Article

Ancient DNA Evidence Reveals that the Y Chromosome Haplogroup Q1a1 Admixed into the Han Chinese 3,000 Years Ago

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Ancient DNA Evidence Reveals that the Y Chromosome Haplogroup Q1a1 Admixed into the Han Chinese 3,000 Years Ago

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Abstract

ObjectivesY chromosome haplogroup Q1a1 is found almost only in Han Chinese populations. However, it has not been found in ancient Han Chinese samples until now. Thus, the origin of haplogroup Q1a1 in Han Chinese is still obscure. This study attempts to provide answer to this question, and to uncover the origin and paternal genetic structure of the ancestors of the Han Chinese.Methods Eighty-nine ancient human remains that were excavated from the presumed geographic source of the Han Chinese and dated to approximately 3,000 years ago were treated by the amelogenin gene polymerase chain reaction test, to determine their sex. Then, Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms were subsequently analyzed from the samples detected as male.ResultsSamples from 27 individuals were successfully amplified. Their haplotypes could be attributed to haplogroups N, O*, O2a, O3a, and Q1a1. Analyses showed that the assigned haplogroup of each sample is correlated to the suspected social status and observed burial custom associated with the sample.Conclusions The origins of the observed haplotypes and their distribution in present day Han Chinese and in the samples suggest that haplogroup Q1a1 was probably introduced into the Han Chinese population approximately 3,000 years ago. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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... Previous studies have suggested that the Y-chromosome haplogroup Q-M120 spread widely in East Asia (Wen et al. 2004;Zhong et al. 2011). The haplogroup is frequently found in Han populations and thus may be one of the founding paternal lineages of Han populations (Zhao et al. 2014). Ancient DNA studies shows a different pattern. ...
... One late Bronze Age individual from North Mongolia (ARS015, 3052 ± 52 YBP) also belongs to lineage Q-M120 (Jeong et al. 2018). In addition, many ancient individuals of this haplogroup have been found in numerous Bronze Age archaeological sites in Ningxia province (Zhongzhuang and Wangdahu sites) (Zhao et al. 2010;Li H-J 2012) and Shanxi Province of China (Hengbei site) (Zhao et al. 2014). The culture of ancient populations with Q-M120 individuals in northwestern China was strongly influenced by ancient cultures of the Eurasian steppe, including Bronze technology, sheep, wheat, horses, and chariots (Zhang 2018). ...
... The culture of ancient populations with Q-M120 individuals in northwestern China was strongly influenced by ancient cultures of the Eurasian steppe, including Bronze technology, sheep, wheat, horses, and chariots (Zhang 2018). Based on large number of ancient DNA and summary of data in modern populations, Zhao et al. (2014) proposed that paternal lineage Q-M120 may had introduced into the Huaxia populations, the precursor of Han Chinese population, approximately 3,000 years ago (Zhao et al. 2014). However, the origin, the internal phylogenetic structure, and the role of haplogroup Q-M120 during the formation of Han populations remain ambiguous. ...
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Background: Previous studies have suggested that the human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q1a1a-M120, a widespread paternal lineage in East Asian populations, originated in South Siberia. However, much uncertainty remains regarding the origin, diversification, and expansion of this paternal lineage. Aim: To explore the origin and diffusion of paternal Q-M120 lineages in East Asia Subjects and methods: We generated 26 new Y chromosome sequences of Q-M120 males and co-analysed 45 Y chromosome sequences of this haplogroup. We reconstructed a highly revised phylogenetic tree of haplogroup Q-M120 with age estimates. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis of this lineage including 15,007 samples from 440 populations in eastern Eurasia. Results: We revealed an ancient connection of this lineage with populations in Siberia. However, this paternal lineage experienced an in-situ expansion between 5,000 and 3,000 years ago in northwestern China. Ancient populations with high frequencies of Q-M120 were involved in the formation of ancient Huaxia populations before 2,000 years ago; this haplogroup eventually became one of the founding paternal lineages of modern Han populations. Conclusion: We provided a clear pattern about the origin and diffusion process of haplogroup Q1a1a-M120, as well as the role of this paternal lineage during the formation of ancient Huaxia populations and modern Han populations.
... Besides, social practices, including subsistence strategies, residence patterns, and agricultural expansion, play an indispensable role in shaping the patterns of Chinese populations (Nielsen et al., 2017). Ancient mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal DNA studies in East Asian Neolithic~Iron Age populations have drastically increased in past decades Li et al., 2010;Li et al., 2011;Zhao et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2012;Cui et al., 2013;Zhao et al., 2014;Dong et al., 2015;Gao et al., 2015;Li et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2015b;Li et al., 2018), however, how the peopling and settlement history of Neolithic populations influence the origin, expansion, and migration of the Han Chinese population is still unclear. ...
... In addition to the estimation of forensic characterization of autosomal STRs in northern-Han, we evaluated three different population comparisons to gain a comprehensive genetic overview of the northern-Han Chinese population and nationwide and worldwide reference populations on the basis of the genetic variations of STRs (23-STRs genotypebased data set among 12 Chinese populations, 20-STRs frequencybased dataset among 53 worldwide populations and 19-STRs frequency-based dataset among 61 nationwide populations). Finally, we also collected the present available mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal genetic variations of Han Chinese populations and merged them with previously published uniparental marker variations, as well as combined whole-genome SNPs of modern and Eurasian ancient peoples, to explore the genetic legacy and phylogenetic relationship between northern Han Chinese and ancient populations Li et al., 2010;Li et al., 2011;Zhao et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2012;Cui et al., 2013;Zhao et al., 2014;Dong et al., 2015;Gao et al., 2015;Li et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2015b;Li et al., 2018). ...
... To further explore the genetic relationship of Shanxi Han in the context of the genetic variations from the worldwide or nationwide populations, we subsequently combined our allele frequency of 20 STRs with publicly obtained data from 52 worldwide populations (Westen et al., 2012;Gaviria et al., 2013;Park et al., 2013;Fujii et al., 2014;Almeida et al., 2015;Parolin et al., 2015;Aguilar-Velazquez et al., 2016;Hossain et al., 2016;Ng et al., 2016;Park et al., 2016;Ramos-Gonzalez et al., 2016;Ristow et al., 2016;Vullo et al., 2016;Zhang et al., 2016a;Zhang et al., 2016b;Choi et al., 2017;Guerreiro et al., 2017;Jin et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2017;Moyses et al., 2017;Ossowski et al., 2017;Singh and Nandineni, 2017;Taylor et al., 2017;Wu et al., 2017;Yang et al., 2017a;He et al., 2018b;He et al., 2018e;Wang et al., 2018a;Liu et al., 2019) and allele frequency of 19 STRs with previously investigated the allele frequency distribution from 60 Chinese populations (Zhang et al., 2011;Liu et al., 2013;Shen, 2013;Wang, 2014;Wang et al., 2014;Xie, 2014;Hu et al., 2015;Li, 2015;Ruan, 2015;Shen et al., 2015;Yin, 2015;Zhang and Chen, 2015;Zhao et al., 2015a;Meng, 2016;Xiao et al., 2016;Zhao, 2016;Chen et al., 2017;Fu et al., 2017;He et al., 2017a;He et al., 2017c;Jin et al., 2017;Liu, 2017;Lu et al., 2017;Yao et al., 2017;Zhang, 2017c;Zou et al., 2017;He et al., 2018b;He et al., 2018e;Wang et al., 2018a). Subsequently, to explore the genetic affinity between northern Han Chinese and ancient Asian populations, we combined mitochondrial DNA variations of 812 modern Han Chinese individuals from seven geographical different populations and 417 ancient individuals in 13 different archeological sites, and then combined Y-chromosome variations of 2,810 modern subjects from 26 Chinese populations and 114 ancient individuals in 12 neolithic sites Li et al., 2010;Li et al., 2011;Zhao et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2012;Cui et al., 2013;Zhao et al., 2014;Dong et al., 2015;Gao et al., 2015;Li et al., 2015;Zhao et al., 2015b;Li et al., 2018). Finally, we merged our 20 whole-genome SNPs data with previously published 1,924 individuals from the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain (HGDP-CEPH) panel and International HapMap Project Phase 3 and 40 ancient humans from Eurasia (Li et al., 2008;Jeong et al., 2016;Lipson et al., 2018). ...
