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Antiviral Effects of Lactococcus lactis on Feline Calicivirus, A Human Norovirus Surrogate



Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovirus (NV) and hepatitis virus type A, are a cause of concern for public health making it necessary to explore novel and effective techniques for prevention of foodborne viral contamination, especially in minimally processed and ready-to-eat foods. This study aimed to determine the antiviral activity of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of human NV. Bacterial growth medium filtrate (BGMF) of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and its bacterial cell suspension (BCS) were evaluated separately for their antiviral activity against FCV grown in Crandell–Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cells. No significant antiviral effect was seen when CRFK cells were pre-treated with either BGMF (raw or pH 7-adjusted BGMF) or BCS. However, pre-treatment of FCV with BGMF and BCS resulted in a reduction in virus titers of 1.3 log10 tissue culture infectious dose (TCID)50 and 1.8 log10 TCID50, respectively. The highest reductions in FCV infectivity were obtained when CRFK cells were co-treated with FCV and pH 7-adjusted BGMF or with FCV and BCS (7.5 log10 TCID50 and 6.0 log10 TCID50, respectively). These preliminary results are encouraging and indicate the need for continued studies on the role of probiotics and LAB on inactivation of viruses in various types of foods.
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Food and Environmental Virology
The Official Journal of the International
Society for Food and Environmental
ISSN 1867-0334
Volume 6
Number 4
Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282-289
DOI 10.1007/s12560-014-9164-2
Antiviral Effects of Lactococcus lactis on
Feline Calicivirus, A Human Norovirus
Hamada A.Aboubakr, Amr A.El-Banna,
Mohammed M.Youssef, Sobhy A.A.Al-
Sohaimy & Sagar M.Goyal
1 23
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Antiviral Effects of Lactococcus lactis on Feline Calicivirus,
A Human Norovirus Surrogate
Hamada A. Aboubakr Amr A. El-Banna
Mohammed M. Youssef Sobhy A. A. Al-Sohaimy
Sagar M. Goyal
Received: 20 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 August 2014 / Published online: 17 August 2014
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media New York 2014
Abstract Foodborne viruses, particularly human norovi-
rus (NV) and hepatitis virus type A, are a cause of concern
for public health making it necessary to explore novel and
effective techniques for prevention of foodborne viral
contamination, especially in minimally processed and
ready-to-eat foods. This study aimed to determine the
antiviral activity of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB)
against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate of human NV.
Bacterial growth medium filtrate (BGMF) of Lactococcus
lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 and its bacterial cell suspen-
sion (BCS) were evaluated separately for their antiviral
activity against FCV grown in Crandell–Reese feline kid-
ney (CRFK) cells. No significant antiviral effect was seen
when CRFK cells were pre-treated with either BGMF (raw
or pH 7-adjusted BGMF) or BCS. However, pre-treatment
of FCV with BGMF and BCS resulted in a reduction in
virus titers of 1.3 log
tissue culture infectious dose
and 1.8 log
, respectively. The highest
reductions in FCV infectivity were obtained when CRFK
cells were co-treated with FCV and pH 7-adjusted BGMF
or with FCV and BCS (7.5 log
and 6.0 log
, respectively). These preliminary results are
encouraging and indicate the need for continued studies on
the role of probiotics and LAB on inactivation of viruses in
various types of foods.
Keywords Norovirus Feline calicivirus Lactic acid
bacteria Probiotics Antiviral activity Lactococcus
lactis Foodborne viruses
Foodborne illnesses associated with contaminated food
continue to plague public health as well as world econo-
mies. The economic cost of foodborne illnesses is
approximately $152 billion in the US alone (Scharff 2010).
Enteric viruses, particularly human norovirus (NV) and
hepatitis virus type A, are the leading causes of viral
foodborne illnesses (Anonymous 2012; Koopmans and
Duizer 2004). Human NV, one of the top five highest-
ranking pathogens with respect to the total cost of food-
borne illness in the US, belongs to family Caliciviridae and
is a well-known cause of ‘‘winter-vomiting disease’’ or
‘stomach-flu’’ (ECDC 2013; Scharff 2012). The U.S.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) reported
that NV causes 19–21 million cases of acute gastroenteritis
annually in the US and leads to 1.7–1.9 million outpatient
visits, 400,000 emergency room visits, 56,000–71,000
hospitalizations, and 570–800 deaths, mostly among young
children. More than half of all foodborne disease outbreaks
H. A. Aboubakr S. M. Goyal (&)
Department of Veterinary Population Medicine, College of
Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner
Ave, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
H. A. Aboubakr S. M. Goyal
Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, College of Veterinary
Medicine, University of Minnesota, 1333 Gortner Ave, St. Paul,
MN 55108, USA
H. A. Aboubakr A. A. El-Banna M. M. Youssef
Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of
Agriculture, Alexandria University, Aflaton St., El-Shatby,
P.O. Box 21545, Alexandria, Egypt
S. A. A. Al-Sohaimy
Department of Food Biotechnology, Arid Land Cultivation and
Development Institute, City of Scientific Research and
Technology Applications, New Borg El Aarab,
Alexandria 21934, Egypt
Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289
DOI 10.1007/s12560-014-9164-2
Author's personal copy
due to a known cause reported to CDC from 2006 to 2010
was attributed to NV. In the European Union, caliciviruses
(primarily NV) were responsible for 507 of 675 foodborne
viral outbreaks (European Food Safety Authority 2009).
The minimal effect of most food processing methods on
the inactivation of foodborne viruses has been reviewed
(Baert et al. 2009; FAO/WHO 2008; Hirneisen et al. 2010).
In addition, recent experiments with NV in a variety of
foods revealed that freezing, cooling, and mild heat treat-
ment (minimal food processing) were not effective in sig-
nificantly reducing virus titers (Mormann et al. 2010).
Thus, development of novel, efficient and safe strategies
for controlling viral contamination of foods is of great
interest to food scientists and food producers. In this
regard, biopreservation (control of one organism by
another) has received much attention in the last decade
´et al. 2010).
