Conference Paper

Co-CEStat: Cooperative Critical Data Transmission in Emergency in Static Wireless Body Area Network

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Abstract

Cooperative routing is a promising technique which exploits the broadcast nature of wireless medium to enhance network performance. Sensor nodes simultaneously transmit their data on different links and utilize cooperation between nodes. In this paper, a new protocol, Co-CEStat; Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static Wireless Body Area Networks, is proposed. The protocol utilizes the merits of both direct and cooperative transmission to achieve higher stability period and end-to-end throughput with greater network lifetime. Simulations are conducted in MATLAB to compare the Co-CEStat's performance with that of three other contemporary non-cooperative routing protocols.

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... Initially it was developed for serious patients by providing health-care services. By achieving the required development in health-care services WBASN has been used in other fields i.e., distant and continuous health-care real monitoring is necessary like astronaut in space, players in sports, environmental condition, motion detection of animals, security etc. [2], [3]. Sensors which are small in size have minimum processing capability and energy source in WBAN. ...
... In [2], a cooperative routing mechanism was introduced that broadcasting the nature of wireless medium for enhancing network performance. Data transmitted simultaneously of sensor nodes on efficient links and utilized cooperation between nodes. ...
Article
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Design of routing protocols has seen remarkable advancement in the field of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs).These protocols work to enhance the performance of WBAN by focusing on routing, energy efficiency and end-to-end delay. As these protocols can be categorized in a variety of ways according to the mechanisms and functionalities they follow, hence it becomes important to understand their principal of operations. In this research, we have selected some recent routing protocols in the field of WBAN and presented a comparative analysis according to the categories on which they rely. Also a detail analysis of their key advantages and flaws are also identified in this research.
... Yousaf et al. propose in [223] Co-CEStat a cooperative routing protocol. For each sensed data, nodes compare this information to a threshold in order to decide whether the data is critical and has to be sent directly to Sink node or it has to be stored until a variation is observed. ...
... However, since paths are already computed, these proposals are not resilient to the human body mobility. Indeed, WBAN proposals, such as EDSR [145] or Co-CEStat [223], do not take into account the instantaneous mobility of the human-body: during message transmission over the path already computed, disconnections can happen causing failures. In addition, most of the protocols tries to satisfy a specific requirement and not all QoS requirements (energy efficiency, throughput, delay, etc). ...
Thesis
The rapid advances in sensors and ultra-low power wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). In WBAN, tiny devices, deployed in/on or around human body, are able to detect and collect the physiological phenomena of the human body (such as: temperature, blood pressure, ECG, SpO2, etc.), and transmit this information to a collector point (i.e Sink) that will process it, take decisions, alert and reply. WBAN is a recent challenging area. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delay efficient protocols that support nodes dynamic induced by human body mobility. Links have a very short range and a quality that varies with the wearer’s posture. The transmission power is kept low to improve devices autonomy and to reduce wearers electromagnetic exposition. Consequently, the effect of body absorption, reflections and interference cannot be neglected and it is difficult to maintain a direct link (one-hop) between the Sink and all WBAN nodes. Thus, multi-hop communication represents a viable alternative. In this work we investigate energy-efficient multi-hop communication protocols in WBAN. We are interested in WBAN where sensors are placed on the body. We focus on two communication primitives: broadcast and converge-cast. We analyze several strategies inspired from the area of DTN and WSN. These investigations open new and challenging research directions to design novel protocols for multi-hop communication including a cross-layer approach.
... To study the effects of three-stage incremental cooperation, we design the EInCo-CEStat protocol and compare its results to InCo-CEStat [7] and Co-CEStat [8]. The conventional cooperation is used in Co-CEStat in which the same data are forwarded by both relays. ...
... Whereas, in InCo-CEStat, incremental cooperation is used in which data are forwarded incrementally by relay nodes. However, both schemes in [7,8] utilize two relays for a single source node. EE, PER, throughput and the stability period for all three protocols are observed. ...