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Modern East Asians derived from the admixture of aborigines and incoming farmers expanding from Yellow and Yangtze River Basins. Distinct genetic differentiation and subsequent admixture between North East Asians and South East Asians subsequently evidenced by the mitochondrial DNA, Y-chromosomal variations and autosomal SNPs. Recently, population geneticists have paid more attention to the genetic polymorphisms and background of southern-Han Chinese and southern native populations. The genetic legacy of northern-Han remains uncharacterized. Thus, we performed this comprehensive population genetic analysis of modern and ancient genetic variations aiming to yield new insight into the formation of modern Han, and the genetic ancestry and phylogenetic relationship of the northern-Han Chinese population. We first genotyped 25 forensic associated markers in 3,089 northern-Han Chinese individuals using the new-generation of the Huaxia Platinum System. And then we performed the first meta-analysis focused on the genetic affinity between Asian Neolithic ancients and modern northern-Han Chinese by combining mitochondrial variations in 417 ancient individuals from 13 different archeological sites and 812 modern individuals, as well as Y-chromosomal variations in 114 ancient individuals from 12 Neolithic sites and 2,810 modern subjects. We finally genotyped 643,897 genome-wide nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 Shanxi Han individuals and combined with 1927 modern humans and 40 Eurasian ancient genomes to explore the genetic structure and admixture of northern-Han Chinese. We addressed genetic legacy, population structure and phylogenetic relationship of northern-Han Chinese via various analyses. Our population genetic results from five different reference datasets indicated that Shanxi Han shares a closer phylogenetic relationship with northern-neighbors and southern ethnically close groups than with Uyghur and Tibetan. Genome-wide variations revealed that modern northern-Han derived their ancestry from Yakut-related population (25.2%) and She-related population (74.8%). Summarily, the genetic mixing that led to the emergence of a Han Chinese ethnicity occurred at a very early period, probably in Neolithic times, and this mixing involved an ancient Tibeto-Burman population and a local pre-Sinitic population, which may have been linguistically Altaic.
... An ancient DNA analysis indicated that the lineage Q1-B143 may be related to the human expansion later than 6 kya near the Arctic Circle [3]. The most closely related lineage of Q1-B143 in Eurasian populations is Q1-M120, a frequently observed lineage in East Asia [48]. ...
... The sub-lineages of the Y-chromosome Q-M242 haplogroup were found in populations throughout the Eurasia continent. According to available data, the Q1-L804 lineage is exclusively found in Northwest Europe, while Q1-M120 is primarily restricted to East Asia [48]. Additionally, the lineage Q1-L330 is the predominant paternal lineage in Altai, Tuva, and Kets in South Siberia [34][35][36]55]. ...
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The expansion of modern humans to the American continent after the Last Glacial Maximum led the way to the present-day distribution of American aborigines. Recent advances in autosomal DNA research and expanded testing of mtDNA lineages has provided a clearer picture of the number and timing of founding lineages. However, both autosomal DNA and mtDNA research have provided unresolved competing theories between the short-term and the long-term models of the Beringian standstill hypothesis. Further, the source of founding paternal lineages of American aborigines and their relationship with ancient Siberia populations remains ambiguous. In this study, we reanalyzed a 7.0 Mbp region of 132 paternal Y-chromosome sequences, including 39 newly reported ones, of male samples from American aborigines and Eurasian populations. Among Eurasian samples, we identified Y-chromosome branches that are most closely related to known American aborigine founding lineages, that is, Q1-L804 links to Q1-M3, Q1-L330 links to Q1-Z780, Q1-M120 links to Q1-B143, and C2-F1756 links to C2-P39. The revised phylogenetic tree and age estimates indicate a narrow timeframe (~15.3–14.3 kya) for the upper time limit of human entry to the American continent. Our analysis suggests that the in situ differentiation of Q-M242 in Central Eurasia and South Siberia region gave rise to numerous sub-lineages older than 15.3 kya, and the founding of Paleo-Indian paternal lineages is part of the great Q1-L53 diffusion throughout the Eurasia after the Last Glacial Maximum. The results of our study will assist in future studies of the history of modern populations in Eurasia and the Americas.
... O1a*-M119 is rare in the studied Mongolians but predominant in the eastern Han Chinese, southern Chinese, and Southeast Asian populations [26,63,68]. The haplogroups G*-M201, I-M170, J*-M304, L-M20, and Q*-M242 observed in the studied Mongolians are defined as the central/southern/western Asian-related lineages [20,21,34,54,58,69]. In general, the northern East Asian-dominant lineages contributed the most to the paternal genetic legacy of the studied Mongolians, followed by the southern East Asian-dominant and western Eurasian-dominant lineages. ...
