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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to compare the entrepreneurial intentions of university students in North Africa (Algeria) with those of students in Canada and Europe (France and Belgium), and to examine differences with regard to psychological, sociocultural and economic factors influencing these intentions. Analyses on the sample as a whole confirm the relevancy of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen (1991). When we differentiate among cultural groups, results were fairly similar for Canadian and European students. However, no TPB elements were significant for the Algerian students, or more significant than the control variables. We discuss the need to consider cultural factors to explain entrepreneurial intentions. Moreover, given the socioeconomic climate in Algeria, we hypothesise that among Algerian university students, entrepreneurship is motivated by necessity rather than opportunity.
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... Economically, entrepreneurship is a pillar of public policies to boost entrepreneurial activity within them (Karimi et al., 2017;Schmutzler et al., 2019) and, socially, it contributes to reducing unemployment and poverty (Castaño et al., 2016;Maksimov et al., 2017). In Algeria, entrepreneurship is positioned by the public authorities as a strategic lever for national development to fight unemployment and informal work (Souidi and Ferfera, 2014;St-Jean et al., 2014). However, business creation is low with approximately 50,000 companies starting their operations annually (Amir and Bellache, 2018) in traditional sectors and in those that are not very innovative (Firlas, 2019). ...
... The objective of this research is to help overcome this deficiency in the literature by investigating the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of Algerian students. While this concept is widely used to measure entrepreneurship and business creation within a population or country (Kolvereid and Isaksen, 2006;Kautonen et al., 2011;Schlaegel and Koenig, 2014;Schmutzler et al., 2019), the knowledge of the factors influencing the EI of students in developing countries (Nabi and Liñán, 2013;Karimi et al., 2017) and, more specifically, in Algeria (St-Jean et al., 2014) remains poor. This is more pronounced in the availability of data on business creation by Algerian students, which is very scarce (Ben-Habib et al., 2014;Nafa et al., 2018). ...
... Schwarz et al. (2009) stated that among students, difficulties in accessing credit and a social status that places little value on entrepreneurship negatively affect EI. In Algeria, despite public financing devices, favorable tax systems, and support from different institutions set up by the government, few students launch their own businesses (Souidi and Ferfera, 2014;St-Jean et al., 2014). The Algerian entrepreneurial climate seemingly does not favor entrepreneurship and business ventures. ...
Article
This article studies the entrepreneurial intention of Algerian students to explain the weakness in business creation in the country. Theoretical and empirical evidence on this subject is scarce, particularly among young Algerians. By combining two dominant research trends in the field of entrepreneurship, namely an approach based on contextual factors, and one based on individual characteristics, we examined the impact of perceived entrepreneurial climate and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on Algerian students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Our study, contextualized in the student environment, aims to analyze how entrepreneurship education moderated the relationship between entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial intention. Based on a sample of 302 students, our survey yielded two important results. The first was the negative effect of perceived entrepreneurial climate on entrepreneurial intention. The second was that as a moderating factor, entrepreneurship education did not reinforce the significant direct influence of entrepreneurial self-efficacy on the intention to start a business among Algerian students. These insights may help improve the level of entrepreneurial intention within developing countries.
... This disparity may be due to the type of student analyzed, the scale of measurement of the PBC, or even the country context. Also, St-Jean et al. (2014) establish that neither the PBC nor the components of the TPB (SN, ATB) have an influence on the EI of Algerian students, but they do in the rest of the countries covered (Canada, France, and Belgium). Solesvik et al. (2012) uses the TPB and the SEE integrated model to explain a greater percentage of the variance in the EI than with original models, although the effect of the PBC is indirect through the PF. ...
... Regarding the third study (Yordanova and Tarrazon 2010), if the sample is divided by gender, the ATB no longer influences the sample of men and women, so women's EI would be influenced by SN and PBC and men's EI by PBC. Also, as we have mentioned before, St-Jean et al. (2014) found no influence of any of the constructs of the TPB (ATB, PBC, and SN), with the exception of the Algerian sample. Finally, there are two studies on the effect of ATB on EI (see Tables 2 and 3) that demonstrate its indirect effect through PD, and conclude that this mediating effect of PD is able to strengthen the explanation of EI (Esfandiar et al. 2017;Solesvik et al. 2012). ...
... Analyzing the past to prepare for the future: a review of... Bird (1988) have been used as well (Boyd and Vozikis 1994;Hadjimanolis 2016), but have not been as widely adopted as TPB and SEE (Bhaskar and Garimella 2017). Although, it should not be forgotten that TPB does not work the same in all economic contexts, as we saw in the case of Algeria (St-Jean et al. 2014) or in those contexts where entrepreneurship is more out of necessity than opportunity, as in Guangzhou (Bickenbach et al. 2017). We have therefore made some recommendations in "Conclusions, new lines of research and recommendations, implications, and limitations" section (Table 14). ...