Among natural biological antagonists, lactic acid bac-
teria (LAB), a part of the intestinal microflora, have been
widely used for the production of fermented foods. These
bacteria have a long history of use in foods and are known
to have beneficial health effects in humans. Many com-
pounds are produced during LAB fermentation some of
which have an antimicrobial activity. These compounds
include: hydrogen peroxide, organic acids, diacetyl,
hydroxyl fatty acids, proteinaceous compounds, and bac-
teriocins (Dalie
´et al. 2010). The antagonistic effects of
LAB against pathogenic bacteria e.g., Listeria monocyt-
ogenes,Staphylococcus aureus,Staphylococcus epidermi-
dis,Streptococcus sanguins,Proteus mirabilis, and
Yersinia spp. have been reported (Al Askari et al. 2012;
Cizeikiene et al. 2013; Dalie
´et al. 2010; Koo et al. 2012;
Schwenninger et al. 2011).
Recently, there has been an increased interest in using
LAB and other probiotic bacteria as viral inhibitors against
coronavirus (Maragkoudakis et al. 2010), herpes simplex
virus (Khani et al. 2012), human immunodeficiency virus
´n et al. 2010), influenza virus (Kobayashi et al. 2011;
Lee et al. 2013; Youn et al. 2012), rotavirus (RV; Mara-
gkoudakis et al. 2010), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV;
´et al. 2007). Lactococcus lactis (formerly, Strepto-
coccus lactis) is one of the most important LABs. It is a
Gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the produc-
tion of butter milk and cheese (Madigan et al. 2012). Other
uses include the production of pickled vegetables, beer or
wine, bread, and other fermented foodstuff, such as soy-
milk kefir. This organism has a homofermentative metab-
olism and produces L-(?)-lactic acid (Samarz
ˇija et al.
2001). It can also produce D-(-)-lactic acid when cultured
at low pH (A
˚kerberg et al. 1998). The capability to produce
lactic acid is one of the reasons why L. lactis is one of the
most important microorganisms in the dairy and food
industries and has achieved the GRAS (generally regarded
as safe) status (FDA 2012).The present study was under-
taken to determine the antiviral activity of L. lactis subsp.
lactis LM0230 against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate
of NV.
Materials and Methods
Bacterial Strain
Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 was kindly pro-
vided by Dr. Dan O’Sullivan, Professor of Food Microbi-
ology, Department of Food Science and Nutrition,
University of Minnesota. The strain was maintained at
-20 °C in De Man, Ragosa, and Sharp (MRS) broth
(Oxoid, Basingstoke, England) supplemented with 20 %
(v/v) glycerol as a cryoprotective agent.
Preparation of Bacterial Growth Medium Cell-Free
Filtrate (BGMF) and Bacterial Cell Suspension (BCS)
The bacterium was grown in 30 mL MRS broth for 24 h at
30 ±02 °C, under anaerobic conditions. The culture was
centrifuged at 2,0009gfor 15 min. The supernatant was
collected and divided into two portions. One portion (its
measured pH was 3.7) was filter-sterilized using 0.22 lm
PVDF membrane filters (Millex
.GV, Millipore, Bedford,
MA) and was labeled as ‘raw BGMF’. The second portion
was adjusted to pH 7.0 ±0.05 using 1 M sodium
hydroxide solution, filter-sterilized, and labeled as ‘pH-7
adjusted BGMF’. The BCS was prepared by washing the
pellet of bacteria obtained above twice with sterile peptone
phosphate water broth (PPWB; Fluka, Switzerland) to
remove excess MRS followed by centrifugation at
2,0009gfor 15 min. The washed pellet was re-suspended
in 10 mL of PPWB. The viable bacterial cell count was
determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the opti-
cal density (OD) at 620 nm against cell-free PPWB as a
blank. A standard curve was created by plotting ODs of
10-fold serial dilutions of a standard BCS versus mathe-
matically calculated colony forming units (CFUs)/mL of
each dilution. The CFU/mL of the standard BCS was
measured initially using the plate count technique on MRS
agar plates.
Cell Line and Growth
A Crandell–Reese feline kidney (CRFK) cell line was
obtained from Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Univer-
sity of Minnesota, USA. Cells were grown in Corning
cellgro minimum essential medium (MEM) with Earle’s
salts and L-glutamine (Mediatech, Inc., USA) supple-
mented with 8 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) and standard
Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289 283
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antibiotics at 37 °Cin5%CO
in tissue culture flasks until
confluent monolayer of cells is formed. The cell culture
was regularly passaged. To perform biological assays, the
cells were seeded in 96 well plates (5 910
cells/well) and
incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under 5 % CO
to reach the
Virus Propagation and Titration
FCV, strain 255, was used in the experiments. The virus
was propagated in CRFK monolayers. Flasks containing
CRFK cell monolayers were infected with FCV. When
cytopathic effect (CPE) was observed by inverted micro-
scope (24–48 h after infection and incubation at 37 °C) the
supernatant containing the virus was collected after freez-
ing and thawing three times followed by centrifugation at
3,0009gfor 15 min. Virus was stored at -80 °C until
used. For virus titration, the 50 % tissue culture infectious
dose (TCID
) method was used. In which, serial 10-fold
dilutions of samples were prepared in MEM containing
4 % FBS and inoculated in confluent CRFK monolayers
prepared in 96-well microtiter plates using three wells per
dilution. The cells were examined for the development of
CPE daily up to 5 days. The endpoint was taken as the
highest dilution of the virus which produced CPE in 50 %
of the inoculated cells. Viral titers were calculated by the
Karber formula (Karber1931) and were expressed as
/0.1 mL.
Cytotoxicity Assay
The minimum non-toxic dilutions (MNTDs) of each type
of BGMF were determined based on cellular morphologi-
cal alteration method described by Orhan et al. (2010).
Briefly, several dilutions of each BGMF prepared in MEM
were inoculated in monolayers of CRFK cells contained in
96-well microplates at 100 lL/well followed by incubation
for 48 h at 37 °C under 5 % CO
. Dilutions that were not
toxic to viable cells were labeled as non-toxic and were
also compared with non-treated cells (negative control) for
confirmation. The lowest non-toxic dilutions were chosen
as (MNTDs).
Antiviral Assays
The anti-FCV activity of L. lactis LM0230 and its
metabolites was assayed by three different methods. In
which, FCV titers of treated and non-treated virus or cells
(control) were calculated.
