography equipped with a CombiPAL Auto sampler set at ionization mode electron impact methods. Significantly higher pesticide residues were detected in water and sediment samples in the rainy season than the dry season. Permethrin (rainy: 0.007 ± 0.01 mg/kg; dry: 0.008 ± 0.02 mg/kg) and profenofos (rainy: 0.021 ± 0.02 mg/kg; dry: 0.026 ± 0.01 mg/kg) showed higher dry season concentrations in the sediment samples. Two isomers of lindane (δ-HCH = 0.059 ± 0.24 μg/L; γ-HCH = 0.002 ± 0.01 μg/L) were detected in the water in the rainy season, but 3 were detected in the sediment samples (δ-HCH = 0.004 ± 0.12 mg/kg; γ-HCH = 0.003 ± 0.01 mg/kg; aldrin = 0.001 ± 0.01 mg/kg) suggesting possible illegal use. The detected pesticide residual levels in both water and sediment samples were lower than the maximum residual levels in water and sediment. The Chemical Control and Management Centre of the Environmental Protection Agency should check possible faking and adulteration of banned organochlorine pesticides.
... 14 Bu nedenle bu pestisit grubu dünya çapında en önemli çevresel ve insan sağlığı sorunlarından biri olarak görülmektedir. 15 UNEP, WHO ve EU gibi uluslararası organizasyonlar organik klorlu pestisitleri sağlık için temel bir risk faktörü olarak belirtmektedir. 16 Organik klorlu pestisitlerden diklorodifeniltrikloretan (DDT), çevre koşullarına çok dirençli bir pestisittir. ...
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Our country is a large scale agricultural country. Usage of crop protection drugs to provide agricultural sustainability is common as in worldwide. Negative effects of these drugs on ecosystem is inevitable despite their many benefits. In terms of food safety, they have high risk and the residue of some crop protection drugs was showen to be maximum in meat. Preventation cares are very important to avoid more important losses. Among these, monitoring of pesticides, organic agriculture, good farming practices and entegrated pest management are considered.
... Recent studies reported residues of OCPs in water, soil, sediment and plant samples, aquatic ecosystems, aquatic species and animal and poultry products (Taiwo, 2019;Chang, 2018;Mukaj et al., 2016). Furthermore, there have been reports of residues of OCPs in mothers' blood, milk, maternal serum and animal adipose tissues and blood serum (Fang et al., 2019;Darko and Acquaah, 2007). Taking into account the broad range of negative effects of pesticide residues on the environment and ecosystem, the present research addressed the status of residues of OCPs in Iran. ...
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The present account addressed the status of organochlorine pesticide residues on the environment in Iran. It was conducted by searching for keywords such as OCPs, pesticide residue, ecosystem, water, soil, and sediments in the websites of prestigious medical and public health journals and top scientific databases. Articles published between 1974 and 2020 were examined emphasizing the review of OCP residues in Iran. The data obtained from the present research was provided in tables and the results were discussed and compared. The results showed that, in the first group of OCPs, the minimum amount that remained in the ecosystem was that of o,p’-DDT and the maximum that of DDE. In the second group of OCPs, Aldrin and Heptachlor had the lowest and highest quantities in the ecosystem, respectively. In the third group, Lindane and β-HCH had the smallest and largest amounts in the ecosystem, respectively. The findings revealed that some residues of the OCPs persisted in the biotic and abiotic environments in different regions of Iran, and continuous monitoring of the residues of these pollutants was one of the important strategies for dealing with this problem.
... Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of living organisms. Several studies have reported their occurrence and levels in animals, including fishes (Kalyoncu et al., 2009), birds (Yohannes et al., 2014), crabs (Smalling et al., 2010), earthworms (Lupi et al., 2016) polar bears and beef (Darko, 2007). Like most other persistent organic pollutants (POPs), organochlorine compounds may also accumulate in the tissues of plants (Fujita and Inui, 2021;Ihedioha et al., 2020). ...
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Organochlorine pesticides have been restricted or banned in many regions of the world due to the proven and potential health risks associated with their use. This notwithstanding, the compounds are still being detected in human fluid samples. International trades involving exchange of foodstuffs grown in areas where the use of organochlorine pesticides persists is one of the reasons why the compounds are still found in human samples. In this study, occurrence and levels of organochlorine residues were investigated in cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.), the major food commodity exported from Nigeria. Cocoa pod and beans samples were obtained from nine randomly selected cocoa farms in Ondo Central District (the largest cocoa-producing region in Nigeria) and were analysed for organochlorine pesticides by gas chromatography and electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Ten organochlorine compounds (α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan II and p,p’-DDD) were detected in various combinations in the cocoa pod and bean samples, at concentrations ranging from 0.006 mg/kg (α-HCH) to 2.43 mg/kg (endrin). Endrin, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, δ-HCH, β-HCH and p,p’-DDD exceeded their maximum residue limit (MRL) in the samples. β-HCH in particular showed high rate of penetration from outer pods into the inner cocoa beans. The study revealed possible route of exposure of humans and livestock to organochlorine compounds, and would be useful for progressive monitoring of cocoa outputs of this region for potential health and environmental risks.
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Email: godfreddarko@yahoo.com Acquaah, S. O., Department of Chemistry Email: sosafoacquaah@hotmail.com This article should be referenced as follows Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in meat
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AUTHOR (S) BIOSKETCHES Darko, G., M.Sc., Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: godfreddarko@yahoo.com Acquaah, S. O., Department of Chemistry, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana. Email: sosafoacquaah@hotmail.com This article should be referenced as follows: Darko, G.; Acquaah, S.O., (2007). Levels of organochlorine pesticides residues in meat. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech., 4 (4), 521-524.
Pesticide policy in Ghana. MoFA/PPRSD, ICP Project, Pesticide Policy Project/ GTZ
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