Article
The Mongolian people, one of the Mongolic-speaking populations, are native to the Mongolian Plateau in North China and southern Siberia. Many ancient DNA studies recently reported extensive population transformations during the Paleolithic to historic periods in this region, while little is known about the paternal genetic legacy of modern geographically different Mongolians. Here, we genotyped 215 Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs) and 37 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) among 679 Mongolian individuals from Hohhot, Hulunbuir, and Ordos in North China using the AGCU Y37 kit and our developed eight Y-SNP SNaPshot panels (including two panels first reported herein). The C-M130 Y-SNP SNaPshot panel defines 28 subhaplogroups, and the N/O/Q complementary Y-SNP SNaPshot panel defines 30 subhaplogroups of N1b-F2930, N1a1a1a1a3-B197, Q-M242, and O2a2b1a1a1a4a-CTS4658, which improved our developed Y-SNP SNaPshot panel set and could be applied for dissecting the finer-scale paternal lineages of Mongolic speakers. We found a strong association between Mongolian-prevailing haplogroups and some observed microvariants among the newly generated Y-STR haplotype data, suggesting the possibility of haplogroup prediction based on the distribution of Y-STR haplotypes. We identified three main ancestral sources of the observed Mongolian-dominant haplogroups, including the local lineage of C2⁎-M217 and incoming lineages from other regions of southern East Asia (O2⁎-M122, O1b⁎-P31, and N1⁎-CTS3750) and western Eurasia (R1⁎-M173). We also observed DE-M145, D1⁎-M174, C1⁎-F3393, G⁎-M201, I-M170, J⁎-M304, L-M20, O1a⁎-M119, and Q⁎-M242 at relatively low frequencies (< 5.00%), suggesting a complex admixture history between Mongolians and other incoming Eurasians from surrounding regions. Genetic clustering analyses indicated that the studied Mongolians showed close genetic affinities with other Altaic-speaking populations and Sinitic-speaking Hui people. The Y-SNP haplotype/haplogroup-based genetic legacy not only revealed that the stratification among geographically/linguistically/ethnically different Chinese populations was highly consistent with the geographical division and language classification, but also demonstrated that patrilineal genetic materials could provide fine-scale genetic structures among geographically different Mongolian people, suggesting that our developed high-resolution Y-SNP SNaPshot panels have the potential for forensic pedigree searches and biogeographical ancestry inference.
... Published data from the period 2007 to 2017 (480 Y chromosomes) was nearly quadrupled within the next 3 years 2018-2020 (1797 Y chromosomes) (Supplementary Table S1). In concert with mitochondrial DNA, Y-Chromosomal DNA has been used to study the origins of present-day and ancient Eurasians (7) along with their languages (8)(9)(10)(11) and disease prevalence (3). ...
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Ancient Y-Chromosomal DNA is an invaluable tool for dating and discerning the origins of migration routes and demographic processes that occurred thousands of years ago. Driven by the adoption of high-throughput sequencing and capture enrichment methods in paleogenomics, the number of published ancient genomes has nearly quadrupled within the last three years (2018–2020). Whereas ancient mtDNA haplogroup repositories are available, no similar resource exists for ancient Y-Chromosomal haplogroups. Here, we present aYChr-DB—a comprehensive collection of 1797 ancient Eurasian human Y-Chromosome haplogroups ranging from 44 930 BC to 1945 AD. We include descriptors of age, location, genomic coverage and associated archaeological cultures. We also produced a visualization of ancient Y haplogroup distribution over time. The aYChr-DB database is a valuable resource for population genomic and paleogenomic studies.
... Both had inherited a Western Eurasian maternal lineage (T2b3) and the male (TUK01) had inherited an Eastern Eurasian paternal lineage (Q1a-M120). This Y-haplogroup seems to have migrated from Mongolia to China during the Neolithic period and spread over China with the ancestors of Han Chinese (Huang et al. 2018); it has previously been observed at a high frequency in 3000-year-old ancient individuals from the Central Plain region (Zhao et al. 2014). We can, therefore, suppose that our five-generation family originates in European/Asian Xiongnu intermarriage. ...
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In an effort to characterize the people who composed the groups known as the Xiongnu, nuclear and whole mitochondrial DNA data were generated from the skeletal remains of 52 individuals excavated from the Tamir Ulaan Khoshuu (TUK) cemetery in Central Mongolia. This burial site, attributed to the Xiongnu period, was used from the first century BC to the first century AD. Kinship analyses were conducted using autosomal and Y-chromosomal DNA markers along with complete sequences of the mitochondrial genome. These analyses suggested close kin relationships between many individuals. Nineteen such individuals composed a large family spanning five generations. Within this family, we determined that a woman was of especially high status; this is a novel insight into the structure and hierarchy of societies from the Xiongnu period. Moreover, our findings confirmed that the Xiongnu had a strongly admixed mitochondrial and Y-chromosome gene pools and revealed a significant western component in the Xiongnu group studied. Using a fine-scale approach (haplotype instead of haplogroup-level information), we propose Scytho-Siberians as ancestors of the Xiongnu and Huns as their descendants.
... Larger circles refer to the number of specified subjects. Stars highlighted by a grey shading refer to ancient samples: (1) [74], (2) [75], (3) [76], (4) [28]; their relative dating, when available, is also reported in italics. Dates reported below branches refer to Bayesian estimates of node ages. ...
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Background Recent genome studies of modern and ancient samples have proposed that Native Americans derive from a subset of the Eurasian gene pool carried to America by an ancestral Beringian population, from which two well-differentiated components originated and subsequently mixed in different proportion during their spread in the Americas. To assess the timing, places of origin and extent of admixture between these components, we performed an analysis of the Y-chromosome haplogroup Q, which is the only Pan-American haplogroup and accounts for virtually all Native American Y chromosomes in Mesoamerica and South America. Results Our analyses of 1.5 Mb of 152 Y chromosomes, 34 re-sequenced in this work, support a “coastal and inland routes scenario” for the first entrance of modern humans in North America. We show a major phase of male population growth in the Americas after 15 thousand years ago (kya), followed by a period of constant population size from 8 to 3 kya, after which a secondary sign of growth was registered. The estimated dates of the first expansion in Mesoamerica and the Isthmo-Colombian Area, mainly revealed by haplogroup Q-Z780, suggest an entrance in South America prior to 15 kya. During the global constant population size phase, local South American hints of growth were registered by different Q-M848 sub-clades. These expansion events, which started during the Holocene with the improvement of climatic conditions, can be ascribed to multiple cultural changes rather than a steady population growth and a single cohesive culture diffusion as it occurred in Europe. Conclusions We established and dated a detailed haplogroup Q phylogeny that provides new insights into the geographic distribution of its Eurasian and American branches in modern and ancient samples. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12915-018-0622-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... Our results suggested that subclade Q1a1a1-M120 had migrated from Mongolia to China during the Neolithic period, and spread over China with the ancestors of Han Chinese ( Fig. 3; Table 1; ESM_1). Previous studies showed that Q1a1a1-M120 had migrated from north-western China to the Central Plain as nomads, and merged into the northern Han Chinese farmers at approximately 2.5-3 KYA (Zhao et al. , 2014(Zhao et al. , 2015Yan et al. 2014). Therefore, we supposed that the ancient nomads with Q1a1a1-M120 had migrated to south-eastward from north-western China and were assimilated by the Han Chinese farmers (Zhao et al. 2015). ...