(i) Pre-treatment of cells with BGMF after discarding
its growth medium, the CRFK cell monolayers
were covered with 100 lL of non-toxic dilutions
(MNTDs) of the two different types of BGMF
(1:10 diluted and undiluted) from raw and pH
7-adjusted BGMF, respectively. After incubation
at 37 °Cin5%CO
incubator for various
incubation times (30 min, 90 min, and 24 h), the
monolayers were washed with MEM. Immedi-
ately, the washed monolayers were infected with
100 lL of FCV 10-fold serial dilutions.
(ii) Pre-treatment of cells with BCS, the CRFK
monolayers were incubated with 20, 50, and
100 lL of BCS (5.1 910
CFU/mL) for 30, 60,
and 90 min at 37 °Cina5%CO
After incubation the non-bound bacteria were
removed by washing two times with MEM
100 lL each. The monolayers were then infected
with FCV dilutions.
(iii) Pre-treatment of virus with BGMF, aliquots
(250 lL) of FCV suspension were mixed sepa-
rately with equal volumes of raw BGMF and pH
7-adjusted BGMF (both undiluted) in 1.5 mL
sterile Eppendorf tubes. After incubation at 37 °C
in 5 % CO
incubator for different times (30 min,
90 min, and 24 h), 10-fold serial dilutions were
prepared from each mixture followed by infection
of CRFK monolayers.
(iv) Pre-treatment of virus with BCS (virus adsorption
to bacterial cells), aliquots (250 lL) of FCV
suspension were separately mixed with equal
volumes of BCS containing different bacterial
cell counts (1 910
250 lL) in 1.5 mL sterile Eppendorf tubes. After
incubation at 37 °Cin5%CO
incubator for
different times (30 min, 90 min, and 24 h), the
mixtures were centrifuged at 12,0009gfor 3 min.
10-Fold serial dilutions of the supernatant were
prepared in MEM and 100 lL of each dilution
was used to infect the CRFK monolayers for
(v) Co-treatment of cells and virus with BGMF,
10-fold serial dilutions of FCV were prepared in
different solutions of raw BGMF and pH
7-adjusted BGMF as diluents followed by infec-
tion of CRFK monolayers. Three different dilu-
tions of raw BGMF and pH 7-adjusted BGMF
(1:10, 1:20, 1:30, and undiluted, 1:5, 1:10 v/v in
MEM medium) were used, respectively.
(vi) Co-treatment of CRFK cells with BCS and virus,
the CRFK monolayers were inoculated with 20,
50, and 100 lL of BCS (5.1 910
Immediately, the monolayers were infected with
serial 10-fold dilutions of FCV prepared in MEM.
After the fifth day of incubation, the wells were
washed two times with MEM 100 lL each, to
284 Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289
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remove the bacterial cells overlaying layers which
prevent observation of CPEs under microscope.
Cell control and bacterial-treated cell control
wells were done for discrimination between CPE
versus intact cells, and normal CPE versus bac-
terial-contaminated cells, respectively.
Statistical Analysis
Each titration was carried out in triplicate and each
experiment was triplicated. The results are the
mean ±standard deviation. The analysis of variance
(ANOVA) was generated by Ftest. The statistical analysis
was carried out using STATISTICA software, v. 10
(Statsoft, Inc., USA).
Cytotoxicity of BGMF–CRFK Cells
Raw BGMF exhibited toxicity to CRFK cells at 0 and 1:5
dilutions while higher dilutions exhibited no toxicity. On
the other hand, pH 7-adjusted BGMF did not show any
toxicity in diluted or undiluted forms.
Antiviral Activity of L. lactis LM0230
(i) Pre-treatment of cells with BGMF, the CRFK
cells were pre-treated with raw and pH 7-adjusted
BGMFs at their MNTDs (1:10 and 0 dilution,
respectively) for 30 min, 90 min or 24 h. As
shown in Fig. 1, there is no significant decrease
(PC0.01) in FCV titer after pre-treatment of
CRFK cells either with raw or pH 7-adjusted
BGMF. The time of pre-treatment also had no
significant effect (PC0.01).
(ii) Pre-treatment of cells with BCS, the CRFK cells
were pre-treated with various BCS volumes (20, 50,
and 100 lL) to examine the effect of number of
bacterial cells on the capability of CRFK cells to
support FCV replication. The cells were pre-treated
for 30, 60, or 90 min for each BCS volume. Except
for a little decrease in FCV titer (0.5 log
0.1 mL) with CRFK treated with 100 lL of BCS for
90 min, neither bacterial cell count nor the treat-
ment time had any significant effect on FCV titer
(P\0.01; data not shown).
(iii) Pre-treatment of FCV with BGMF, the pre-treat-
ment of FCV with raw BGMF for 30 min, 90 min,
and 24 h resulted in significant reductions
(P\0.01) in FCV titer by approximately 0.7,
1.0, and 1.3 log
/0.1 mL, respectively,
whereas pre-treatment with pH 7-adjusted BGMF
led to non-significant decreases (PC0.01) with
all pre-treatment times (Fig. 2).
(iv) Pre-treatment of FCV with BCS (virus adsorption
to bacterial cells), the pre-treatment of FCV with
BCS containing 1 910
CFU of L. lactis LM0230 resulted in
non-significant decreases (PC0.01) in FCV titers
at either 30 or 90 min (Fig. 3). However, virus
titers were significantly reduced (P\0.01) when
the virus was treated for 24 h with BCS containing
, and 3 910
CFU (approxi-
mately 1.2, 1.3, and 1.8 log
/0.1 mL
reductions, respectively).
Fig. 1 Effect of pre-treatment of CRFK cells with raw and
pH 7.0-adjusted BGMF on FCV titer. Pre-treatment times used were
30 min, 90 min, and 24 h. Data shown are an average of triplicate
experiments. Error bars represent standard deviations
Fig. 2 Effect of pre-treatment with raw and pH 7.0-adjusted BGMF
on FCV titer. Treatment times used were 30 min, 90 min, and 24 h.
Data are average of triplicate experiments. Error bars represent
standard deviations
Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289 285
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(v) Co-treatment of cells and virus with BGMF, co-
treatment of CRFK simultaneously with BGMFs
and FCV as virus infection led to significant
decreases in FCV titers (P\0.01; Fig. 4). The
highest decrease in virus titer (7.5 log
0.1 mL) was obtained by co-treatment with pH
7-adjusted BGMF at MNTD (0 dilution). There
were lower decreases in FCV titers with higher
dilutions of pH 7-adjusted BGMF (1.3 and 1.0
/0.1 mL with 1:5 and 1:10 dilutions).