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The purpose of this paper is to review existing literature and show the state of the art regarding the factors that influence the entrepreneurial intention (EI) of individuals. It provides a synthesis/integration of previous research on the topic as a framework to identify shortcomings, new lines of research, and practical insights. The analysis conducts a systematic review of 177 papers in the SCOPUS database from 1994 to 2017. The findings highlight three themes regarding the factors that influence EI: personal-level variables, entrepreneurship education (EE), and contextual factors and institutional variables. Within each of these themes, cognitive factors such as self-efficacy; personality and psychological variables such as propensity/adversity to risk; and socio-demographic variables such as age, gender, and human capital seem to exert an influence, in addition to personal motivations and/or deterrents. EE appears to have the greatest influence in most cases; at least it helps to develop greater self-efficacy or a more favorable attitude toward entrepreneurship, among others. Finally, with regard to contextual and institutional variables, cultural and social contexts seem to have a clear influence on EI, along with informal institutions through the normative dimension. Although there are many studies on the “factors that influence EI,” this study is the first attempt to make a qualitative presentation on the state of the art. It makes practical suggestions to encourage entrepreneurship in universities and in retired individuals. It also makes recommendations for improvement and suggests new lines of research such as the importance of linking these three categories of factors that influence EI, with the evaluation of an international entrepreneurship.
... Liñán and Fayolle (2015) Tegtmeier, 2006;. However, this extant body of knowledge is dominantly western, Anglo-Saxon, mainly De Jorge-Moreno, Castillo, & Triguero, 2012;Souitaris, Zerbinati, & Al-Laham, 2007;Tegtmeier, 2006;Tomski, 2014;Turker & Sonmez Selcuk, 2009;, and increasingly European Tounés, 2006;, and/or cross-cultural Engle, Schlaegel, & Dimitriadi, 2011;Laspita, Breugst, Heblich, & Patzelt, 2012;Linón, Nabi, & Krueger, 2013;St-Jean et al., 2014). Empirical studies from Asia have appeared in recent years, from China , Pakistan and India . ...
... St-Jean et al., 2014). Empirical studies from Asia have appeared in recent years, from China, Pakistan ...
Thesis
The research question of this thesis: “ What intrinsic and extrinsic determinants impact upon the decision (intent and agency) of business students in Vietnam to become entrepreneurs? ". This thesis includes three essays which apply a sequential mixed-methods approach. The structure of this thesis includes a loop of quantitative analysis for three essays and a loop of qualitative analysis for the last essay. The first essay consists of two parts: part I-A and part I-B. Part I-A essay investigates the entrepreneurial intention among business students in Vietnam by applying the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (Ajzen, 1991). Part I-B essay investigates the entrepreneurial intention among international business students in Vietnamese business context as the country becomes a member of The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) and now it is so-called the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP). The second essay investigates the impact of demographic factors, prior exposure to self-employment and family background on the entrepreneurial intention of Vietnamese business students. The third essay is a qualitative study of factors that influence entrepreneurial intentions among business students and small business owners. In summary, recommendations for entrepreneurial policy makers and entrepreneurial educators are discussed.
... Recent studies have examined both individual and organizational determinants of entrepreneurial intentions cross-culturally (Engle et al., 2011;Munir et al., 2019). Previous cross-culture studies primarily focused on entrepreneurship education and gender differences (de la Cruz S anchez-Escobedo et al., 2014;Nowi nski et al., 2017), differences based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) (García-Rodríguez et al., 2015;Kautonen et al., 2015;Koço glu and Hassan, 2013;Liñ an and Chen, 2009), TPB and cultural differences (St-Jean et al., 2014), entrepreneurial event model (EEM) and entrepreneurial personality (Ali et al., 2012;Wang et al., 2011), personality traits and TPB (Munir et al., 2019) and TPB, proactive personality and country's culture (Paul et al., 2017). These studies primarily focused on the direct influence of antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions and were widely based on intention-based models. ...