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The human Y-chromosome has proven to be a powerful tool for tracing the paternal history of human populations and genealogical ancestors. The human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q is the most frequent haplogroup in the Americas. Previous studies have traced the origin of haplogroup Q to the region around Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Although the diversity of haplogroup Q in the Americas has been studied in detail, investigations on the diffusion of haplogroup Q in Eurasia and Africa are still limited. In this study, we collected 39 samples from China and Russia, investigated 432 samples from previous studies of haplogroup Q, and analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subclades Q1a1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q1a1b-M25, Q1a2-M346, Q1a2a1a2-L804, Q1a2b2-F1161, Q1b1a-M378, and Q1b1a1-L245. Through NETWORK and BATWING analyses, we found that the subclades of haplogroup Q continued to disperse from Central Asia and Southern Siberia during the past 10,000 years. Apart from its migration through the Beringia to the Americas, haplogroup Q also moved from Asia to the south and to the west during the Neolithic period, and subsequently to the whole of Eurasia and part of Africa. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00438-017-1363-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
... 3,5,[7][8][9] The basal NO-M214* lineage, the predecessor of N and O, co-distributes with hg O in continental Southeast Asia, albeit at a low frequency. 3,5 Ancient human DNA from archaeological sites provides complementary pre-historical insights into the evolutionary trajectory of hg N. Analyses of prehistoric specimens suggest that it was the predominant paternal hg in northeast China during the Neolithic period 6.5 thousand years ago (kya) 10 and then declined gradually throughout the Bronze Age up to 2.7 kya. 11,12 The earliest finding of hg N in Europe comes from Iron Age Hungary, 13 where this hg is virtually absent today. ...
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... The Q1a * haplotype, which originated from the northeast area of Siberia and is prevalent in northern Asian populations, was detected within both the sacrificial victims and the burial owners. While the Q1b haplotype, which is prevalent in the modern Uyghur population of Xinjiang and closely related to central Asian populations, was only found in the sacrificial victims (Li, 2012;Zhao et al., 2014). ...
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In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.
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Han Chinese is the largest ethnic group in the world. During its development, it gradually integrated with many neighboring populations. To uncover the origin of the Han Chinese, ancient DNA analysis was performed on the remains of 46 humans (1700 to 1900 years ago) excavated from the Taojiazhai site in Qinghai province, northwest of China, where the Di-Qiang populations had previously lived. In this study, eight mtDNA haplogroups (A, B, D, F, M*, M10, N9a, and Z) and one Y-chromosome haplogroup (O3) were identified. All analyses show that the Taojiazhai population presents close genetic affinity to Tibeto-Burman populations (descendants of Di-Qiang populations) and Han Chinese, suggesting that the Di-Qiang populations may have contributed to the Han Chinese genetic pool.
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Genetic diversity data, from Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA as well as recent genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms, suggested that mainland Southeast Asia was the major geographic source of East Asian populations. However, these studies also detected Central-South Asia (CSA)- and/or West Eurasia (WE)-related genetic components in East Asia, implying either recent population admixture or ancient migrations via the proposed northern route. To trace the time period and geographic source of these CSA- and WE-related genetic components, we sampled 3,826 males (116 populations from China and 1 population from North Korea) and performed high-resolution genotyping according to the well-resolved Y chromosome phylogeny. Our data, in combination with the published East Asian Y-haplogroup data, show that there are four dominant haplogroups (accounting for 92.87% of the East Asian Y chromosomes), O-M175, D-M174, C-M130 (not including C5-M356), and N-M231, in both southern and northern East Asian populations, which is consistent with the proposed southern route of modern human origin in East Asia. However, there are other haplogroups (6.79% in total) (E-SRY4064, C5-M356, G-M201, H-M69, I-M170, J-P209, L-M20, Q-M242, R-M207, and T-M70) detected primarily in northern East Asian populations and were identified as Central-South Asian and/or West Eurasian origin based on the phylogeographic analysis. In particular, evidence of geographic distribution and Y chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR) diversity indicates that haplogroup Q-M242 (the ancestral haplogroup of the native American-specific haplogroup Q1a3a-M3) and R-M207 probably migrated into East Asia via the northern route. The age estimation of Y-STR variation within haplogroups suggests the existence of postglacial (∼18 Ka) migrations via the northern route as well as recent (∼3 Ka) population admixture. We propose that although the Paleolithic migrations via the southern route played a major role in modern human settlement in East Asia, there are ancient contributions, though limited, from WE, which partly explain the genetic divergence between current southern and northern East Asian populations.
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The regional distribution of an ancient Y-chromosome haplogroup C-M130 (Hg C) in Asia provides an ideal tool of dissecting prehistoric migration events. We identified 465 Hg C individuals out of 4284 males from 140 East and Southeast Asian populations. We genotyped these Hg C individuals using 12 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 8 commonly used Y-short tandem repeats (Y-STRs), and performed phylogeographic analysis in combination with the published data. The results show that most of the Hg C subhaplogroups have distinct geographical distribution and have undergone long-time isolation, although Hg C individuals are distributed widely across Eurasia. Furthermore, a general south-to-north and east-to-west cline of Y-STR diversity is observed with the highest diversity in Southeast Asia. The phylogeographic distribution pattern of Hg C supports a single coastal 'Out-of-Africa' route by way of the Indian subcontinent, which eventually led to the early settlement of modern humans in mainland Southeast Asia. The northward expansion of Hg C in East Asia started approximately 40 thousand of years ago (KYA) along the coastline of mainland China and reached Siberia approximately 15 KYA and finally made its way to the Americas.
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Six human remains (dating approximately 2500 years ago) were excavated from Pengyang, China, an area occupied by both ancient nomadic and farming people. The funerary objects found with these remains suggested they were nomads. To further confirm their ancestry, we analyzed both the maternal lineages and paternal lineages of the ancient DNA. From the mitochondrial DNA, six haplotypes were identified as three haplogroups: C, D4 and M10. The haplotype-sharing populations and phylogenetic analyses revealed that these individuals were closely associated with the ancient Xiongnu and modern northern Asians. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of Y chromosomes from four male samples that were typed as haplogroup Q indicated that these people had originated in Siberia. These results show that these ancient people from Pengyang present a close genetic affinity to nomadic people, indicating that northern nomads had reached the Central Plain area of China nearly 2500 years ago.
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The Tarim Basin, located on the ancient Silk Road, played a very important role in the history of human migration and cultural communications between the West and the East. However, both the exact period at which the relevant events occurred and the origins of the people in the area remain very obscure. In this paper, we present data from the analyses of both Y chromosomal and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) derived from human remains excavated from the Xiaohe cemetery, the oldest archeological site with human remains discovered in the Tarim Basin thus far. Mitochondrial DNA analysis showed that the Xiaohe people carried both the East Eurasian haplogroup (C) and the West Eurasian haplogroups (H and K), whereas Y chromosomal DNA analysis revealed only the West Eurasian haplogroup R1a1a in the male individuals. Our results demonstrated that the Xiaohe people were an admixture from populations originating from both the West and the East, implying that the Tarim Basin had been occupied by an admixed population since the early Bronze Age. To our knowledge, this is the earliest genetic evidence of an admixed population settled in the Tarim Basin.
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As an area of contact between Asia and Europe, Central Asia witnessed a scenario of complex cultural developments, extensive migratory movements, and biological admixture between West and East Eurasians. However, the detanglement of this complexity of diversity requires an understanding of prehistoric contacts of the people from the West and the East on the Eurasia continent. We demonstrated the presence of genetic admixture of West and East in a population of 35 inhabitants excavated in Gavaerk in southern Xinjiang and dated 2,800-2,100 years before present by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA variations. This result indicates that the initial contact of the East and the West Eurasians occurred further east than Central Asia as early as 2,500 years ago.