Similar trend was seen with co-treatment with raw
BGMF. The highest decrease in FCV (P\0.01)
was attained with MNTD (1:10 dilution) of raw
BGMF followed by 1:20 dilutions to be 1.5, 1.3
/0.1 mL reduction, respectively. The
highest dilution (1:30) showed non-significant
decrease in the virus titer (0.3 log10 TCID
0.1 mL).
(vi) Co-treatment of cells with BCS and virus, the co-
treatment of CRFK monolayers with different
volumes (20, 50, and 100 lL) of BCS
(5.1 910
CFU/mL) during simultaneous FCV
infection resulted in significant decreases
(P\0.01) in FCV titer versus its titer with
control monolayers (without BCS). The highest
decrease in FCV titer (6.0 log
/0.1 mL)
was attained by treatment with 100 lL followed
by approximately 5.7 and 5.0 log
0.1 mL when CRFK monolayer was treated by
50 and 20 lL of BCS, respectively (Fig. 5). There
were no statistically significant differences
(PC0.01) between the decreasing values attrib-
uted to the three BCS volumes used.
To study the antiviral activity of LAB and probiotics, L.
lactis ssp. lactis LM0230 was chosen as a model because it
is a common LAB with probiotic properties (Heoa et al.
2013). The FCV was chosen as a surrogate of NV because
the former does not grow in vitro although several attempts
have been made to accomplish this task (Guix et al. 2007;
Malik et al. 2005; Straub et al. 2007). In addition, the FCV
has been used as a surrogate to evaluate the efficacy of
Fig. 3 Effect of pre-treatment with BCS on FCV titer. Different
bacterial cell counts (1 910
, and 3 910
CFU) and three
treatment times for each were used. Data are average from triplicate
experiments. Error bars represent standard deviations
Fig. 4 Effect of co-treatment of CRFK with FCV and raw or
pH 7.0-adjusted BGMF (three different dilutions of each). Data are
average from triplicate experiments. Error bars represent standard
Fig. 5 Effect of co-treatment of CRFK with FCV and different
volumes of BCS (20, 50, and 100 lL). Data are average from
triplicate experiments. Error bars represent standard deviations
286 Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289
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common preservation processes used in the food industry
(Baert et al. 2009; Butot et al. 2008). The FCV belongs to
the same Caliciviridae family as does human NV (Bidawid
et al. 2000; D’Souza et al. 2006).
To avoid interference of BGMF toxicity with viral
CPEs, preliminary cytotoxicity assays were done to
determine the MNTD of each type of BGMF. The cyto-
toxicity of raw BGMF at 0 and 1:5 dilutions may have been
due to their low pH (pH 3.7 and 5.0, respectively) since 0
dilution of pH 7-adjusted BGMF did not show any toxicity.
Pre-treatment of CRFK cells with BGMF or BCS had
non-significant decreases in FCV titer ranged from 0 to
68 % (less than one log
/0.1 mL). This result is in
agreement with an earlier report in which 68 and 60 % of
VSV infectivity was diminished when IPEC-J2 cells were
pre-treated with BGMF or BCS of certain LAB strains
´et al. 2007).
Significant time-dependent decrease in FCV titer was
obtained by pre-treatment of FCV with raw BGMF but not
with pH 7-adjusted BGMF. The main difference between
the two types of BGMF is the status of lactic acid excreted
in the growth medium by L. lactis. Lactic acid was neu-
tralized by sodium hydroxide in pH 7-adjusted BGMF.
Therefore, its effect was eliminated by transforming lactic
acid into its sodium salt (sodium lactate) at pH 7.0. This
explanation is supported by a similar study in which pre-
treatment of FCV with 0.3 % D,L-lactic acid solution (pH
3.4–3.5) at 20 °C led to 1.3 log
reduction in FCV titer
(Straube et al. 2011). The pH of undiluted raw BGMF in
our study was 3.7. We hypothesize that the viral capsid
proteins are denaturated due to the effects of acid pH on
non-enveloped viruses (Rodger et al. 1977; Straube et al.
2011), thus preventing viral attachment to its host cells.
Pre-treatment of FCV with BCS resulted in a decreased
virus titer after 24 h but not after 30 or 90 min. Similarly,
´et al. (2007) reported 70 % reduction in infectivity of
VSV after 24 h incubation with different LAB strains.
They attributed this reduction to the adsorption or binding
of the virus on the surface of LAB strains probably because
peptidoglycans in the cell walls of LAB trapped the virus
´et al. 2007). The cell wall of L. lactis is also known
to have a peptidoglycan structure consisting of A4a-type
peptidoglycan, with a monomer primary structure (Glc-
NAc-MurNAc-L-Ala-a-D-Glu-L-Lys-D-Ala) and a D-Asp in
the interpeptide bridge, attached to the a-amino group of
Lys (Courtin et al. 2006). Some Lactobacillus strains have
been shown to trap HIV virions by binding the mannose
sugar rich ‘‘dome’’ of their attachment glycoprotein gp 120
(Carlson et al. 2004; Chang et al. 2009). A similar mech-
anism may also have worked in the bacterium–virus
interaction system of the present study.
In co-treatment experiments, the FCV titers were
reduced by both types of BGMFs, but complete inhibition
of FCV infectivity was only attained when undiluted pH
7-adjusted BGMF was used (Fig. 4). We hypothesize that
the extracellular metabolites of L. lactis excreted in BGMF
might prevent the attachment of FCV to the cells affecting
its entrance into the cells. The observed antiviral activities
of pH 7-adjusted BGMF indicate that lactic acid may not
be the key factor in this action where it was transformed to
sodium lactate during pH adjustment of BGMF. It has been
reported previously that metabolites of L. lactis such as
bacteriocins (Akkoc¸ et al. 2011; Choi et al. 2000; Samar-
ˇija et al. 2001) and hydrogen peroxide (Grufferty and
Condon 1983; Samarz
ˇija et al. 2001; Van Niel et al. 2002)
may be responsible for such action. Antiviral activity of
bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like substances produced by
LAB, probiotics, and certain other bacteria has been
reported (Ermolenko et al. 2010; Saeed et al. 2007;
Todorov et al. 2005; Torres et al. 2013; Wachsman et al.
