Conference Paper

THEEM: Threshold-sensitive Energy Efficient Multi-hop Routing Protocol for WSNs

Authors:
  • The University of Oklahoma Tulsa OK USA
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Abstract

Randomly deployed nodes in wireless sensor net-work (WSN) have limited energy so their energy should be efficiently utilized. Early death of nodes is the major problem in WSN as it causes uneven load distribution. Compared with dynamic clustering schemes, multi hop communication in static clustering improves the stability region. It also provides better coverage and reduces energy hole problem. But, as the life of network proceeds, premature death of data forwarding nodes reduces stability region and prolongs unstable region. To address this we proposed THEEM, a hybrid approach which brings threshold sensitivity with static clustering multi hop routing protocol. Additionally data forwarding nodes are provided with extra energy but it is compensated from other nodes. We included random uniform packet drop model to include the effect of the wireless medium. Results show that our strategy improves stable region and network lifetime and minimizes energy hole problem. I. INTRODUCTION Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a category of wireless networks in which nodes are spatially distributed in a geo-graphical area. These nodes sense the environmental attributes and send the sensed data to Base Station (BS). Nodes consist of sensing unit, processor, transceiver and small battery. It is impractical to replace or recharge batteries of all deployed nodes [1]. Nodes may transmit data in coordinating fashion either using intermediate nodes or hierarchical fashion to BS. In hierarchical scheme Cluster Heads (CHs) are elected as intermediate nodes. CHs are the nodes performing extra duties of data collection and forwarding. WSNs are categorized on the bases of different parameters. In terms of energy, WSNs can be divided into homogeneous or heterogeneous networks. In former networks all nodes have same initial energy while in later nodes can have different energy. In terms of sensing and transmitting the data these networks are classified into two following two types:

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