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Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
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Background The phylogeography of the Y chromosome in Asia previously suggested that modern humans of African origin initially settled in mainland southern East Asia, and about 25,000–30,000 years ago, migrated northward, spreading throughout East Asia. However, the fragmented distribution of one East Asian specific Y chromosome lineage (D-M174), which is found at high frequencies only in Tibet, Japan and the Andaman Islands, is inconsistent with this scenario. Results In this study, we collected more than 5,000 male samples from 73 East Asian populations and reconstructed the phylogeography of the D-M174 lineage. Our results suggest that D-M174 represents an extremely ancient lineage of modern humans in East Asia, and a deep divergence was observed between northern and southern populations. Conclusion We proposed that D-M174 has a southern origin and its northward expansion occurred about 60,000 years ago, predating the northward migration of other major East Asian lineages. The Neolithic expansion of Han culture and the last glacial maximum are likely the key factors leading to the current relic distribution of D-M174 in East Asia. The Tibetan and Japanese populations are the admixture of two ancient populations represented by two major East Asian specific Y chromosome lineages, the O and D haplogroups.
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The nonrecombining portion of the human Y chromosome has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of population history. The maintenance of extended haplotypes characteristic of particular geographic regions, despite extensive admixture, allows complex demographic events to be deconstructed. In this study we report the frequencies of 23 Y-chromosome biallelic polymorphism haplotypes in 1,935 men from 49 Eurasian populations, with a particular focus on Central Asia. These haplotypes reveal traces of historical migrations, and provide an insight into the earliest patterns of settlement of anatomically modern humans on the Eurasian continent. Central Asia is revealed to be an important reservoir of genetic diversity, and the source of at least three major waves of migration leading into Europe, the Americas, and India. The genetic results are interpreted in the context of Eurasian linguistic patterns.
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The question surrounding the colonization of Polynesia has remained controversial. Two hypotheses, one postulating Taiwan as the putative homeland and the other asserting a Melanesian origin of the Polynesian people, have received considerable attention. In this work, we present haplotype data based on the distribution of 19 biallelic polymorphisms on the Y chromosome in a sample of 551 male individuals from 36 populations living in Southeast Asia, Taiwan, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Surprisingly, nearly none of the Taiwanese Y haplotypes were found in Micronesia and Polynesia. Likewise, a Melanesian-specific haplotype was not found among the Polynesians. However, all of the Polynesian, Micronesian, and Taiwanese haplotypes are present in the extant Southeast Asian populations. Evidently, the Y-chromosome data do not lend support to either of the prevailing hypotheses. Rather, we postulate that Southeast Asia provided a genetic source for two independent migrations, one toward Taiwan and the other toward Polynesia through island Southeast Asia.
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The timing and nature of the arrival and the subsequent expansion of modern humans into eastern Asia remains controversial. Using Y-chromosome biallelic markers, we investigated the ancient human-migration patterns in eastern Asia. Our data indicate that southern populations in eastern Asia are much more polymorphic than northern populations, which have only a subset of the southern haplotypes. This pattern indicates that the first settlement of modern humans in eastern Asia occurred in mainland Southeast Asia during the last Ice Age, coinciding with the absence of human fossils in eastern Asia, 50,000-100,000 years ago. After the initial peopling, a great northward migration extended into northern China and Siberia.
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Although molecular genetic evidence continues to accumulate that is consistent with a recent common African ancestry of modern humans, its ability to illuminate regional histories remains incomplete. A set of unique event polymorphisms associated with the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome (NRY) addresses this issue by providing evidence concerning successful migrations originating from Africa, which can be interpreted as subsequent colonizations, differentiations and migrations overlaid upon previous population ranges. A total of 205 markers identified by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), together with 13 taken from the literature, were used to construct a parsimonious genealogy. Ancestral allelic states were deduced from orthologous great ape sequences. A total of 131 unique haplotypes were defined which trace the microevolutionary trajectory of global modern human genetic diversification. The genealogy provides a detailed phylogeographic portrait of contemporary global population structure that is emblematic of human origins, divergence and population history that is consistent with climatic, paleoanthropological and other genetic knowledge.
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We determine the phylogenetic backbone of the East Asian mtDNA tree by using published complete mtDNA sequences and assessing both coding and control region variation in 69 Han individuals from southern China. This approach assists in the interpretation of published mtDNA data on East Asians based on either control region sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing. Our results confirm that the East Asian mtDNA pool is locally region-specific and completely covered by the two superhaplogroups M and N. The phylogenetic partitioning based on complete mtDNA sequences corroborates existing RFLP-based classification of Asian mtDNA types and supports the distinction between northern and southern populations. We describe new haplogroups M7, M8, M9, N9, and R9 and demonstrate by way of example that hierarchically subdividing the major branches of the mtDNA tree aids in recognizing the settlement processes of any particular region in appropriate time scale. This is illustrated by the characteristically southern distribution of haplogroup M7 in East Asia, whereas its daughter-groups, M7a and M7b2, specific for Japanese and Korean populations, testify to a presumably (pre-)Jomon contribution to the modern mtDNA pool of Japan.
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A total of 63 binary polymorphisms and 10 short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped on a sample of 2,344 Y chromosomes from 18 Native American, 28 Asian, and 5 European populations to investigate the origin(s) of Native American paternal lineages. All three of Greenberg's major linguistic divisions (including 342 Amerind speakers, 186 Na-Dene speakers, and 60 Aleut-Eskimo speakers) were represented in our sample of 588 Native Americans. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis indicated that three major haplogroups, denoted as C, Q, and R, accounted for nearly 96% of Native American Y chromosomes. Haplogroups C and Q were deemed to represent early Native American founding Y chromosome lineages; however, most haplogroup R lineages present in Native Americans most likely came from recent admixture with Europeans. Although different phylogeographic and STR diversity patterns for the two major founding haplogroups previously led to the inference that they were carried from Asia to the Americas separately, the hypothesis of a single migration of a polymorphic founding population better fits our expanded database. Phylogenetic analyses of STR variation within haplogroups C and Q traced both lineages to a probable ancestral homeland in the vicinity of the Altai Mountains in Southwest Siberia. Divergence dates between the Altai plus North Asians versus the Native American population system ranged from 10,100 to 17,200 years for all lineages, precluding a very early entry into the Americas.
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An unequal contribution of male and female lineages from parental populations to admixed ones is not uncommon in the American continents, as a consequence of directional gene flow from European men into African and Hispanic Americans in the past several centuries. However, little is known about sex-biased admixture in East Asia, where substantial migrations are recorded. Tibeto-Burman (TB) populations were historically derived from ancient tribes of northwestern China and subsequently moved to the south, where they admixed with the southern natives during the past 2600 years. They are currently extensively distributed in China and Southeast Asia. In this study, we analyze the variations of 965 Y chromosomes and 754 mtDNAs in >20 TB populations from China. By examining the haplotype group distributions of Y-chromosome and mtDNA markers and their principal components, we show that the genetic structure of the extant southern Tibeto-Burman (STB) populations were primarily formed by two parental groups: northern immigrants and native southerners. Furthermore, the admixture has a bias between male and female lineages, with a stronger influence of northern immigrants on the male lineages (approximately 62%) and with the southern natives contributing more extensively to the female lineages (approximately 56%) in the extant STBs. This is the first genetic evidence revealing sex-biased admixture in STB populations, which has genetic, historical, and anthropological implications.