2003). Hydrogen peroxide is also a well-known antiviral
substance (Roberts and Antonoplos 1998). Antiviral
activity of probiotic bacteria against VSV has been attrib-
uted to their metabolites (Botic
´et al. 2007).
Co-infection of CRFK with FCV and BCS showed about
7.5 log
/0.1 mL (*100 %) reduction in FCV
infectivity (Fig. 4). In similar work, the infectivity of VSV
was decreased by 60 % when IPEC-J2 cells co-infected
with VSV and different LAB strains (Lactobacilli and
Bifidobacteria) and VSV (Botic
´et al. 2007). Our results are
also in agreement with Maragkoudakis et al. (2010) who
observed significant decreases in infectivity of transmissi-
ble gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) and RV when
hosting cells co-infected with the viruses in presence of
Lactobacillus sp. It was hypothesized that LAB cells
induced release of reactive oxygen species such as NO
and H
, which may be responsible for killing the studied
viruses (TGEV and RV; Maragkoudakis et al. 2010).
Competition between bacterial cells and FCV for attaching
to the functional receptors on the cells may also help elu-
cidate these results. It is also possible that LAB may
establish a ‘‘cross talk’’ (some sort of signaling) or alter the
state of the epithelial cells and macrophages, which leads
to an antiviral response as suggested by Botic
´et al. (2007).
Finally, four possible mechanisms of the anti-FCV
effect of L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 can be proposed.
First, the lower pH related to the excretion of lactic acid by
LAB may be responsible for denaturation of capsid pro-
teins of the virus preventing its attachment to host cells.
Second, the peptidoglycan structure of LAB may trap viral
particles. Third, production of different metabolites (such
as bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide) can prevent the
entrance of the virus into host cells thereby inhibiting its
replication. Finally, the competition between the bacterial
cells and the virus for attachment on host cells may be
occurred. In addition, the induction effect of the bacterium
Food Environ Virol (2014) 6:282–289 287
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for the host cells to produce reactive oxygen substances
might kill the virus.
In conclusion, this study reported for the first time, an
antiviral effect of L. lactis subsp. lactis LM0230 (as a dual
model of LAB and probiotics) against FCV as a human NV
surrogate. This indicates that LAB and probiotics-based
fermented food may hold a promise in preventing food-
borne viruses and that these bacteria hold promise as bio-
preservative agents in controlling the contamination of
foods with viruses. Although preliminary, the results pre-
sented here are of particular importance and merit further
investigation to understand deeply the mechanisms of LAB
and probiotics antiviral effect and to study its activity in
food models.
Acknowledgments Funding provided by the Cultural Affairs and
Mission Sector, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific
Research, Egypt is gratefully acknowledged.
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... Foodborne viruses, such as noroviruses (NVs) and the hepatitis-A virus, are major public-health concerns that necessitate development of new and efficacious methods to stop foodborne viral infections [137]. Aboubakr et al. determined the antiviral activity of probiotic LAB against feline calicivirus (an alternative to human NVs) [137]. ...
... Foodborne viruses, such as noroviruses (NVs) and the hepatitis-A virus, are major public-health concerns that necessitate development of new and efficacious methods to stop foodborne viral infections [137]. Aboubakr et al. determined the antiviral activity of probiotic LAB against feline calicivirus (an alternative to human NVs) [137]. They demonstrated that use of L. lactis subspecies lactis resulted in a reduction in virus titres. ...
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a recently discovered coronavirus termed ‘severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2′ (SARS-CoV-2). Several scholars have tested antiviral drugs and compounds to overcome COVID-19. ‘Kefir’ is a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt that is made from kefir grains. Kefir and its probiotic contents can modulate the immune system to suppress infections from viruses (e.g., Zika, hepatitis C, influenza, rotaviruses). The antiviral mechanisms of kefir involve enhancement of macrophage production, increasing phagocytosis, boosting production of cluster of differentiation-positive (CD4⁺), CD8⁺, immunoglobulin (Ig)G⁺ and IgA⁺ B cells, T cells, neutrophils, as well as cytokines (e.g., interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, interferon gamma-γ). Kefir can act as an anti-inflammatory agent by reducing expression of IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, and interferon-γ. Hence, kefir might be a significant inhibitor of the ‘cytokine storm’ that contributes to COVID-19. Here, we review several studies with a particular emphasis on the effect of kefir consumption and their microbial composition against viral infection, as well as discussing the further development of kefir as a protective supplementary dietary against SARS-CoV-2 infection via modulating the immune response.
... Indeed, numerous antiviral therapies have been developed against norovirus based on the effects of chemical compounds, such as food and plant extracts, against these surrogate viruses. These therapies may offer promising solutions for human norovirus infections (14,(24)(25)(26). ...
... For instance, clinical trials have demonstrated that certain probiotic strains can reduce the severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis and respiratory virus infections (33,34). Moreover, several studies have confirmed the antiviral effects of certain LAB strains against norovirus, indicating that probiotics could prevent and treat norovirus infections (25,26). ...
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Although noroviruses are the causative agents of most non-bacterial foodborne disease outbreaks, effective antivirals are currently unavailable. Certain probiotic strains have been reported as active antivirals for norovirus infections, but their mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we examined the antiviral potential of 122 lactic acid bacteria isolates against murine norovirus (MNV), a human norovirus surrogate. A centenarian gut-derived strain, Limosilactobacillus fermentum PV22, exhibited the strongest MNV antagonism and reduced the viral titer by 2.23 ± 0.38 (log-value) in 5 min with stable activity at 25°C (P < 0.01). Genome mining revealed that its antiviral activity can be attributed to the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid, and this finding was experimentally verified. Furthermore, we demonstrated the safety of the isolate and its high intestinal colonization ability. In conclusion, we discovered a centenarian gut-derived L. fermentum strain with strong anti-norovirus activity and identified its antiviral metabolite. Our results will offer new solutions for the prevention and treatment of food-related norovirus infections.