Article
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In this study,we analyse incremental cooperative communication for wireless body area networks (WBANs) with different numbers of relays. Energy efficiency (EE) and the packet error rate (PER) are investigated for different schemes. We propose a new cooperative communication scheme with three-stage relaying and compare it to existing schemes. Our proposed scheme provides reliable communication with less PER at the cost of surplus energy consumption. Analytical expressions for the EE of the proposed three-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived, taking into account the effect of PER. Later on, the proposed three-stage incremental cooperation is implemented in a network layer protocol; enhanced incremental cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (EInCo-CEStat). Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the proposed scheme. Results of incremental relay-based cooperative communication protocols are compared to two existing cooperative routing protocols: cooperative critical data transmission in emergencies for static WBANs (Co-CEStat) and InCo-CEStat. It is observed from the simulation results that incremental relay-based cooperation is more energy efficient than the existing conventional cooperation protocol, Co-CEStat. The results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable with less PER and higher throughput than both of the counterpart protocols. However, InCo-CEStat has less throughput with a greater stability period and network lifetime. Due to the availability of more redundant links, EInCo-CEStat achieves a reduced packet drop rate at the cost of increased energy consumption.
... The proposed protocol selects the transmission route which consumes least energy with links which are stable. A new routing protocol for Wireless Body Area Network is proposed named as Co-CEStat [13]. In this protocol sensors are placed on the body and sink also is placed on the body but at the center. ...
Article
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Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks are related to the monitoring of human physiological parameters. In these small sized machines called sensors are used to observe the physiological parameters. They are small in size which makes them easy to carry around but on the same time they have a serious problem that they can carry with them a very small sized battery. The sensors deplete their energy while sensing the parameter, communication of the sensed data to the base station and also in processing of the observed data. The sensors cannot be charged on regular intervals because they are attached to human body and charging them may not be an easy option. In this paper an energy efficient routing protocol is presented which uses sensors in WBASN to observe parameter in much efficient way. The concept of multi hopping has been utilized with forwarder node. Forwarder node accepts data from sensor nodes which are far from the sink. After accepting data the forwarder node forwards this data to the sink node. This scheme is compared with an existing scheme with which it has been compared in terms of four parameters which are residual energy, network stability and life time, throughput and path loss.
... Time domain analysis and linear programming mathematical models were utilised and discussed. Yousaf et al. (2014a) used co-operative-based data transmission mechanism to enhance the received average packets at a central node. First, the minimum hop path was chosen and then the inter-relation between the neighbouring nodes was satisfied. ...
... Time domain analysis and linear programming mathematical models were utilised and discussed. Yousaf et al. (2014a) used co-operative-based data transmission mechanism to enhance the received average packets at a central node. First, the minimum hop path was chosen and then the inter-relation between the neighbouring nodes was satisfied. ...
... S.Yousaf et al, [7] proposed a cooperative technique used for forwarding critical data under static condition. ...
Conference Paper
In wireless body area networks (WBANs), movement of nodes plays a very important role in designing an energy efficient routing algorithm. The topology of a BAN changes due to the movement of nodes, the distance between the nodes and sink varies and also energy consumption of the nodes also changes. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient threshold based data transmission using forwarder node technique based on mobility of nodes for heterogeneous wireless body area networks. Data transmission takes place only if threshold conditions applied for the data to be transmitted and required energy for data transmission are satisfied, thereby individual nodes energy is preserved. Child node selects parent node as a forwarder node based on cost function metric with high residual energy and less distance node for a successful data transmission to sink. Comparison results are obtained using MATLAB tool, justifies that MT-SIMPLE has less energy consumption, path loss, propagation delay and is more efficient in terms of stability, residual energy and throughput compared to existing protocols.
... In [12], a protocol, named Co-CEStat for Wireless Body Area Networks, is proposed. The protocol utilizes the merits of both direct and cooperative transmissions to achieve higher stability period and end-to-end throughput with greater network lifetime. ...