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The spread of culture and language in human populations is explained by two alternative models: the demic diffusion model, which involves mass movement of people; and the cultural diffusion model, which refers to cultural impact between populations and involves limited genetic exchange between them. The mechanism of the peopling of Europe has long been debated, a key issue being whether the diffusion of agriculture and language from the Near East was concomitant with a large movement of farmers. Here we show, by systematically analysing Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Han populations, that the pattern of the southward expansion of Han culture is consistent with the demic diffusion model, and that males played a larger role than females in this expansion. The Han people, who all share the same culture and language, exceed 1.16 billion (2000 census), and are by far the largest ethnic group in the world. The expansion process of Han culture is thus of great interest to researchers in many fields.
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The prehistoric peopling of East Asia by modern humans remains controversial with respect to early population migrations. Here, we present a systematic sampling and genetic screening of an East Asian-specific Y-chromosome haplogroup (O3-M122) in 2,332 individuals from diverse East Asian populations. Our results indicate that the O3-M122 lineage is dominant in East Asian populations, with an average frequency of 44.3%. The microsatellite data show that the O3-M122 haplotypes in southern East Asia are more diverse than those in northern East Asia, suggesting a southern origin of the O3-M122 mutation. It was estimated that the early northward migration of the O3-M122 lineages in East Asia occurred approximately 25,000-30,000 years ago, consistent with the fossil records of modern humans in East Asia.
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Historic Japanese culture evolved from at least two distinct migrations that originated on the Asian continent. Hunter-gatherers arrived before land bridges were submerged after the last glacial maximum (>12,000 years ago) and gave rise to the Jomon culture, and the Yayoi migration brought wet rice agriculture from Korea beginning approximately 2,300 years ago. A set of 81 Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to trace the origins of Paleolithic and Neolithic components of the Japanese paternal gene pool, and to determine the relative contribution of Jomon and Yayoi Y chromosome lineages to modern Japanese. Our global sample consisted of >2,500 males from 39 Asian populations, including six populations sampled from across the Japanese archipelago. Japanese populations were characterized by the presence of two major (D and O) and two minor (C and N) clades of Y chromosomes, each with several sub-lineages. Haplogroup D chromosomes were present at 34.7% and were distributed in a U-shaped pattern with the highest frequency in the northern Ainu and southern Ryukyuans. In contrast, haplogroup O lineages (51.8%) were distributed in an inverted U-shaped pattern with a maximum frequency on Kyushu. Coalescent analyses of Y chromosome short tandem repeat diversity indicated that haplogroups D and C began their expansions in Japan approximately 20,000 and approximately 12,000 years ago, respectively, while haplogroup O-47z began its expansion only approximately 4,000 years ago. We infer that these patterns result from separate and distinct genetic contributions from both the Jomon and the Yayoi cultures to modern Japanese, with varying levels of admixture between these two populations across the archipelago. The results also support the hypothesis of a Central Asian origin of Jomonese ancestors, and a Southeast Asian origin of the ancestors of the Yayoi, contra previous models based on morphological and genetic evidence.
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A large part of Y chromosome lineages in East European and East Asian human populations belong to haplogroup (hg) NO, which is composed of two sister clades N-M231 and O-M175. The O-clade is relatively old (around 30 thousand years (ky)) and encompasses the vast majority of east and Southeast Asian male lineages, as well as significant proportion of those in Oceanian males. On the other hand, our detailed analysis of hg N suggests that its high frequency in east Europe is due to its more recent expansion westward on a counter-clock northern route from inner Asia/southern Siberia, approximately 12-14 ky ago. The widespread presence of hg N in Siberia, together with its absence in Native Americans, implies its spread happened after the founder event for the Americas. The most frequent subclade N3, arose probably in the region of present day China, and subsequently experienced serial bottlenecks in Siberia and secondary expansions in eastern Europe. Another branch, N2, forms two distinctive subclusters of STR haplotypes, Asian (N2-A) and European (N2-E), the latter now mostly distributed in Finno-Ugric and related populations. These phylogeographic patterns provide evidence consistent with male-mediated counter-clockwise late Pleistocene-Holocene migratory trajectories toward Northwestern Europe from an ancestral East Asian source of Paleolithic heritage.
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The Austro-Asiatic linguistic family, which is considered to be the oldest of all the families in India, has a substantial presence in Southeast Asia. However, the possibility of any genetic link among the linguistic sub-families of the Indian Austro-Asiatics on the one hand and between the Indian and the Southeast Asian Austro-Asiatics on the other has not been explored till now. Therefore, to trace the origin and historic expansion of Austro-Asiatic groups of India, we analysed Y-chromosome SNP and STR data of the 1222 individuals from 25 Indian populations, covering all the three branches of Austro-Asiatic tribes, viz. Mundari, Khasi-Khmuic and Mon-Khmer, along with the previously published data on 214 relevant populations from Asia and Oceania. Our results suggest a strong paternal genetic link, not only among the subgroups of Indian Austro-Asiatic populations but also with those of Southeast Asia. However, maternal link based on mtDNA is not evident. The results also indicate that the haplogroup O-M95 had originated in the Indian Austro-Asiatic populations ~65,000 yrs BP (95% C.I. 25,442-132,230) and their ancestors carried it further to Southeast Asia via the Northeast Indian corridor. Subsequently, in the process of expansion, the Mon-Khmer populations from Southeast Asia seem to have migrated and colonized Andaman and Nicobar Islands at a much later point of time. Our findings are consistent with the linguistic evidence, which suggests that the linguistic ancestors of the Austro-Asiatic populations have originated in India and then migrated to Southeast Asia.
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The ability to extract mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from ancient remains has enabled the study of ancient DNA, a legitimate field for over 20 years now. Recently, Y chromosome genotyping has begun to be applied to ancient DNA. The Y chromosome haplogroup in East Asia has since caught the attention of molecular anthropologists, as it is one of the most ethnic-related genetic markers of the region. In this paper, the Y chromosome haplogroup of DNA from ancient East Asians was examined, in order to genetically link them to modern populations. Fifty-six human remains were sampled from five archaeological sites, primarily along the Yangtze River. Strict criteria were followed to eliminate potential contamination. Five SNPs from the Y chromosome were successfully amplified from most of the samples, with at least 62.5% of the samples belonging to the O haplogroup, similar to the frequency for modern East Asian populations. A high frequency of O1 was found in Liangzhu Culture sites around the mouth of the Yangtze River, linking this culture to modern Austronesian and Daic populations. A rare haplogroup, O3d, was found at the Daxi site in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River, indicating that the Daxi people might be the ancestors of modern Hmong-Mien populations, which show only small traces of O3d today. Noticeable genetic segregation was observed among the prehistoric cultures, demonstrating the genetic foundation of the multiple origins of the Chinese Civilization.