... This points to a possible antagonistic relationship between lactobacilli and these viruses. Aboubakr et al. (2014) have also reported upon the antiviral activity of probiotic LAB against feline calicivirus (Aboubakr et al., 2014) and Stoeker et al. (2013) observed improved intestinal homeostasis in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus following oral administration of L. acidophilus (Stoeker et al., 2013). These findings all support the antiviral activity of probiotics in cats. ...
... This points to a possible antagonistic relationship between lactobacilli and these viruses. Aboubakr et al. (2014) have also reported upon the antiviral activity of probiotic LAB against feline calicivirus (Aboubakr et al., 2014) and Stoeker et al. (2013) observed improved intestinal homeostasis in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus following oral administration of L. acidophilus (Stoeker et al., 2013). These findings all support the antiviral activity of probiotics in cats. ...
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Our world is now facing a multitude of novel infectious diseases. Bacterial infections are treated with antibiotics, albeit with increasing difficulty as many of the more common causes of infection have now developed broad spectrum antimicrobial resistance. However, there is now an even greater challenge from both old and new viruses capable of causing respiratory, enteric, and urogenital infections. Reports of viruses resistant to frontline therapeutic drugs are steadily increasing and there is an urgent need to develop novel antiviral agents. Although this all makes sense, it seems rather strange that relatively little attention has been given to the antiviral capabilities of probiotics. Over the years, beneficial strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been successfully used to treat gastrointestinal, oral, and vaginal infections, and some can also effect a reduction in serum cholesterol levels. Some probiotics prevent gastrointestinal dysbiosis and, by doing so, reduce the risk of developing secondary infections. Other probiotics exhibit anti-tumor and immunomodulating properties, and in some studies, antiviral activities have been reported for probiotic bacteria and/or their metabolites. Unfortunately, the mechanistic basis of the observed beneficial effects of probiotics in countering viral infections is sometimes unclear. Interestingly, in COVID-19 patients, a clear decrease has been observed in cell numbers of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium spp., both of which are common sources of intestinal probiotics. The present review, specifically motivated by the need to implement effective new counters to SARS-CoV-2, focusses attention on viruses capable of co-infecting humans and other animals and specifically explores the potential of probiotic bacteria and their metabolites to intervene with the process of virus infection. The goal is to help to provide a more informed background for the planning of future probiotic-based antiviral research.
... Twenty-two viruses were used in this study (Table 1). We used three serotype FMD viruses-A, O, and Asia1-as well as bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) and FCV were used as surrogates for FMDV and human norovirus, respectively [16][17][18]. The experiments using the three FMDV serotypes were conducted in the Department of Biochemistry and Immunology, National Institute of Veterinary Research, Hanoi, Vietnam. ...
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We investigated the virucidal effects in solution of a new type of disinfectant, calcium bicarbonate mesoscopic crystals, designated CAC-717, against various types of virus. CAC-717 in solution is alkaline (pH 12.4) and has a self-electromotive force that generates pulsed electrical fields. Upon application to human skin, the pH of the solution becomes 8.4. CAC-717 contains no harmful chemicals and is thus non-irritating and harmless to humans and animals. Its virucidal effects were tested against six types of animal virus: enveloped double-strand (ds)-DNA viruses, non-enveloped ds-DNA viruses, non-enveloped single strand (ss)-DNA viruses, enveloped ss-RNA viruses, non-enveloped ss-RNA viruses, and non-enveloped ds-RNA viruses. The treatment resulted in a reduction in viral titer of at least 3.00 log10 to 6.38 log10. Fetal bovine serum was added as a representative organic substance. When its concentration was ≥20%, the virucidal effect of CAC-717 was reduced. Real-time PCR revealed that CAC-717 did not reduce the quantity of genomic DNA of most of the DNA viruses, but it greatly reduced that of the genomic RNA of most of the RNA viruses. CAC-717 may therefore be a useful biosafe disinfectant for use against a broad range of viruses.
... In a study conducted by Lange-Starke et al. [69] to assess the inhibitory potential of LAB on human norovirus surrogates, the cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus curvatus strain caused a 1.25 log units higher titer reduction of murine norovirus S99 (MNV) compared to the control at raw sausage corresponding pH values of 5.0 to 6.2 in vitro. Similarly, Aboubakr et al., [70] demonstrated that a culture filtrate of Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis LM0230 significantly inhibited the human norovirus surrogate. ...
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive and catalase-negative microorganisms used to produce fermented foods. They appear morphologically as cocci or rods and they do not form spores. LAB used in food fermentation are from the Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium genera and are useful in controlling spoilage and pathogenic microbes, due to the bacteriocins and acids that they produce. Consequently, LAB and their bacteriocins have emerged as viable alternatives to chemical food preservatives, curtesy of their qualified presumption of safety (QPS) status. There is growing interest regarding updated literature on the applications of LAB and their products in food safety, inhibition of the proliferation of food spoilage microbes and foodborne pathogens, and the mitigation of viral infections associated with food, as well as in the development of creative food packaging materials. Therefore, this review explores empirical studies, documenting applications and the extent to which LAB isolates and their bacteriocins have been used in the food industry against food spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens including viruses; as well as to highlight the prospects of their numerous novel applications as components of hurdle technology to provide safe and quality food products.
... When the kidney cells are co-treated with feline calicivirus and either CBMF (adjusted to pH 7) or BCS, the antiviral activity was increased significantly. There was no cytotoxicity in the cells (uninfected with virus) treated with higher dilutions of CBMF, and with both undiluted and diluted BCS [27]. ...
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A rich repertoire of research studies on probiotics has been documented as one of the therapeutic agents or adjuvants for vaccines in treating viral infections. It is well known that the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics reduce the severity of viral infections. The efficacy of probiotics alone and combined boost up the host’s innate immunity, thereby developing a robust antiviral paradigm. As dietary and therapeutic measures, probiotics potentially work as an alternative for those who lack access to vaccines or antiviral drugs. Potential probiotic mechanisms include competing with pathogens for nutrients and colonization sites, producing antimicrobial metabolites and enhancing protective immune responses. The live probiotics can reach and colonize the host animals’ intestines then confer the health benefits by improving the host’s natural defence against viral infections. The research studies on probiotics suggest that they reduce the risk of viral infections, yet the innermost mechanisms are still unknown. The reason for scripting this review is to discuss the current developments in probiotic therapeutic measures and their probable insights into antiviral agents.