Conference Paper
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Wireless body area network (WBAN) calls for a next generation in wireless networks. This new generation is designed to operate autonomously, to connect various medical sensors and appliances located on or inside a human body. Mobile WBANs have been designed, offering numerous practical and innovative services so that health care and quality of life can be improved. Thus, the equipment used in WBAN is usually mobile and autonomous which imposes high constraint on energy. That is, the energy efficiency must be taken into account as one of the objectives of the routing protocol designed for this type of network. Although mobile nodes may cause link breaks, most of studies ignore the link stability. In this paper, we propose a stable, reliable, energy efficient routing protocol for mobile Wireless Body Area Networks. It preserves the residual energy of nodes with an increase network lifetime. To achieve this goal, we use an objective model to select energy-efficient paths with stable links. Simulation results demonstrate that our protocol improves the state of the art in terms of energy consumption and routing overhead.
... In this protocol, a cost function is used to select parent or forwarder with high residual energy and minimum distance to sink. Authors in [7], design a routing protocol which is energy efficient and supports body mobility. This protocol is thermal aware and changes the route in case of hot-spot detection. ...
Article
Performance evaluation of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is primarily conducted in terms of simulation based studies. From this perspective, recent research has focused on channel modeling, and energy conservation at Network/MAC layer. Most of these studies ignore collaborative learning and path loss. In this paper, we present Link-Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (LAEEBA) and Cooperative Link-Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (Co-LAEEBA) routing schemes. Unlike existing schemes, the proposed work factors in December 29, 2014 DRAFT 2 collaborative learning and path loss. Cost functions are introduced to learn and select the most feasible route from a given node to sink while sharing each others distance and residual energy information. Simulation results show improved performance of the proposed protocols in comparison to the selected existing ones in terms of the chosen performance metrics.
... By introducing the concept of cooperative diversity, both SNR and BER of signal can be improved at receiver end. In this paper, we present InCo-CEStat protocol and compare its performance with our two previously designed protocols, ACo-CEStat and Co-CEStat [1] . Incremental relay-based cooperation between node is done to improve Bit Error Rate (BER) at destination. ...
Conference Paper
This paper presents Incremental relay-based Co-CEStat protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks (InCo-CEStat). This protocol is proposed to enhance the performance of Cooper-ative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static Wireless Body Area Networks (Co-CEStat) and Advanced Co-CEStat (ACo-CEStat). Proposed protocol utilizes the merits of both direct and cooperative transmission to achieve reliable and quick data delivery and greater network stability period. Incremental relay-based cooperation is utilized to improve energy efficiency of the network. At relays, Detect-and-Forward (DF) technique is used, whereas, selection combining technique is utilized at sink. Simulation results are obtained in MATLAB in which proposed protocol is compared with ACo-CEStat and Co-CEStat protocols. Simulations show that InCo-CEStat has 37% and 58 % more stability period than ACo-CEStat and Co-CEStat. InCo-CEStat also achieved 51% and 79% higher throughput than that of compared protocols.
Article
Maintaining the network QoS is one of the critical challenges emerging in heterogeneous WBANs. High throughput, minimum delay, and maximum lifetime are the critical network performance metrics pre-requisites for achieving the network QoS. The use of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) concept has been recently adopted in dynamic and complex structured WBANs due to the existence of wide network management flexibility. Leveraging the benefits of SDN in cognitive radio (CR) based architectures, we have presented ERQTM: Energy-efficient Routing and QoS-supported Traffic Management scheme for SDWBANs. The main contributions of the proposed scheme are enhancing the network lifetime and achieving the network stability and reliability. Thus, the problem is addressed through a joint scheme, developing an energy-efficient routing scheme (ER) and traffic management scheme. The proposed ERQTM framework is fundamentally based on network clustering which proves to have positive impact on overall network delay. As clustering is an optimizing and an NP-Hard problem, this paper adopts genetic algorithm to optimally find the required cluster heads (CHs) in the ER scheme taking into consideration the nodes-related matters: residual energy, energy consumption rate during consecutive intervals, distance to the SDN controller, signal to noise ratio, and the path loss model. Besides clustering, prioritizing the emergency data (ED) in the traffic management scheme is presented that efficiently handles the packets by ensuring free-delay for ED transmission. This is done by assigning high priority for routing, high data rate, and needed-related power. Performance evaluation results showed that the proposed ERQTM scheme has outperformed different priority-based state-of-the-art schemes.