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The Yuansha site is located in the center of the Taklimakan Desert of Xinjiang, in the southern Silk Road region. MtDNA was extracted from fifteen human remains excavated from the Yuansha site, dating back 2,000-2,500 years. Analysis of the phylogenetic tree and the multidimensional scaling (MDS) reveals that the Yuansha population has relatively close relationships with the modern populations of South Central Asia and Indus Valley, as well as with the ancient population of Chawuhu.
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The Uyghur (UIG) population, settled in Xinjiang, China, is a population presenting a typical admixture of Eastern and Western anthropometric traits. We dissected its genomic structure at population level, individual level, and chromosome level by using 20,177 SNPs spanning nearly the entire chromosome 21. Our results showed that UIG was formed by two-way admixture, with 60% European ancestry and 40% East Asian ancestry. Overall linkage disequilibrium (LD) in UIG was similar to that in its parental populations represented in East Asia and Europe with regard to common alleles, and UIG manifested elevation of LD only within 500 kb and at a level of 0.1 <r(2) < 0.8 when ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were used. The size of chromosomal segments that were derived from East Asian and European ancestries averaged 2.4 cM and 4.1 cM, respectively. Both the magnitude of LD and fragmentary ancestral chromosome segments indicated a long history of Uyghur. Under the assumption of a hybrid isolation (HI) model, we estimated that the admixture event of UIG occurred about 126 [107 approximately 146] generations ago, or 2520 [2140 approximately 2920] years ago assuming 20 years per generation. In spite of the long history and short LD of Uyghur compared with recent admixture populations such as the African-American population, we suggest that mapping by admixture LD (MALD) is still applicable in the Uyghur population but approximately 10-fold AIMs are necessary for a whole-genome scan.
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Markers on the non-recombining portion of the human Y chromosome continue to have applications in many fields including evolutionary biology, forensics, medical genetics, and genealogical reconstruction. In 2002, the Y Chromosome Consortium published a single parsimony tree showing the relationships among 153 haplogroups based on 243 binary markers and devised a standardized nomenclature system to name lineages nested within this tree. Here we present an extensively revised Y chromosome tree containing 311 distinct haplogroups, including two new major haplogroups (S and T), and incorporating approximately 600 binary markers. We describe major changes in the topology of the parsimony tree and provide names for new and rearranged lineages within the tree following the rules presented by the Y Chromosome Consortium in 2002. Several changes in the tree topology have important implications for studies of human ancestry. We also present demography-independent age estimates for 11 of the major clades in the new Y chromosome tree.
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Austronesian is a linguistic family spread in most areas of the Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, and the Indian Ocean. Based on their linguistic similarity, this linguistic family included Malayo-Polynesians and Taiwan aborigines. The linguistic similarity also led to the controversial hypothesis that Taiwan is the homeland of all the Malayo-Polynesians, a hypothesis that has been debated by ethnologists, linguists, archaeologists, and geneticists. It is well accepted that the Eastern Austronesians (Micronesians and Polynesians) derived from the Western Austronesians (Island Southeast Asians and Taiwanese), and that the Daic populations on the mainland are supposed to be the headstream of all the Austronesian populations. In this report, we studied 20 SNPs and 7 STRs in the non-recombining region of the 1,509 Y chromosomes from 30 China Daic populations, 23 Indonesian and Vietnam Malayo-Polynesian populations, and 11 Taiwan aboriginal populations. These three groups show many resemblances in paternal lineages. Admixture analyses demonstrated that the Daic populations are hardly influenced by Han Chinese genetically, and that they make up the largest proportion of Indonesians. Most of the population samples contain a high frequency of haplogroup O1a-M119, which is nearly absent in other ethnic families. The STR network of haplogroup O1a* illustrated that Indonesian lineages did not derive from Taiwan aborigines as linguistic studies suggest, but from Daic populations. We show that, in contrast to the Taiwan homeland hypothesis, the Island Southeast Asians do not have a Taiwan origin based on their paternal lineages. Furthermore, we show that both Taiwan aborigines and Indonesians likely derived from the Daic populations based on their paternal lineages. These two populations seem to have evolved independently of each other. Our results indicate that a super-phylum, which includes Taiwan aborigines, Daic, and Malayo-Polynesians, is genetically educible.
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Asia harbors substantial cultural and linguistic diversity, but the geographic structure of genetic variation across the continent remains enigmatic. Here we report a large-scale survey of autosomal variation from a broad geographic sample of Asian human populations. Our results show that genetic ancestry is strongly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography. Most populations show relatedness within ethnic/linguistic groups, despite prevalent gene flow among populations. More than 90% of East Asian (EA) haplotypes could be found in either Southeast Asian (SEA) or Central-South Asian (CSA) populations and show clinal structure with haplotype diversity decreasing from south to north. Furthermore, 50% of EA haplotypes were found in SEA only and 5% were found in CSA only, indicating that SEA was a major geographic source of EA populations.
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Northwest China is closely adjacent to Central Asia, an intermediate region of the Eurasian continent. Moreover, the Silk Road through the northwest of China once had a vital role in the east-west intercommunications. Nevertheless, little has been known about the genetic makeup of populations in this region. We collected 503 male samples from 14 ethnic groups in the northwest of China, and surveyed 29 Y-chromosomal biallelic markers and 8 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci to reconstruct the paternal architecture. Our results illustrated obvious genetic difference among these ethnic groups, and in general their genetic background is more similar with Central Asians than with East Asians. The ancestors of present northwestern populations were the admixture of early East Asians peopling northwestward and later Central Asians immigrating eastward. This population mixture was dated to occur within the past 10 000 years. The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians. The influence from West Eurasia through gene flows on the extant ethnic groups in Northwest China was relatively weak.
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It should be possible to use Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms to trace paternal lineages for evolutionary and other studies, but progress in these areas has been slow because it has been difficult to find suitable markers. However, it is now possible to use selected, slowly evolving polymorphisms to draw a rudimentary Y chromosome tree, while more rapidly evolving polymorphisms allow most independent Y chromosomes to be distinguished. Different populations often have characteristically different Y chromosomes, and Y chromosome studies are soon likely to make a major contribution to our understanding of the origins of modern humans.
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Asia has served as a focal point for human migration during much of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene. Clarification of East Asia's role as a source and/or transit point for human dispersals requires that this region's own settlement history be understood. To this end, we examined variation at 52 polymorphic sites on the nonrecombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) in 1,383 unrelated males, representing 25 populations from southern East Asia (SEAS), northern East Asia (NEAS), and central Asia (CAS). The polymorphisms defined 45 global haplogroups, 28 of which were present in these three regions. Although heterozygosity levels were similar in all three regions, the average pairwise difference among haplogroups was noticeably smaller in SEAS. Multidimensional scaling analysis indicated a general separation of SEAS versus NEAS and CAS populations, and analysis of molecular variance produced very different values of Phi(ST) in NEAS and SEAS populations. In spatial autocorrelation analyses, the overall correlogram exhibited a clinal pattern; however, the NEAS populations showed evidence of both isolation by distance and ancient clines, whereas there was no evidence of structure in SEAS populations. Nested cladistic analysis demonstrated that population history events and ongoing demographic processes both contributed to the contrasting patterns of NRY variation in NEAS and SEAS. We conclude that the peopling of East Asia was more complex than earlier models had proposed-that is, a multilayered, multidirectional, and multidisciplinary framework is necessary. For instance, in addition to the previously recognized genetic and dental dispersal signals from SEAS to NEAS populations, CAS has made a significant contribution to the contemporary gene pool of NEAS, and the Sino-Tibetan expansion has left traces of a genetic trail from northern to southern China.