... Interest in norovirus therapeutics that use probiotics or recombinant probiotics from the Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera has been increasing (Aboubakr et al. 2014;Hoang et al. 2015). ...
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To develop new antiviral probiotics, bacteria were isolated from the microbiome in a murine intestine. In 16S rDNA sequence analysis, most isolates were identified as Lactobacillus johnsonii . These isolates were further assessed using whole-genome sequencing through the Illumina and PacBio platform, which revealed that the isolates were new strains. A novel probiotic strain, Lactobacillus johnsonii Byun-jo-01, was evaluated to determine its probiotic characteristics of safety, immune modulation, and antiviral efficacy against murine norovirus. Oral administration of L. johnsonii Byun-jo-01 was demonstrated to be safe in mice in terms of body weight, food intake, and bacterial translocation. Additionally, the expression levels of IFN-beta and IFN-gamma induced by L. johnsonii Byun-jo-01 in the small intestines of mice were higher than those in mice fed L. paracasei ATCC 334 and L. reuteri KACC 11452. Among the three different bacterial strains used in this study, L. johnsonii Byun-jo-01 showed the highest antiviral efficacy against murine norovirus, reducing the viral titer in fecal samples by 28 times compared with mice infected with murine norovirus. To support those in vivo experiments, genome-based data mining was performed to investigate which genes related to probiotic-specific markers were highly expressed in this isolate. Specifically, DnaK, GroEL, GroES, and GrpE, which are involved in the acid adaptation required to overcome the harsh in vivo condition, were highly expressed. Taken together, these results suggest that host-originated probiotics can be more effective than bacteria isolated from other sources, such as fermented food.
... The antiviral mechanism of action of fermented food is still mainly unknown but can be attributed to high acidity production (Lee et al. 2012). Also, according to Aboubakr et al. (2014), Lactococcus lactis, a lactic bacteria used in fermentation, possesses an anti-FCV mechanism of action that could be attributed to 1) denaturation of capsid proteins due to acidity, 2) trapping viral particles by the membrane peptidoglycans of lactic acid bacteria, 3) production of metabolites that may disturb viral penetration in cells and 4) competition between bacteria and virus for cell attachment. Fermentation has been shown to be highly effective against NoV on the surface of foods but do not keep the product entirely fresh (Adams and Nicolaides 1997;Lee et al. 2017). ...
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Fresh foods like fruits, vegetables and shellfish are potential sources for viral infections such as human norovirus (NoV). Chemical treatment like chlorination is a well-known process for food pathogens and virus elimination. However, with the increase of the consumer demand for less toxic treatment, the use of natural antimicrobials like essential oils from spice or plants, fruit extracts, and cold pasteurization treatments (fermentation, irradiation, ozonation and high pressure) could be considered. The aim of this review is to discuss these technologies and their efficacy to eliminate NoV on the surface of fresh food.
Noroviruses encounter numerous and diverse bacterial populations in the host and environment, but the impact of bacteria on norovirus transmission, infection, detection, and inactivation are not well understood. Tulane virus (TV), a human norovirus surrogate, was exposed to viable bacteria, bacterial metabolic products, and bacterial cell constituents and was evaluated for impact on viral recovery, propagation, and inactivation resistance, respectively. TV was incubated with common soil, intestinal, skin, and phyllosphere bacteria, and unbound viruses were recovered by centrifugation and filtration. TV recovery from various bacterial suspensions was not impeded, which suggests a lack of direct, stable binding between viruses and bacteria. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of Bifidobacterium bifidum 35914, a bacterium that produces glycan-modifying enzymes, was evaluated for effect on the propagation of TV in LLC-MK2 cells. CFS did not limit TV propagation relative to TV absent of CFS. The impact of Escherichia coli O111:B4 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Bacillus subtilis peptidoglycan (PEP) on TV thermal and chlorine inactivation resistance was evaluated. PEP increased TV thermal and chlorine inactivation resistance compared with control TV in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). TV suspended in PBS and LPS was reduced by more than 3.7 log at 60°C, whereas in PEP, TV reduction was approximately 2 log. Chlorine treatment (200 ppm) rendered TV undetectable (>3-log reduction) in PBS and LPS; however, TV was still detected in PEP, reduced by 2.9 log. Virus inactivation studies and food processing practices should account for potential impact of bacteria on viral resistance.
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BACKGROUND: Due to the emergence of drug resistance in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), researchers are trying to find other methods for treating herpes simplex virus type 1 infections. Probiotic bacteria are effective in macrophage activation and may have antiviral activities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at verifying the direct effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, a probiotic bacterium, in comparison with Escherichia coli, a non-probiotic one, on HSV-1 infection, and determining its effect on macrophage activation for in vitro elimination of HSV-1 infection. METHODS: The above bacteria were introduced into HSV-1 infected Vero cells, and their effects were examined using both MTT and plaque assay. To determine macrophage activation against in vitro HSV-1 infection, J774 cells were exposed to these bacteria; then, macrophage viability was examined with the MTT method, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), and nitric oxide (NO) assessments were performed using the ELISA method. RESULTS: A significant increased viability of macrophages was observed (p < 0.05) in the presence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus before and after HSV-1 infection when compared with Escherichia coli as a non-probiotic bacterium. However, tumor necrosis factor α concentration produced by Escherichia coli-treated J774 cells was significantly higher than Lactobacillus rhamnosus-treated J774 cells (p < 0.05). interferon-gamma and NO production were not different in the groups treated with Escherichia coli or with Lactobacillus rhamnosus. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that Lactobacillus rhamnosus enhances macrophage viability for HSV-1 elimination and activation against HSV-1 more effectively, when compared with non-probiotic Escherichia coli. it also seems that receptor occupation of macrophage sites decreases HSV-1 infectivity by both of the studied bacteria.