Chapter
In the current era of wireless body area network (WBAN), pervasive computing technology brings healthcare to a new level of personalization. Integrating this kind of energy‐efficient routing protocol networks with the more advanced and emerging technologies like mobile phones and personal digital assistance devices (PDAs) makes the network more fascinating and advanced toward the growth and rapid delivery of critical data with less amount of energy during data transmission. In this chapter, we proposed a novel energy‐efficient computing method called threshold‐based routing protocol to route the critical data in WBANs during emergency condition. Biosensors are deployed to fixed locations on the human body to measure important vital signs and perform computing in a regular and continuous manner. Different threshold values are assigned for heterogeneous biosensors, based on the values assigned data is generated for transmission to the sink in case of critical health condition. During transmission, energy condition has to be satisfied to reach the sink. Based on the changes in threshold condition, data is generated and forwarded to the sink. Cost function parameter is used for the selection of intermediate node/forwarder node (FN) based on the maximum residual energy and less distance between the nodes. Thus, there is a balance between energy consumption among the nodes and successful packet distribution to the sink. Simulation is performed using MATLAB tool and obtained results exhibit that our proposed work enhances the stability period, network lifetime, throughput to sink, and residual energy of nodes.
Thesis
Full-text available
Energy efficient and reliable communication is extremely crucial in most of the applications of Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs). Communication between sensor nodes is the major cause of energy consumption that limits the network lifetime, and hence, disrupts WBAN's operation. Moreover, unreliability in wireless communication caused by the channel impairments, such as shadowing and fading, further exacerbate the situation. In this thesis, we investigate a multi-hop and three cooperative routing schemes to improve Energy Efficiency (EE) and reliability of WBANs. Firstly, we propose a protocol; Critical data transmission in Emergency with Mobility support in WBANs (CEMob), which utilizes both single-hop and multi-hop communication modes and avoids continuous data transmission to preserve energy of sensor nodes. Performance comparison of CEMob is made with contemporary routing protocols, Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (ATTEMPT) and Reliability Enhanced-Adaptive Threshold based Thermal-unaware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (RE-ATTEMPT). Simulation results show that CEMob is 71% and 55% more energy efficient than ATTEMPT and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively. Later on, to improve the achieved throughput by CEMob, we introduce the concept of cooperative routing in Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static WBANs (Co-CEStat). In this protocol, network throughput is enhanced by propagating independent signal through different paths. Simulation results reveal that Co-CEStat has 51% and 52% more throughput than its counterpart protocols, RE-CEStat (static CEMob) and RE-ATTEMPT, respectively. Availability of multiple links, for the propagation of same data, increases reliability of network at the cost of extra energy consumption by cooperative nodes. To improve EE and Packet Error Rate (PER) of Co-CEStat, we further analyze incremental cooperative communication schemes with different number of relays. We propose a new incremental cooperative communication scheme with 3- stage relaying and compare it with already existing incremental cooperative schemes in literature. Taking into account the effect of PER, analytical expressions for EE of proposed 3-stage cooperative communication scheme are also derived. Our proposed scheme proves to be more reliable with less PER at the cost of some extra energy consumption. In the last, 3-stage incremental relaying and contemporary 2-stage incremental relaying schemes are implemented in two routing protocols; Incremental Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static WBANs (InCo-CEStat) and Enhanced InCo-CEStat (EInCo-CEStat), respectively. Simulation results of incremental cooperative protocols are compared with Co-CEStat and it is observed that incremental cooperation is more energy efficient than cooperation approach utilized in Co-CEStat. Results also reveal that EInCo-CEStat proves to be more reliable than InCo-CEStat with 12% more throughput and has less PER by providing three redundant links for a source node. Whereas, InCo-CEStat proves to be more energy efficient with 24% more stability period than EInCo-CEStat, by utilizing two cooperative links for a single source node.