Article
Purpose Drawing on the entrepreneurial event model (EEM), entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs) and perceived contextual support (adapted from social cognitive career theory) and perceived contextual barriers, this study aims to unravel the differences in entrepreneurial activity among university students in higher education institutes in two diverse Asian countries. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a cross-sectional survey-based data collection technique using paper and electronic methods. The study analyzes data using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, reliability analysis and logistic regression analysis via SPSS version 25. Findings The findings show the positive influence of perceived desirability and feasibility on entrepreneurial intentions; however, the stronger desirability was found among university students in China and stronger feasibility toward entrepreneurial intentions among Pakistani students. The study reveals the negative significant influence of EEPs on entrepreneurial intentions, and this finding is consistent across both samples. Furthermore, the findings show that university students in both countries show insignificant impact of perceived contextual support in predicting entrepreneurial intentions. Finally, the study confirms the negative influence of perceived barriers on entrepreneurial intentions in both contexts. Originality/value This study provides differences in entrepreneurial activity by combing EEM, EEPs, perceived contextual support and barriers in two diverse Asian countries, and to the best of author’s knowledge, no previous study considered these factors in a single framework. Furthermore, the findings of the study enrich existing literature and also provide policy recommendations for practitioners.
... Contrary to what was proven in the Moroccan and Egyptian contexts, no effect of components that constitute planned behaviour theory were revealed among Algerian students. In other words, social norms have no impact on the entrepreneurial intention of Algerian students (St-Jean et al., 2014). Therefore, we may conclude that the effect of social norms varies in North African countries. ...
... This is not in line with the study of Iakovleva, Kolvereid, and Stephan (2011) who reported no significant differences between developed and developing countries regarding the variance of EI explained by the TPB. The results rather support Engle et al. (2010) and St-Jean et al. (2014) who found the explanatory power of the TPB and the importance of its components vary greatly across countries. Furthermore, obtained results are also consistent with the TPB; Ajzen (1991) suggests that the relative importance of the three TPB components (PBC, ATB, SN) differs across situations (Ajzen 2020; Kruse 2019). ...
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The demand for entrepreneurship to become more prevalent in societies worldwide highlights the need to better understand entrepreneurial intentions (EI). This is particularly important for African nations characterised by significant poverty and low income. Drawing on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) this paper explores potential predictors of these intentions in two countries that differ considerably in their economic situation and culture. It chiefly focuses on SEI as socially desired, yet still unex-plored phenomenon. The current study differentiates between social (SEI) and commercial (CEI) entrepreneurial intentions and explores their antecedents among university students in Namibia (n = 223) and Germany (n = 1326). The results suggest that TPB only poorly predicts SEI, particularly in Namibia. However, they support universally positive effect of perceived behavioural control on formation of CEI in both countries. This study contributes to emerging research into antecedents of SEI. It also highlights the need to test exploratory power of recognised theories such as TPB within different contexts and types of entrepreneurial activity.
... When it comes to external factors, it was argued that an unfavorable economic environment (such as in the majority of developing countries) may positively affect students to start their own business. More precisely, challenging business environments tend to motivate the youth to start their own business compared to developed countries (St-Jean et al., 2014). This is interesting as the European Union has significant support mechanisms for young entrepreneurs. ...
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Entrepreneurship plays an important role in economic development. Further, the concept of entrepreneurship has been argued as the important factor in overall economic growth. As youth unemployment rates are high both in developing and developed countries, improving the environment for entrepreneurial activities is a necessity as to increase youth entrepreneurship potential. In this paper, the results of ten-year research on youth entrepreneurship are reviewed. In this study 5670 participants-high school students, and university students from the Republic of Serbia, took part. Also, other literature sources were analyzed. The main goal of this paper was identify and determine the potential influence of students' attitudes regarding entrepreneurship and their intention to start a business. The paper analyzes the existing body of literature in order to provide a thoroughly investigated and concisely presented "image" in the domain of youth entrepreneurship. Hence, effectively provide a solid base for future research.
... Analyzing data from a wide variety of these economies, Bosma et al. (2016) showed that the average level of nascent SE activity is inversely related to the level of the economic stage. On a more individual basis, St-Jean et al. (2014) compared the suitability of the TPB components for predicting general entrepreneurial intention among Algerian, European, and Canadian university students and found remarkable differences that accord with the study by Bosma et al. (2016). Furthermore, Reynolds et al. (2002) suggest that the economic stage of a country has a significant impact on the degree to which people deliberately decide on an entrepreneurial career because they are attracted by, say, autonomy or whether they are being forced into it because of a lack of lucrative employment. ...
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Social entrepreneurship (SE) is acknowledged as a valuable tool for tackling social problems. Whereas SE intention (SEI) is considered an important prerequisite for founding a social enterprise , empirical research on SEI-antecedents lacks structure and quantitative integration. We use a newly developed framework featuring individual-, social-, and economic-level antecedents of SEI to summarize prior research on SEI in a meta-analysis (k = 21; N = 8697). Results show that our framework is empirically feasible , as significant effects of individual, social, and economic variables on SEI emerge. Furthermore, we find that the national economic stage, sample composition, and SEI-measurement act as moderators.
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