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The evaluation of antimicrobial activities of Lactobacillus sakei KTU05-6, Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7, Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8, KTU05-9 and KTU05-10 strains producing organic acids and bacteriocins like inhibitory substances (BLIS) against undesirable microorganisms in the food industry, were performed using an agar well diffusion assay method. The metabolites of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria, belonging to Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Listeria and Escherichia genera in various degrees. The organic acids and BLIS of LAB show fungicidal and fungistatic activities against fungi and yeast such as Fusarium culmorum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida parapsilosis. 20% of P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 sourdough in a bread recipe suppressed the bread ropiness in artificially contaminated bread by Bacillus subtilis spores, until 6 days storage at 23 °C. Moreover P. acidilactici KTU05-7, P. pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-10 single cell suspension sprayed on the bread surface, inhibited growing of fungi until 8 days of storage in polythene bags. The presence of BLIS and organic acids by tested LAB is an indication that these bacteria can be used widely in the food industry as bio-preservatives due to their broad inhibition spectrum.
Staphylococcus aureus AB188 has been found to produce bacteriocins or/and bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) tentatively termed as staphylococcin 188. The staphylococcin 188 was purified to homogeneity by 80% ammonium sulfate precipitation and conventional size exclusion gel chromatography using Sephadex G-75 column equilibrated and eluted with 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.0. This separation profile resulted in two major and well separated peaks designated as peak I and peak II. Bacteriocin activity was trailed in peak II with minor activity in peak I. Staphylococcin 188 had an estimated molecular weight of 4 kDa as indicated by activity detection after SDS-PAGE. The in vivo anti-viral studies of purified staphylococcin 188 against animal viruses were performed by chick embryo technique using New Castle Disease Virus (NCDV). Accordingly, the ELD 50 (50% egg lethal dose) in case of virus injected system was found to be 10 -9 while in the presence of staphylococcin 188; the ELD 50 of virus dropped to 10 -4. The in vitro anti viral studies of purified staphylococcin 188 against polio virus (propagated on Human Rhabdosarcoma cells (RD) and L20B cell lines (Mouse L cells cloned by human poliovirus receptors) were performed by serial tube dilution and 96 well plate method. Staphylococcin 188 did not show anti-viral activity against this single stranded Picorna (polio) virus.
Contaminated foods play an important role in the transmission of human pathogenic Noroviruses. This study examines the influences of the physico-chemical processes on the inactivation and survival capability of human Norovirus (GGII) in selected foods. Artificially contaminated food was subjected to processes (e.g. heating, cooling, freezing), which are applied in food production technology for preservation and by consumers for preparation and storage. The inactivation rate was established by comparing the number of Norovirus in untreated and treated food samples ("before" and "after" the process). A method based on ultrafiltration was used to extract the virus from the food and this was validated via an internal process control (Phage MS2). The Norovirus was detected using real-time Reverse Transcriptase (RT)-PCR with a TaqMan probe. It was quantified with the aid of an external standard curve based on a recombinant RNA standard. In order to detect only intact virus particles, the free RNA in the samples was removed by adding RNase that was subsequently deactivated by adding RNase inhibitors. Significant titre reductions were ascertained above all as a result of heat treatments. Cooling, freezing, acidifying and moderate heat treatments (pasteurising) led to no or very slight Norovirus reduction. In addition to the results on the persistence of human Norovirus in various foods, comprehensive data on matrix-specific, protective effects, recovery rates and inhibitory influences on the real time RT-PCR were gathered within the context of the study.
Foodborne fungi, i.e. yeasts and moulds, cause serious spoilage of stored food leading to enormous economic losses. Moulds can also produce mycotoxins that are associated with several acute and chronic diseases in humans. Although many bacteriocin-producing cultures have been described and proposed as biopreservatives in the past few years, research carried out with fungus suppressors concerning their role in food spoilage is still very limited. We discuss here the potential of antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB), propionic acid bacteria (PAB), and combinations thereof in food biopreservation highlighting recent achievements in the study of antifungal metabolites and further inhibitory mechanisms.
Foodborne illness is a serious public-health problem in the United States. In 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that approximately 76 million new cases of food-related illness (resulting in 5,000 deaths and 325,000 hospitalizations) occur in the United States each year [1]. More recent data on sporadic illnesses and outbreaks suggests that this problem is not going away [2, 3]. At the same time, the aggregate economic cost of health losses associated with foodborne illnesses has not been sufficiently examined. The few studies that provide cost estimates are incomplete and/or based on limiting assumptions [4]. For example, most cost estimates include only a few, if any, of the
The objective of this study was enumeration, identification of lactic acid bacteria LAB from dried fruits and testing their antibacterial activity against different types of bacteria. Dilution method and cultivation in selective media was used for enumeration LAB, the isolates were identified by their physiological and biochemical characteristics and their antibacterial activity was performed by the agar well diffusion method. The results showed that thirty-seven isolates of LAB were isolated from tested samples, The isolates belonged to Lactococcus lactis subsp lactis (8), Lactococcus raffinolactis (6), Streptococcus thermophilus (6), Pediococcus acidilactici (3), Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (2), Lactobacillus helveticus (3), Lactobacillus plantarum(4), Lactobacillus alimentarius (1), Lactobacillus brevis (2) and Lactobacillus fermentum(2).The results of antibacterial activity showed that seven CFSs of LAB had antibacterial activity against at least four strains tested. Lactobacillus fermentum had the best activity, they inhibited eight strains from sixteen tested strains, such as Streptococcus spp, Streptococcus sanguins, Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus aures, Proteus mirabilis, Hafnia alveie and Yersinia spp. In general, CFSs wewre active against the Gram positive more than Gram negative strains. MICs values were between 25 -100 AU/ml.
We investigated the effects of a potential probiotic strain Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I2 on the immune response and growth of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), and their capacity to prevent streptococcosis after Streptococcus iniae challenge. The L. lactis subsp. lactis I2 strain, isolated from olive flounder intestine, was supplemented orally as a feed additive (~ 108 CFU g− 1) to fish for 5 weeks. Compared with the untreated group, the rate of growth was increased in the I2-diet group. The administration of I2 to olive flounder enhanced non-specific immune parameters, such as lysozyme, antiprotease, serum peroxidase and blood respiratory burst activities. At 9 days after challenge with S. iniae (108 CFU), the untreated control group experienced a 90% mortality rate, whereas all of the I2-cell-supplemented fish survived. These results show that L. lactis subsp. lactis I2 exerted beneficial effects as a probiotic and has potential as an alternative to antibiotics for the prevention of streptococcosis in aquaculture.