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To characterize the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in Han Chinese from several provinces of China, we have sequenced the two hypervariable segments of the control region and the segment spanning nucleotide positions 10171-10659 of the coding region, and we have identified a number of specific coding-region mutations by direct sequencing or restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism tests. This allows us to define new haplogroups (clades of the mtDNA phylogeny) and to dissect the Han mtDNA pool on a phylogenetic basis, which is a prerequisite for any fine-grained phylogeographic analysis, the interpretation of ancient mtDNA, or future complete mtDNA sequencing efforts. Some of the haplogroups under study differ considerably in frequencies across different provinces. The southernmost provinces show more pronounced contrasts in their regional Han mtDNA pools than the central and northern provinces. These and other features of the geographical distribution of the mtDNA haplogroups observed in the Han Chinese make an initial Paleolithic colonization from south to north plausible but would suggest subsequent migration events in China that mainly proceeded from north to south and east to west. Lumping together all regional Han mtDNA pools into one fictive general mtDNA pool or choosing one or two regional Han populations to represent all Han Chinese is inappropriate for prehistoric considerations as well as for forensic purposes or medical disease studies.
Article
Although considerable cultural impact on social hierarchy and language in South Asia is attributable to the arrival of nomadic Central Asian pastoralists, genetic data (mitochondrial and Y chromosomal) have yielded dramatically conflicting inferences on the genetic origins of tribes and castes of South Asia. We sought to resolve this conflict, using high-resolution data on 69 informative Y-chromosome binary markers and 10 microsatellite markers from a large set of geographically, socially, and linguistically representative ethnic groups of South Asia. We found that the influence of Central Asia on the pre-existing gene pool was minor. The ages of accumulated microsatellite variation in the majority of Indian haplogroups exceed 10,000-15,000 years, which attests to the antiquity of regional differentiation. Therefore, our data do not support models that invoke a pronounced recent genetic input from Central Asia to explain the observed genetic variation in South Asia. R1a1 and R2 haplogroups indicate demographic complexity that is inconsistent with a recent single history. Associated microsatellite analyses of the high-frequency R1a1 haplogroup chromosomes indicate independent recent histories of the Indus Valley and the peninsular Indian region. Our data are also more consistent with a peninsular origin of Dravidian speakers than a source with proximity to the Indus and with significant genetic input resulting from demic diffusion associated with agriculture. Our results underscore the importance of marker ascertainment for distinguishing phylogenetic terminal branches from basal nodes when attributing ancestral composition and temporality to either indigenous or exogenous sources. Our reappraisal indicates that pre-Holocene and Holocene-era--not Indo-European--expansions have shaped the distinctive South Asian Y-chromosome landscape.
Article
The human population has increased greatly in size in the last 100,000 years, but the initial stimuli to growth, the times when expansion started, and their variation between different parts of the world are poorly understood. We have investigated male demography in East Asia, applying a Bayesian full-likelihood analysis to data from 988 men representing 27 populations from China, Mongolia, Korea, and Japan typed with 45 binary and 16 STR markers from the Y chromosome. According to our analysis, the northern populations examined all started to expand in number between 34 (18-68) and 22 (12-39) thousand years ago (KYA), before the last glacial maximum at 21-18 KYA, while the southern populations all started to expand between 18 (6-47) and 12 (1-45) KYA, but then grew faster. We suggest that the northern populations expanded earlier because they could exploit the abundant megafauna of the "Mammoth Steppe," while the southern populations could increase in number only when a warmer and more stable climate led to more plentiful plant resources such as tubers.
Article
The Yakuts (also known as Sakha), Turkic-speaking cattle- and horse-breeders, inhabit a vast territory in Central and northeastern Siberia. On the basis of the archaeological, ethnographic and linguistic evidence, they are assumed to have migrated north from their original area of settlement in the vicinity of Lake Baykal in South Siberia under the pressure of the Mongol expansion during the thirteenth to fifteenth century AD: . During their initial migration and subsequent expansion, the ancestors of the Yakuts settled in the territory originally occupied by Tungusic- and Uralic-speaking reindeer-herders and hunters. In this paper we use mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses to elucidate whether the Yakut immigration and expansion was accompanied by admixture with the indigenous populations of their new area of settlement or whether the Yakuts displaced the original inhabitants without intermarriage. The mtDNA results show a very close affinity of the Yakuts with Central Asian and South Siberian groups, which confirms their southern origin. There is no conclusive evidence for admixture with indigenous populations, though a small amount cannot be excluded on the basis of the mtDNA data alone. The Y-chromosomal results confirm previous findings of a very strong bottleneck in the Yakuts, the age of which is in good accordance with the hypothesis that the Yakuts migrated north under Mongol pressure. Furthermore, the genetic results show that the Yakuts are a very homogenous population, notwithstanding their current spread over a very large territory. This confirms the historical accounts that they spread over their current area of settlement fairly recently.
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Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia
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Consortium HP-AS, Abdulla MA, Ahmed I, Assawamakin A, Bhak J, Brahmachari SK, Calacal GC, Chaurasia A, Chen CH, Chen J, Chen YT, Chu J, Cutiongco-de la Paz EM, De Ungria MC, Delfin FC, Edo J, Fuchareon S, Ghang H, Gojobori T, Han J, Ho SF, Hoh BP, Huang W, Inoko H, Jha P, Jinam TA, Jin L, Jung J, Kangwanpong D, Kampuansai J, Kennedy GC, Khurana P, Kim HL, Kim K, Kim S, Kim WY, Kimm K, Kimura R, Koike T, Kulawonganunchai S, Kumar V, Lai PS, Lee JY, Lee S, Liu ET, Majumder PP, Mandapati KK, Marzuki S, Mitchell W, Mukerji M, Naritomi K, Ngamphiw C, Niikawa N, Nishida N, Oh B, Oh S, Ohashi J, Oka A, Ong R, Padilla CD, Palittapongarnpim P, Perdigon HB, Phipps ME, Png E, Sakaki Y, Salvador JM, Sandraling Y, Scaria V, Seielstad M, Sidek MR, Sinha A, Srikummool M, Sudoyo H, Sugano S, Suryadi H, Suzuki Y, Tabbada KA, Tan A, Tokunaga K, Tongsima S, Villamor LP, Wang E, Wang Y, Wang H, Wu JY, Xiao H, Xu S, Yang JO, Shugart YY, Yoo HS, Yuan W, Zhao G, Zilfalil BA, Consortium IGV. 2009. Mapping human genetic diversity in Asia. Science 326(5959): 1541-1545.