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In recent years, interests in the applications of Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is noticeably developed. WBASN is playing a significant role to get the real time and precise data with reduced level of energy consumption. It comprises of tiny, lightweight and energy restricted sensors, placed in/on the human body, to monitor any ambiguity in body organs and measure various biomedical parameters. In this study, a protocol named Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) to monitor patients in multi-hop Body Area Sensor Networks (BASNs) is proposed. The protocol operates by investigating the ward of a hospital comprising of eight patients, under different topologies by positioning the sink at different locations or making it static or mobile. Seven sensors are attached to each patient, measuring different parameters of Electrocardiogram (ECG), pulse rate, heart rate, temperature level, glucose level, toxins level and motion. To reduce the energy consumption, these sensors communicate with the sink via an on-body relay, affixed on the chest of each patient. The body relay possesses higher energy resources as compared to the body sensors as, they perform aggregation and relaying of data to the sink node. A comparison is also conducted conducted with another protocol of BAN named, Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT). The simulation results show that, the proposed protocol achieves increased network lifetime and efficiently reduces the energy consumption, in relative to M-ATTEMPT protocol.
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Wireless Multi-hop Networks (WMhNs) provide users with the facility to communicate while moving with whatever the node speed, the node density and the number of traffic flows they want, without any unwanted delay and/or disruption. This paper contributes Linear Programming models (LP_models) for WMhNs. In WMhNs, different routing protocols are used to facilitate users demand(s). To practically examine the constraints of respective LP_models over different routing techniques, we select three proactive routing protocols; Destination Sequence Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). These protocols are simulated in two important scenarios regarding to user demands; mobilities and different network flows. To evaluate the performance, we further relate the protocols strategy effects on respective constraints in selected network scenarios.
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This paper presents an energy efficient routing algorithm for heterogeneous Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). A prototype is defined for employing heterogeneous sensors on human body. Direct communication is used for real-time traffic (critical data) and on-demand data while multi-hop communication is used for normal data delivery in this proposed routing algorithm. One of the prime challenges in WBASNs is sensing of heat generated by implanted sensor nodes. The proposed routing algorithm is thermal-aware which sense the link Hot-spot and routes the data away from these links. Continuous mobility of human body causes disconnection between previous established links. We introduce mobility support and energy-management to overcome the problem of disconnection due to continuous mobility of human body. MATLAB simulations of proposed routing algorithm are performed for lifetime and reliability in comparison with multi-hop communication. The results show that the proposed routing algorithm has less energy consumption and more reliable as compared to multi-hop communication.
Article
Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multi-hop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this work, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning and ECG monitoring. When the tri-axial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, four-second ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, WiMAX, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.
Ubiquitos healtcare in wireless Body Area Networks-asurvey", arXive preprint arXive
  • N Javaid
  • N Khan
  • M Shakir
  • M Khan
  • S Bouk
N. Javaid, N. Khan, M. Shakir, M. Khan, S. Bouk, "Ubiquitos healtcare in wireless Body Area Networks-asurvey", arXive preprint arXive:1303.26062
QoS and Energy Aware Cooperative Routing Protocol for Wildfire Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Sofiane Mohamedmaalej
  • Hichem Cherif
  • Besbes
MohamedMaalej, Sofiane Cherif, and Hichem Besbes, "QoS and Energy Aware Cooperative Routing Protocol for Wildfire Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks", The ScientificWorld Journal, article ID 437926, 11 pages, 2013.